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The American Housewife
Author: Anonymous
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104. Cabbage and Cauliflowers.

Trim off the loose leaves of the cabbage, cut the stalky in quarters, to the heart of the cabbage—boil it an hour. If not boiled with corned beef, put a little salt in the water in which they are boiled. White cauliflowers are the best. Take off the outside leaves, cut the stalk close to the leaves, let them lie in salt and cold water for half an hour before boiling them—boil them fifteen or twenty minutes, according to their size. Milk and water is the best to boil them in, but clear water does very well. Put a little salt in the pot in which they are boiled.

105. Asparagus.

Cut the white part of the stalks off, and throw it away—cut the lower part of the stalks in thin slices if tough, and boil them eight or ten minutes before the upper part is put in. Lay the remainder compactly together, tie it carefully in small bundles, and boil it from fifteen to twenty minutes, according to its age. Boil a little salt with them, and a quarter of a tea spoonful of saleratus, to two or three quarts of water, to preserve their fresh green color. Just before your asparagus is done, toast a slice of bread, moisten it with a little of the asparagus liquor, lay it in your asparagus dish, and butter it—then take up the asparagus carefully with a skimmer, and lay it on the toast, take off the string, salt it, and turn a little melted butter over the whole.

106. Peas.

Peas should be put into boiling water, with salt and saleratus, in the proportion of a quarter of a tea spoonful of saleratus to half a peck of peas. Boil them from fifteen to thirty minutes, according to their age and kind. When boiled tender, take them out of the water with a skimmer, salt and butter them to the taste. Peas to be good should be fresh gathered, and not shelled till just before they are cooked.

107. Sweet Corn.

Corn is much sweeter to be boiled on the cob. If made into sucatosh, cut it from the cobs, and boil it with Lima beans, and a few slices of salt pork. It requires boiling from fifteen to thirty minutes, according to its age.

108. To cook various kinds of Beans.

French beans should have the strings taken off—if old, the edges should be cut off, and the beans cut through the middle. Boil them with a little salt, from twenty-five to forty minutes, according to their age. A little saleratus boiled with them preserves their green color, and makes them more healthy. Salt and butter them when taken up. Lima beans can be kept the year round, by being perfectly dried when fresh gathered in the pods, or being put without drying into a keg, with a layer of salt to each layer of beans, having a layer of salt at the bottom of the keg. Cover them tight, and keep them in a cool place. Whenever you wish to cook them, soak them over night, in cold water—shell and boil them, with a little saleratus. White beans for baking, should be picked over carefully to get out the colored and bad ones. Wash and soak them over night in a pot, set where they will keep lukewarm. There should be about three quarts of water to three pints of the beans. The next morning set them where they will boil, with a tea spoonful of saleratus. When they have boiled four or five minutes, take them up with a skimmer. Put them in a baking pot. Gash a pound of pork, and put it down in the pot, so as to have the beans cover all but the upper surface—turn in cold water till you can just see it at the top. They will bake in a hot oven, in the course of three hours—but they are better to remain in it five or six hours. Beans are good prepared in the same manner as for baking, and stewed several hours without baking.

109. Greens.

White mustard, spinach, water cresses, dandelions, and the leaves and roots of very small beets, are the best greens. Boil them with a little salt and saleratus in the water. If not fresh and plump, soak them in salt and water half an hour before cooking them. When they are boiled enough, they will sink to the bottom of the pot.

110. Salads.

To be in perfection, salads should be fresh gathered, and kept in cold water for an hour before they are put on the table. The water should be drained from them, and if you have not any salad oil, melt a little butter and put it in a separate dish—if turned over the salad, it will not be crispy.

111. Cucumbers.

To be healthy they should not be picked longer than a day before they are to be eaten. They should be kept in cold water, and fifteen or twenty minutes before they are to be eaten, pare and slice them into fresh cold water, to take out the slimy matter. Just before they are put on the table, drain off the water. Put them in a deep dish; sprinkle on a good deal of salt and pepper—cover them with vinegar. Cucumbers are thought by many people to be very unhealthy, but if properly prepared, they will not be found to be any more unwholesome than most other summer vegetables.

112. To stew Mushrooms.

Cut off the lower part of the stem, as it is apt to have an earthy taste. Peel and put them in a saucepan, with just water enough at the bottom, to prevent their burning to the pan. Put in a little salt, and shake them occasionally while stewing, to prevent their burning. When they have stewed quite tender, put in a little butter and pepper—add spices and wine if you like. They should stew very slowly till tender, and not be seasoned till just before they are taken up. Serve them up on buttered toast.

113. Egg Plant.

Boil them a few moments to extract the bitter taste—then cut them in thick slices; sprinkle a little salt between each slice. Let them lie half an hour—then fry them till brown in lard.

114. Celeriac.

This is an excellent vegetable, but is little known. The stalks of it can hardly be distinguished from celery, and it is much easier cultivated. The roots are nice boiled tender, cut in thin slices, and put in soup or meat pies; or cooked in the following manner, and eaten with meat. Scrape and cut them in slices. Boil them till very tender—then drain off the water. Sprinkle a little salt over them—turn in milk enough to cover them. When they have stewed about four or five minutes, turn them into a dish, and add a little butter.

115. Salsify or Vegetable Oyster.

The best way to cook it is to parboil it, (after scraping off the outside,) then cut it in slices, dip it into a beaten egg, and fine bread crumbs, and fry it in lard. It is very good boiled, then stewed a few minutes in milk, with a little butter and salt. Another way which is very good, is to make a batter of wheat flour, milk and eggs; cut the Salsify in thin slices, (after having been boiled tender,) put them into the batter with a little salt; drop this mixture into hot fat, by the large spoonful. When a light brown, they are cooked sufficiently.

116. Tomatoes.

If very ripe will skin easily; if not, pour scalding water on them, and let them remain in it four or five minutes. Peel and put them in a stew pan, with a table spoonful of water, if not very juicy; if so, no water will be required. Put in a little salt, and stew them for half an hour; then turn them into a deep dish with buttered toast. Another way of cooking them, which is considered very nice by epicures, is to put them in a deep dish, with fine bread crumbs, crackers pounded fine, a layer of each alternately; put small bits of butter, a little salt, and pepper on each layer—some cooks add a little nutmeg and sugar. Have a layer of bread crumbs on the top. Bake it three quarters of an hour.

117. Gumbo.

Take an equal quantity of young tender ocra chopped fine, and ripe tomatoes skinned, an onion cut into slices, a small lump of butter, a little salt and pepper. Put the whole in a stew pan, with a table spoonful of water, and stew it till tender.

118. Southern manner of Boiling Rice.

Pick over the rice, rinse it in cold water a number of times, to get it perfectly clean; drain off the water, then put it in a pot of boiling water, with a little salt. Allow as much as a quart of water to a tea-cup of rice, as it absorbs the water very much while boiling. Boil it seventeen minutes; then turn the water off very close; set the pot over a few coals, and let it steam fifteen minutes with the lid of the pot off. The beauty of rice boiled in this way, is, that each kernel stands out by itself, while it is quite tender. Great care is necessary to be used in the time of boiling and steaming it, as a few moments variation in the time, makes a great deal of difference in the looks of it. The water should boil hard when the rice is put in, and not suffered to stop boiling, till turned off to have the rice steamed. The water that the rice is boiled in, makes good starch for muslin, if boiled a few minutes by itself.

119. Directions for Pickling.

Vinegar for pickling should be good, but not of the sharpest kind. Brass utensils should be used for pickling. They should be thoroughly cleaned before using, and no vinegar should be allowed to cool in them, as the rust formed by so doing is very poisonous. Boil alum and salt in the vinegar, in the proportion of half a tea cup of salt, and a table spoonful of alum, to three gallons of vinegar. Stone and wooden vessels are the only kinds of utensils that are good to keep pickles in. Vessels that have had any grease in will not do for pickles, as no washing will kill the grease that the pot has absorbed. All kinds of pickles should be stirred up occasionally. If there is any soft ones among them, they should be taken out, the vinegar scalded, and turned back while hot—if very weak, throw it away, and use fresh vinegar. Whenever any scum rises, the vinegar needs scalding. If you do not wish to have all your pickles spiced, it is a good plan to keep a stone pot of spiced vinegar by itself, and put in a few of your pickles a short time before they are to be eaten.

120. To Pickle Peppers.

Procure those that are fresh and green. If you do not like them very fiery, cut a small slit in them, and take the seeds out carefully with a small knife, so as not to mangle the pepper. Soak them in salt and water, eight or nine days, changing the water each day. Keep them in a warm place. If you like them stuffed, chop white cabbage fine, season it highly with cloves, cinnamon, mace, and fill the peppers with it—add nasturtions if you like—sew them up carefully, and put them in cold spiced vinegar. Tomatoes when very small and green are good pickled with the peppers.

121. Mangoes.

Procure muskmelons as late in the season as possible—if pickled early, they are not apt to keep well. Cut a small piece from the side that lies upon the ground while growing, take out the seeds, and if the citron or nutmeg melons are used for mangoes, the rough part should be scraped off. The long common muskmelons make the best mangoes. Soak the melons in salt and water, three or four days; then take them out of the water; sprinkle on the inside of the melons, powdered cloves, pepper, nutmeg; fill them with small strips of horseradish, cinnamon, and small string beans. Flag root, nasturtions, and radish tops, are also nice to fill them with. Fill the crevices with American mustard seed. Put back the pieces of melon that were cut off, and bind the melon up tight with white cotton cloth, sew it on. Lay the melons in a stone jar, with the part that the covers are on, up. Put into vinegar for the mangoes, alum, salt and peppercorns, in the same proportion as for cucumbers—heat it scalding hot, then turn it on to the melons. Barberries or radish tops pickled in bunches, are a pretty garnish for mangoes. The barberries preserve their natural color best by being first dried. Whenever you wish to use them, turn boiling vinegar on them, and let them lie in it several hours to swell out.

122. To Pickle Butternuts and Walnuts.

The nuts for pickling should be gathered as early as July, unless the season is very backward. When a pin will go through them easily, they are young enough to pickle. Soak them in salt and water a week—then drain it off. Rub them with a cloth, to get off the roughness. To a gallon of vinegar put a tea-cup of salt, a table-spoonful of powdered cloves and mace, mixed together, half an ounce of allspice, and peppercorns. Boil the vinegar and spices, and turn it while hot on to the nuts. In the course of a week, scald the vinegar, and turn it back on them while hot. They will be fit to eat in the course of a fortnight.

123. Peaches and Apricots.

Take those of a full growth, but perfectly green, put them in salt and water, strong enough to bear up an egg. When they have been in a week, take them out, and wipe them carefully with a soft cloth. Lay them in a pickle jar. Put to a gallon of vinegar half an ounce of cloves, the same quantity of peppercorns, sliced ginger and mustard seed—add salt, and boil the vinegar—then turn it on to the peaches scalding hot. Turn the vinegar from them several times. Heat it scalding hot, and turn it back while hot.

124. To Pickle Cabbages and Cauliflowers.

Purple cabbages are the best for pickling. Pull off the loose leaves, quarter the cabbages, put them in a keg, and sprinkle a great deal of salt, on each one—let them remain five or six days. To a gallon of vinegar put an ounce of mace, one of peppercorns and cinnamon, (cloves and allspice improve the taste of the cabbages, but they turn it a dark color.) Heat the vinegar scalding hot, put in a little alum, and turn it while hot on to the cabbages—the salt should remain that was sprinkled on the cabbages. Turn the vinegar from the cabbages six or seven times—heat it scalding hot, and turn it back while hot, to make them tender. Cauliflowers are pickled in the same manner. Cauliflowers cut into bunches, and pickled with beet roots sliced, look very prettily.

125. East India Pickle.

Chop cabbage fine, leaving out the stalks, together with three or four onions, a root of horseradish, and a couple of green peppers to each cabbage. Soak the whole in salt and water three or four days. Spice some vinegar very strong with mace, cloves, allspice and cinnamon. Heat it scalding hot—add alum and salt, and turn it on to the cabbage, onions and pepper, which should previously have all the brine drained from them. This pickle will be fit to eat in the course of three or four weeks.

126. French Beans and Radish Pods.

Gather them while quite small and tender. Keep them in salt and water, till you get through collecting them—changing the water as often as once in four or five days. Then scald them with hot salt and water, let them lie in it till cool, then turn on hot vinegar spiced with peppercorns, mace and allspice. The radish top, if pickled in small bunches, are a pretty garnish for other pickles.

127. Nasturtion.

Take them when small and green—put them in salt and water—change the water once in three days. When you have done collecting the nasturtions, turn off the brine, and pour on scalding hot vinegar.

128. Samphire.

Procure samphire that is fresh and green—let it lay in salt for three days—then take it out, and for a peck of samphire spice a gallon of vinegar with a couple of dozen of peppercorns—add half a tea-cup of salt—heat the vinegar scalding hot, and turn it on to the samphire while hot—cover it close. In the course of ten days, turn the vinegar from the samphire, heat it scalding hot, and turn it back.

129. Onions.

Peel and boil them in milk and water ten minutes. To a gallon of vinegar put half an ounce of cinnamon and mace, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, a small tea-cup of salt, and half an ounce of alum. Heat the vinegar, together with the spices, scalding hot, and turn it on to the onions, which should previously have the water and milk drained from them. Cover them tight till cold.

130. Artichokes.

Soak the artichokes in salt and water, for several days, then drain and rub them till you get all the skin off. Turn boiling vinegar on them, with salt, alum, and peppercorns in it, in the same proportion as for cucumbers. Let them remain a week, then turn off the vinegar, scald it, and turn it back while hot on to the artichokes. Continue to turn boiling vinegar on to the artichokes till thoroughly pickled.

131. Cucumbers.

Gather those that are small and green, and of a quick growth. Turn boiling water on them as soon as picked. Let them remain in it four or five hours, then put them in cold vinegar, with alum and salt, in the proportion of a table spoonful of the former and a tea cup of the latter, to every gallon of vinegar. When you have done collecting the cucumbers for pickling, turn the vinegar from the cucumbers, scald and skim it till clear, then put in the pickles, let them scald without boiling, for a few minutes; then turn them while hot into the vessel you intend to keep them in. A few peppers, or peppercorns, improve the taste of the cucumbers. Cucumbers to be brittle need scalding several times. If the vinegar is weak, it should be thrown away, and fresh put to the cucumbers, with more alum and salt. Another method of pickling cucumbers, which is good, is to put them in salt and water, as you pick them—changing the salt and water once in three or four days. When you have done collecting your cucumbers for pickling, take them out of the salt and water, turn on scalding hot vinegar, with alum, salt and peppercorns in it.

132. Gherkins.

Put them in strong brine—keep them in a warm place. When they turn yellow, drain off the brine, and turn hot vinegar on them. Let them remain in it till they turn green, keeping them in a warm place. Then turn off the vinegar—add fresh scalding hot vinegar, spiced with mace, allspice, and peppercorns—add alum and salt, in the same proportion as for cucumbers.

133. To Pickle Oysters.

Take the oysters from the liquor, strain and boil it. Rinse the oysters, if there are any bits of the shells attached to them. Put them into the liquor while boiling. Boil them one minute, then take them out of it, and to the liquor put a few peppercorns, cloves, and a blade or two of mace—add a little salt, and the same quantity of vinegar as oyster juice. Let the whole boil fifteen minutes, then turn it on to the oysters. If you wish to keep the oysters for a number of weeks, bottle and cork them tight as soon as cold.

134. To Pickle Mushrooms.

Peel and stew them, with just water enough to prevent their sticking at the bottom of the pan. Shake them occasionally, to prevent their burning. When tender, take them up, and put them in scalding hot vinegar, spiced with mace, cloves, and peppercorns—add a little salt. Bottle and cork them tight, if you wish to keep them long.

135. Wheat Bread.

For six common sized loaves of bread, take three pints of boiling water, and mix it with five or six quarts of flour. When thoroughly mixed, add three pints of cold water. Stir it till the whole of the dough is of the same temperature. When lukewarm, stir in half a pint of family yeast, (if brewers' yeast is used, a less quantity will answer,) a table-spoonful of salt, knead in flour till stiff enough to mould up, and free from lumps. The more the bread is kneaded, the better it will be. Cover it over with a thick cloth, and if the weather is cold, set it near a fire. To ascertain when it has risen, cut it through the middle with a knife—if full of small holes like a sponge, it is sufficiently light for baking. It should be baked as soon as light. If your bread should get sour before you are ready to bake it, dissolve two or more tea-spoonsful of saleratus (according to the acidity of it) in a tea-cup of milk or water, strain it on to the dough, work it in well—then cut off enough for a loaf of bread—mould it up well, slash it on both sides, to prevent its cracking when baked—put it in a buttered tin-pan. The bread should stand ten or twelve minutes in the pans before baking it. If you like your bread baked a good deal, let it stand in the oven an hour and a half. When the wheat is grown, it makes better bread to wet the flour entirely with boiling water. It should remain till cool before working in the yeast. Some cooks have an idea that it kills the life of the flour to scald it, but it is a mistaken idea—it is sweeter for it, and will keep good much longer. Bread made in this way is nearly as good as that which is wet with milk. Care must be taken not to put the yeast in when the dough is hot, as it will scald it, and prevents its rising. Most ovens require heating an hour and a half for bread. A brisk fire should be kept up, and the doors of the room should be kept shut, if the weather is cold. Pine and ash, mixed together, or birch-wood, is the best for heating an oven. To ascertain if your oven is of the right temperature, when cleaned, throw in a little flour; if it browns in the course of a minute, it is sufficiently hot; if it turns black directly, wait several minutes, before putting in the things that are to be baked. If the oven does not bake well, set in a furnace of live coals.

136. Sponge Bread.

For four loaves of bread, take three quarts of wheat flour, and the same quantity of boiling water—mix them well together. Let it remain till lukewarm, then add a tea-cup full of family, or half a tea-cup of distillery yeast. Set it in a warm place to rise. When light, knead in flour till stiff enough to mould up, then let it stand till risen again, before moulding it up.

137. Rye Bread.

Wet up rye flour with lukewarm milk, (water will do to wet it with, but it will not make the bread so good.) Put in the same proportion of yeast as for wheat bread. For four or five loaves of bread, put in a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt. A couple of table-spoonsful of melted butter makes the crust more tender. It should not be kneaded as stiff as wheat bread, or it will be hard when baked. When light, take it out into pans, without moulding it up—let it remain in them about twenty minutes, before baking.

138. Brown Bread.

Brown bread is made by scalding Indian meal, and stirring into it, when lukewarm, about the same quantity of rye flour as Indian meal—add yeast and salt in the same proportion as for other kinds of bread. Bake it between two and three hours.

139. Indian Bread.

Mix Indian meal with cold water, stir it into boiling water, let it boil half an hour—stir in a little salt, take it from the fire, let it remain till lukewarm, then stir in yeast and Indian meal, to render it of the consistency of unbaked rye dough. When light, take it out into buttered pans, let it remain a few minutes, then bake it two hours and a half.

140. Potato Bread.

Boil the potatoes very soft, then peel and mash them fine. Put in salt, and very little butter—then rub them with the flour—wet the flour with lukewarm water—then work in the yeast, and flour till stiff to mould up. It will rise quicker than common wheat bread, and should be baked as soon as risen, as it turns sour very soon. The potatoes that the bread is made of should be mealy, and mixed with the flour in the proportion of one-third of potatoes to two-thirds of flour.

141. Rice Bread.

Boil a pint of rice till soft—then mix it with a couple of quarts of rice or wheat flour. When cool, add half a tea-cup of yeast, a little salt, and milk to render it of the consistency of rye bread. When light, bake it in small buttered pans.

142. French Rolls.

Turn a quart of lukewarm milk on to a quart of flour. Melt a couple of ounces of butter, and put to the milk and flour, together with a couple of eggs, and a tea-spoonful of salt. When cool, stir in half a tea-cup of yeast, and flour to make it stiff enough to mould up. Put it in a warm place. When light, do it up into small rolls—lay the rolls on flat buttered tins—let them remain twenty minutes before baking.

143. Yeast.

Boil a small handful of hops in a couple of quarts of water. When the strength is obtained from them, strain the liquor—put it back on the fire—take a little of the liquor, and mix smoothly with three heaping table-spoonsful of wheat flour—stir it into the liquor when it boils. Let it boil five or six minutes—take it from the fire. When lukewarm, stir in a tea-cup of yeast—keep it in a warm place till risen. When of a frothy appearance, it is sufficiently light. Add a table-spoonful of salt, turn it into a jar, and cover it tight. Some people keep yeast in bottles, but they are apt to burst—some use jugs, but they cannot be cleaned so easily as jars. Whenever your yeast gets sour, the jar should be thoroughly cleaned before fresh is put in—if not cleaned, it will spoil the fresh yeast. Yeast made in this manner will keep good a fortnight in warm weather; in cold weather longer. If your yeast appears to be a little changed, add a little saleratus to it before you mix it with your bread. If it does not foam well, when put in, it is too stale to use. Milk yeast makes sweeter bread than any other kind of yeast, but it will not keep good long. It is very nice to make biscuit of. Take half the quantity of milk you need for your biscuit—set it in a warm place, with a little flour, and a tea-spoonful of salt. When light, mix it with the rest of the milk, and use it directly for the biscuit. It takes a pint of this yeast for five or six loaves of bread. Another method of making yeast, which is very good, is to take about half a pound of your bread dough, when risen, and roll it out thin, and dry it. When you wish to make bread, put a quart of lukewarm milk to it, set it near the fire to rise—when light, scald the flour, and let it be till lukewarm—then add the yeast and salt. This will raise the bread in the course of an hour. The dough will need a little fresh hop liquor put to it, in the course of three or four times baking. Potato yeast makes very nice bread, but the yeast does not keep good as long as when made without them. It is made in the following manner: boil a couple of good, sized potatoes soft—peel and rub them through a sieve—put to it a couple of table-spoonsful of wheat flour, and a quart of hot hop tea—when lukewarm, stir in half a tea-cup of yeast—when light, put in a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt, put it in your yeast-jar, and cover it up tight.

144. Yeast Cakes.

Stir into a pint of good lively yeast a table-spoonful of salt, and rye or wheat flour to make a thick batter. When risen, stir in Indian meal till of the right consistency to roll out. When risen again, roll them out very thin, cut them into cakes with a tumbler, and dry them in the shade in clear windy weather. Care must be taken to keep them from the sun, or they will ferment. When perfectly dry, tie them up in a bag, and keep them in a cool dry place. To raise four or five loaves of bread, take one of these cakes, and put to it a little lukewarm milk or water. When dissolved, stir in a couple of table-spoonsful of flour, set it near the fire—When light, use it for your dough. Yeast cakes will keep good five or six months. They are very convenient to use in summer, as common yeast is so apt to ferment.

145. Butter Biscuit.

Melt a tea-cup of butter—mix it with two-thirds of a pint of milk, (if you have not any milk, water may be substituted, but the biscuit will not be as nice.) Put in a tea-spoonful of salt, half a tea-cup of yeast, (milk yeast is the best, see directions for making it)—stir in flour till it is stiff enough to mould up. A couple of eggs improve the biscuit, but are not essential. Set the dough in a warm place when risen, mould the dough with the hand into small cakes, lay them on flat tins that have been buttered. Let them remain half an hour before they are baked.

146. Butter-milk Biscuit.

Dissolve a couple of tea-spoonsful of saleratus in a tea-cup of sour milk—mix it with a pint of butter-milk, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt. Stir in flour until stiff enough to mould up. Mould it up into small cakes, and bake them immediately.

147. Hard Biscuit.

Weigh out four pounds of flour, and rub three pounds and a half of it with four ounces of butter, four beaten eggs, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt. Moisten it with milk, pound it out thin with a rolling-pin, sprinkle a little of the reserved flour over it lightly—roll it up and pound it out again, sprinkle on more of the flour—this operation continue to repeat till you get in all the reserved flour—then roll it out thin, cut it into cakes with a tumbler, lay them on flat buttered tins, cover them with a damp cloth, to prevent their drying. Bake them in a quick oven.

148. Saleratus Biscuit.

Put a couple of tea-spoonsful of saleratus in a pint of sour milk. If you have not any sour milk, put a table-spoonful of vinegar to a pint of sweet milk, set it in a warm place—as soon as it curdles, mix it with the saleratus—put in a couple of table-spoonfuls of melted butter, and flour to make them sufficiently stiff to roll out. Mould them up into small biscuit, and bake them immediately.

149. Potato Biscuit.

Boil mealy potatoes very soft, peel and mash them. To four good-sized potatoes, put a piece of butter, of the size of a hen's egg, a tea-spoonful of salt. When the butter has melted, put in half a pint of cold milk. If the milk cools the potatoes, put in a quarter of a pint of yeast, and flour to make them of the right consistency to mould up. Set them in a warm place—when risen, mould them up with the hand—let them remain ten or fifteen minutes before baking them.

150. Sponge Biscuit.

Stir into a pint of lukewarm milk half a tea-cup of melted butter, a tea-spoonful of salt, half a tea-cup of family, or a table-spoonful of brewers' yeast, (the latter is the best;) add flour till it is a very stiff batter. When light, drop this mixture by the large spoonful on to flat, buttered tins, several inches apart. Let them remain a few minutes before baking. Bake them in a quick oven till they are a light brown.

151. Crackers.

Rub six ounces of butter with two pounds of flour—dissolve a couple of tea-spoonsful of saleratus in a wine glass of milk, and strain it on to the flour—add a tea-spoonful of salt, and milk enough to enable you to roll it out. Beat it with a rolling-pin for half an hour, pounding it out thin—cut it into cakes with a tumbler—bake them about fifteen minutes, then take them from the oven. When the rest of your things are baked sufficiently, take them out, set in the crackers, and let them remain till baked hard and crispy.

152. Cream Cakes.

Mix half a pint of thick cream with the same quantity of milk, four eggs, and flour to render them just stiff enough to drop on buttered tins. They should be dropped by the large spoonful several inches apart, and baked in a quick oven.

153. Crumpets.

Take three tea-cups of raised dough, and work into it, with the hand, half a tea-cup of melted butter, three eggs, and milk to render it a thick batter. Turn it into a buttered bake pan—let it remain fifteen minutes, then put on a bake pan, heated so as to scorch flour. It will bake in half an hour.

154. Rice Cakes.

Mix a pint of rice boiled soft with a pint of milk, a tea-spoonful of salt, and three eggs, beaten to a froth. Stir in rice or wheat flour till of the right consistency to fry. If you like them baked, add two more eggs, and enough more flour to make them stiff enough to roll out, and cut them into cakes.

155. Rice Ruffs.

To a pint of rice flour put boiling water or milk sufficient to make a thick batter. Beat four eggs, (when it is cool,) and put in, together with a tea-spoonful of salt. Drop this mixture by the large spoonful into hot fat.

156. Buckwheat Cakes.

Mix a quart of buckwheat flour with a pint of lukewarm milk, (water will do, but is not as good,) and a tea-cup of yeast—set it in a warm place to rise. When light, (which will be in the course of eight or ten hours if family yeast is used, if brewers' yeast is used, they will rise much quicker,) add a tea-spoonful of salt—if sour, the same quantity of saleratus, dissolved in a little milk, and strained. If they are too thick, thin them with cold milk or water. Fry them in just fat enough to prevent their sticking to the frying pan.

157. Economy Cakes.

Rusked bread, or that which is old and sour, can be made into nice cakes. The bread should be cut into small pieces, and soaked in cold water till very soft. Then drain off the water, mash the bread fine—to three pints of the bread pulp put a couple of beaten eggs, three or four table-spoonsful of flour, and a little salt—dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus to a tea-cup of milk, strain it, then stir it into the bread—add more milk till it is of the right consistency to fry. The batter should be rather thicker than that of buckwheat cakes, and cooked in the same manner. Another way of making them, which is very good, is to mix half a pint of wheat flour with enough cold milk or water to render it a thick batter, and a couple of table-spoonsful of yeast. When light, mix the batter with the bread, (which should be previously soaked soft, and mashed fine,) add salt, and a tea-spoonful of saleratus, dissolved in a little milk. Fry them in just fat enough to prevent their sticking to the frying pan.

158. Green Corn Cake.

Mix a pint of grated green corn with three table-spoonsful of milk, a tea-cup of flour, half a tea-cup of melted butter, one egg, a tea-spoonful of salt, and half a tea-spoonful of pepper. Drop this mixture into hot butter by the spoonful, let the cakes fry eight or ten minutes. These cakes are nice served up with meat for dinner.

159. Indian Corn Cake.

Stir into a quart of sour or butter-milk a couple of tea-spoonsful of saleratus, a little salt, and sifted Indian meal to render it a thick batter—a little cream improves the cake—bake it in deep cake pans about an hour. When sour milk cannot be procured, boil sweet milk, and turn it on to the Indian meal—when cool, put in three beaten eggs to a quart of the meal—add salt to the taste.

160. Indian Slap Jacks.

Scald a quart of Indian meal—when lukewarm, turn, stir in half a pint of flour, half a tea-cup of yeast, and a little salt. When light, fry them in just fat enough to prevent their sticking to the frying pan. Another method of making them, which is very nice, is to turn boiling milk or water on to the Indian meal, in the proportion of a quart of the former to a pint of the latter—stir in three table-spoonsful of flour, three eggs well beaten, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt.

161. Journey or Johnny Cakes.

Scald a quart of sifted Indian meal with sufficient water to make it a very thick batter. Stir in two or three tea-spoonsful of salt—mould it with the hand into small cakes. In order to mould them up, it will be necessary to rub a good deal of flour on the hands, to prevent their sticking. Fry them in nearly fat enough to cover them. When brown on the under side, they should be turned. It takes about twenty minutes to cook them. When cooked, split and butter them. Another way of making them, which is nice, is to scald the Indian meal, and put in saleratus, dissolved in milk and salt, in the proportion of a tea-spoonful of each to a quart of meal. Add two or three table-spoonsful of wheat flour, and drop the batter by the large spoonful into a frying pan. The batter should be of a very thick consistency, and there should be just fat enough in the frying pan to prevent the cakes sticking to it.

162. Hoe Cakes.

Scald a quart of Indian meal with just water enough to make a thick batter. Stir in a couple of tea-spoonsful of salt, and two table-spoonful of butter. Turn it into a buttered bake pan, and bake it half an hour.

163. Muffins.

Mix a quart of wheat flour smoothly with a pint and a half of lukewarm milk, half a tea-cup of yeast, a couple of beaten eggs, a heaping tea-spoonsful of salt, and a couple of table-spoonsful of lukewarm melted butter. Set the batter in a warm place to rise. When light, butter your muffin cups, turn in the mixture, and bake the muffins till a light brown.

164. Raised Flour Waffles.

Stir into a quart of flour sufficient lukewarm milk to make a thick batter. The milk should be stirred in gradually, so as to have it free from lumps. Put in a table-spoonful of melted butter, a couple of beaten eggs, a tea-spoonsful of salt, and half a tea-cup of yeast. When risen, fill your waffle-irons with the batter, bake them on a hot bed of coals. When they have been on the fire between two and three minutes, turn the waffle-irons over—when brown on both sides, they are sufficiently baked. The waffle-irons should be well greased with lard, and very hot, before each one is put in. The waffles should be buttered as soon as cooked. Serve them up with powdered white sugar and cinnamon.

165. Quick Waffles.

Mix flour and cold milk together, to make a thick batter. To a quart of the flour put six beaten eggs, a table-spoonful of melted butter, and a tea-spoonful of salt. Some cooks add a quarter of a pound of sugar, and half a nutmeg. Bake them immediately.

166. Rice Waffles.

Take a tea-cup and a half of boiled rice—warm it with a pint of milk, mix it smooth, then take it from the fire, stir in a pint of cold milk, and a tea-spoonful of salt. Beat four eggs, and stir them in, together with sufficient flour to make a thick batter.

167. Rice Wafers.

Melt a quarter of a pound of butter, and mix it with a pound of rice flour, a tea-spoonful of salt, and a wine glass of wine. Beat four eggs, and stir in, together with just cold milk enough to enable you to roll them out easily. They should be rolled out as thin as possible, cut with a wine glass into cakes, and baked in a moderate oven, on buttered flat tins.

168. Rules to be observed in making nice Cake.

Cake, to be good, must be made of nice materials. The butter, eggs, and flour, should not be stale, and the sugar should be of a light color, and dry. Brown sugar answers very well for most kinds of cake, if rolled free from lumps, and stirred to a cream with the butter. The flour should be sifted, and if damp, dried perfectly, otherwise it will make the cake heavy. The eggs should be beaten to a froth; and the cake will be more delicate if the yelks and whites are beaten separately. Saleratus and soda should be perfectly dissolved, and strained before they are stirred into the cake. Raisins for cake should have the seeds taken out. Zante currants should be rinsed in several waters to cleanse them, rubbed in a dry cloth to get out the sticks, and then spread on platters, and dried perfectly, before they are put into the cake. Almonds should be blanched, which is done by turning boiling water on them, and letting them remain in it till the skins will rub off easily. When blanched, dry them, then pound them fine, with rosewater, to prevent their oiling. When the weather is cold, the materials for cake should be moderately warmed, before mixing them together. All kinds of cake that are made without yeast are better for being stirred, till just before they are baked. The butter and sugar should be stirred together till white, then the eggs, flour, and spice, added. Saleratus and cream should not be put in till just before the cake is baked—add the fruit last. Butter the cake pans well. The cake will be less liable to burn if the pans are lined with white buttered paper. The cake should not be moved while baking if it can be avoided, as moving it is apt to make it heavy. The quicker most kinds of cake are baked, the lighter and better they will be; but the oven should not be of such a furious heat as to burn them. It is impossible to give any exact rules as to the time to be allowed for baking various kinds of cake, as so much depends on the heat of the oven. It should be narrowly watched while in the oven, and if it browns too fast, it should be covered with a thick paper. To ascertain when rich cake is sufficiently baked, stick a clean broom splinter through the thickest part of the loaf—if none of the cake adheres to the splinter, it is sufficiently baked. When cake that is baked on flat tins moves easily on them, it is sufficiently baked.

169. Frosting for Cake.

Allow for the white of one egg nine heaping tea-spoonsful of double refined sugar, and one of nice Poland starch. The sugar and starch should be pounded, and sifted through a very fine sieve. Beat the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, so that you can turn the plate upside down, without the eggs falling from it—then stir in the sugar gradually, with a wooden spoon—stir it ten or fifteen minutes without any cessation—then add a tea-spoonful of lemon juice, (vinegar will answer, but is not as nice)—put in sufficient rosewater to flavor it. If you wish to color it pink, stir in a few grains of cochineal powder, or rose pink—if you wish to have it of a blue tinge, add a little of what is called the powder blue. Lay the frosting on the cake with a knife, soon after it is taken from the oven—smooth it over, and let it remain in a cool place till hard. To frost a common sized loaf of cake, allow the white of one egg, and half of another.

170. Sponge Gingerbread.

Melt a piece of butter of the size of a hen's egg—mix it with a pint of nice molasses, a table-spoonful of ginger, and a quart of flour. Dissolve a heaping table-spoonful of saleratus in half a pint of milk, strain and mix it with the rest of the ingredients, add sufficient flour to enable you to roll it out easily, roll it out about half an inch thick, and bake it on flat tins in a quick oven. Gingerbread made in this manner will be light and spongy if baked quick, and made of nice molasses, but it will not keep good so long as hard gingerbread.

171. Hard Molasses Gingerbread.

To a pint of molasses put half a tea-cup of melted butter, a table-spoonful of ginger, and a quart of flour. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in half a pint of water, and stir it in, together with flour sufficient to enable you to roll it out. Bake it in a moderately warm oven.

172. Soft Molasses Gingerbread.

Melt a tea-cup of butter—mix it with a pint of molasses, a table-spoonful of ginger, a pint of flour, and a couple of beaten eggs. Fresh lemon peel, cut into small strips, improves it. Dissolve a couple of tea-spoonsful of saleratus in half a pint of milk, and stir it into the cake. Add flour to render it of the consistency of unbaked pound cake. Bake it in deep pans about half an hour.

173. Sugar Gingerbread.

Mix a pound of sugar with six ounces of butter. Beat four eggs, and stir them into the butter and sugar, together with three tea-spoonsful of ginger. Stir in gradually a pound and a half of flour—dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a wine glass of milk, and stir it in, and bake the gingerbread immediately.

174. Ginger Snaps.

Melt a quarter of a pound of butter, the same quantity of lard—mix them with a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, a pint of molasses, a couple of table-spoonsful of ginger, and a quart of flour. Dissolve a couple of tea-spoonsful of saleratus in a wine glass of milk, and strain it into the cake—add sufficient flour to enable you to roll it out very thin, cut it into small cakes, and bake them in a slow oven.

175. Spice Cakes.

Melt a tea-cup of butter, mix it with a tea-cup of sugar, and half a tea-cup of molasses. Stir in a tea-spoonful of cinnamon, the same quantity of ginger, a grated nutmeg, and a tea-spoonful each of caraway and coriander seed—put in a tea-spoonful of saleratus, dissolved in half a tea-cup of water, stir in flour till stiff enough to roll out thin, cut it into cakes, and bake them in a slow oven.

176. Cider Cake.

Stir together a tea-cup of butter, three of sugar—beat four eggs, and put into the cake, together with two tea-cups of flour, and a grated nutmeg. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in half a tea-cup of milk, strain it, and mix it with the above ingredients—stir in a tea-cup of cider, and four more cups of flour.

177. Bannock or Indian Meal Cakes.

Stir to a cream a pound and a quarter of brown sugar, a pound of butter—beat six eggs, and mix them with the sugar and butter—add a tea-spoonful of cinnamon or ginger—stir in a pound and three quarters of white Indian meal, and a quarter of a pound of wheat flour, (the meal should be sifted.) Bake it in small cups, and let it remain in them till cold.

178. Rich Cookies.

Rub together, till white, a tea-cup of butter, two of sugar—then stir in a couple of beaten eggs, a little flour, grate in a nutmeg—dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a tea-cup of milk or water, strain it on to the cake, then add flour till stiff enough to roll out easily. If you cannot roll out the cake without its sticking to the board and rolling-pin, (which should be previously floured,) work in more flour, stamp and cut it into cakes—bake them in a moderately warm oven.

179. Plain Tea Cakes.

Mix thoroughly a tea-cup and a half of sugar, half a tea-cup of butter, stir in a little flour, and half a nutmeg. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a tea-cup of milk, strain and mix it with the cake—add flour till stiff enough to roll out—roll it out half an inch thick, cut it into cakes, bake them on flat buttered tins, in a quick oven. If baked slow, they will not be good.

180. New Year's Cookies.

Weigh out a pound of sugar, three-quarters of a pound of butter—stir them to a cream, then add three beaten eggs, a grated nutmeg, two table-spoonsful of caraway seed, and a pint of flour. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a tea-cup of milk, strain and mix it with half a tea-cup of cider, and stir it into the cookies—then add flour to make them sufficiently stiff to roll out. Bake them as soon as cut into cakes, in a quick oven, till a light brown.

181. Shrewsbury Cake.

Stir together three-quarters of a pound of sugar, half a pound of butter. When white, add five beaten eggs, a tea-spoonful of rosewater, or a nutmeg, and a pound of flour. Drop it with a large spoon on to flat tins that have been buttered—sift sugar over them.

182. Tunbridge Cake.

Six ounces of butter, the same quantity of sugar, three-quarters of a pound of flour, a couple of eggs, and a tea-spoonful of rosewater. Stir to a cream the butter and sugar, then add the eggs, flour, and spice. Roll it out thin, and cut it into small cakes.

183. Jumbles.

Stir together, till of a light color, a pound of sugar, and half the weight of butter—then add eight eggs, beaten to a froth, essence of lemon, or rosewater, to the taste, and flour to make them sufficiently stiff to roll out. Roll them out in powdered sugar, about half an inch thick, cut it into strips about half an inch wide, and four inches long, join the ends together, so as to form rings—lay them on flat tins that have been buttered—bake them in a quick oven.

184. Composition Cake.

Five tea-cups of flour, three of sugar, two of butter, five eggs, a tea-spoonful of saleratus, a tea-cup of milk, a wine glass of wine, or brandy, one nutmeg, a pound of raisins. Stir the sugar and butter to a cream, then add the eggs, beaten to a froth, and part of the flour and the spice—dissolve the saleratus in the milk, strain and mix it with the brandy, stir it into the cake, with the rest of the flour—add the raisins just before the cake is put into the pans.

185. Rusk.

Melt half a pound of butter, and mix it with two-thirds of a pint of milk—flour to make a thick batter. Add three table-spoonsful of yeast, and set the batter in a warm place to rise. When light, beat two eggs, with half a pound of rolled sugar—work it into the batter with the hand, add a tea-spoonful of salt, a tea-spoonful of cinnamon, and flour to make them sufficiently stiff to mould up. Mould them up into cakes of the size you would make biscuit, lay them on flat tins, previously buttered, let them remain till of a spongy lightness, before baking. They will bake, in a quick oven, in the course of fifteen minutes.

186. Whigs.

Mix half a pound of sugar with six ounces of butter, a couple of beaten eggs, a tea-spoonful of cinnamon. Stir in two pounds of flour, a tea-cup of yeast, and milk sufficient to make a thick batter. When light, bake them in small cups.

187. Nut Cakes.

Heat a pint of milk just lukewarm—stir into it a tea-cup of lard, (the lard should be melted.) Stir in flour, till it is a thick batter, then add a small tea-cup of yeast. Set it in a warm place—when light, work in two tea-cups and a half of rolled sugar, four eggs beaten to a froth, two tea-spoonsful of cinnamon, and one of salt. Knead in flour to make it sufficiently stiff to roll out—keep it in a warm place, till risen again. When it appears of a spongy lightness, roll it out about half an inch thick, cut it into cakes with a wine glass, let them remain fifteen or twenty minutes before boiling them—boil them in a pot, with about a couple of pounds of lard. The fat should be hot enough to boil up as they are put in, and a brisk fire kept under the pot. It should be shaken constantly while they are boiling. Only a few should be boiled at once—if crowded, they will not fry well. If you wish to have them look nice, dip them into powdered white sugar as soon as fried. The same lard, with a little more added, will answer to fry several batches of cakes in, if not burnt.

188. Crollers.

Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in four table-spoonsful of milk, or leave out one spoonful of milk, and substitute one of wine. Strain it on to half a pint of flour, four table-spoonsful of melted butter, or lard, and a tea-spoonful of salt. Beat four eggs, with six heaping table-spoonsful of rolled sugar—work them into the rest of the ingredients, together with a grated nutmeg—add flour to make them stiff enough to roll out easily. They should be rolled out about half an inch thick, cut with a jagging iron or knife into strips about half an inch wide, and twisted, so as to form small cakes. Heat a pound of lard in a deep pot or kettle, (some cooks use a frying pan to fry crollers in, but they are more apt to burn when fried in a pan.) The fat should boil up, as the cakes are laid in, and they should be constantly watched while frying. When brown on the under side, turn them—when brown on both sides, they are sufficiently cooked.

189. Molasses Dough Cake.

Melt half a tea-cup of butter, mix it with a tea-cup of molasses, the juice and chopped rind of a fresh lemon, a tea-spoonful of cinnamon—work the whole with the hand into three tea-cups of raised dough, together with a couple of beaten eggs. Work it with the hand for ten or twelve minutes, then put it into buttered pans. Let it remain ten or fifteen minutes before baking it.

190. Sugar Dough Cake.

Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a wine glass of wine, or milk—strain it on to three tea-cups of raised dough. Work into the dough a tea-cup of lukewarm melted butter, two tea-cups of rolled sugar, three eggs well beaten, and a couple of tea-spoonsful of cinnamon. Work the whole well together for a quarter of an hour, then put it into cake pans. Let it stand in a warm place fifteen or twenty minutes, before baking it.

191. Measure Cake.

Stir to a cream a tea-cup of butter, two of sugar, then stir in four eggs beaten to a froth, a grated nutmeg, and a pint of flour. Stir it until just before it is baked. It is good either baked in cups or pans.

192. French Cake.

One pound of sugar, three quarters of a pound of butter, a pound and a half of flour, twelve eggs, a gill each of wine, brandy, and of milk. Mix the sugar and butter together—when white, add the eggs, beaten to a froth, (the whites and yelks should be separated)—then stir in the flour, the milk and wine, and one-fourth of a grated nutmeg. Just before it is baked, add three-quarters of a pound of seeded raisins, a quarter of a pound of citron, and a quarter of a pound of almonds, blanched and pounded fine. To blanch almonds, see directions in No. 168.

193. Washington Cake.

Stir together, till quite white, a pound of sugar, three-quarters of a pound of butter, then add four beaten eggs. Stir in gradually a pound and a half of flour. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a tea-cup of milk, strain and mix it with a glass of wine, then stir it into the cake, together with a tea-spoonful of rosewater, and half a nutmeg. Just before it is baked, add a pound of seeded raisins.

194. Cup Cake.

Mix three tea-cups of sugar with one and a half of butter. When white, beat three eggs, and stir them into the butter and sugar, together with three tea-cups of sifted flour, and rosewater or essence of lemon to the taste. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a tea-cup of milk, strain it into the cake, then add three more tea-cups of sifted flour. Bake the cake immediately, either in cups or pans.

195. Plain Cream Cake.

Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a wine glass of milk, strain it on to a little sifted flour, beat three eggs with a tea-cup of rolled sugar, mix them with the above ingredients, together with half a grated nutmeg. Add a tea-cup of thick cream, and sifted flour to render it of the consistency of unbaked pound cake. Bake it as soon as the cream and flour are well mixed in, as stirring the cream much decomposes it.

196. Rich Cream Cake.

Stir together, till very white, half a pound of butter, three-quarters of a pound of sugar. Beat the whites and yelks of seven eggs separately to a froth, stir them into the cake—put in a wine glass of brandy, a grated nutmeg, and a pound and a half of sifted flour. Just before it is baked, add half a pint of thick cream, and a pound of seeded raisins.

197. Cymbals.

Half a pound of sugar, a quarter of a pound of butter, a couple of eggs, half a nutmeg, a tea-spoonful of saleratus, half a tea-cup of milk. Stir the butter and sugar together, then add the eggs and a little flour, stir in the milk and saleratus, which should be previously strained, then add enough flour to make it stiff enough to roll out—roll it out half an inch thick, in pounded white sugar, cut it with a tumbler into cakes, and bake them on flat buttered tins.

198. Rich Loaf Cake.

Stir gradually into a pint of lukewarm milk a pound of sifted wheat flour, add a small tea-cup of yeast, and set it where it will rise quick. When of a spongy lightness, weigh out a pound of butter, a pound and a quarter of nice sugar—stir them to a cream, then work them with the hand into the sponge. Beat four eggs to a froth, the whites and yelks separately—mix the eggs with the cake, together with a wine glass of wine, one of brandy, a quarter of an ounce of mace, or one nutmeg. Cinnamon is good spice for loaf cake, but it turns it a dark color. Add another pound of flour, and work it with the hand for fifteen or twenty minutes. (The longer it is worked, the more delicate will be the cake.) Let it remain till risen again—when perfectly light, beat it a few minutes with the hand, then add a couple of pounds of seeded raisins, a quarter of a pound of citron, or almonds blanched, and pounded fine. Butter three common sized cake pans, and put the cake into them—let them remain half an hour in a warm place, before setting them in the oven. Bake the cake in a quick, but not a furious oven, from an hour and fifteen to thirty minutes, according to the heat of the oven. If it browns too fast, cover it, while baking, with thick paper.

199. Plain Loaf Cake.

Mix together a pint of lukewarm milk, two quarts of sifted flour, a small tea-cup of yeast. Set the batter where it will rise quick. When perfectly light, work in with the hand four beaten eggs, a tea-spoonful of salt, two of cinnamon, a wine glass of brandy or wine. Stir a pound of sugar with three-quarters of a pound of butter—when white, work it into the cake, add another quart of sifted flour, and beat the whole well with the hand ten or fifteen minutes, then set it where it will rise again. When of a spongy lightness, put it into buttered cake pans, and let them stand fifteen or twenty minutes before baking. Add if you like a pound and a half of raisins, just before putting the cake into the pans.

200. Shelah, or Quick Loaf Cake.

Melt half a pound of butter—when cool, work it into a pound and a half of raised dough. Beat four eggs with three-quarters of a pound of rolled sugar, mix it with the dough, together with a wine glass of wine, or brandy, a tea-spoonful of cinnamon, and a grated nutmeg. Dissolve a tea-spoonful of saleratus in a small tea-cup of milk, strain it on to the dough, work the whole well together for a quarter of an hour, then add a pound of seeded raisins, and put it into cake pans. Let them remain twenty minutes before setting them in the oven.

201. Rice Cake.

Mix ten ounces of ground rice, three of wheat flour, eight ounces of powdered white sugar. Sift the whole by degrees into the beaten yelks of eight eggs. Add the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, and half a grated nutmeg. Bake the cake in deep pans as soon as the ingredients are well mixed in. The cake will bake sufficiently in the course of twenty minutes, if the oven is hot.

202. Diet Bread.

Sift a pound of flour, mix it with a pound of rolled sugar. Beat eight eggs to a froth, and stir the flour and sugar in very gradually. Season it to the taste with essence of lemon or rosewater. Bake it from fifteen to twenty minutes.

203. Lemon Cake.

Stir together, till very white, a pound of sugar, half a pound of butter—then add eight eggs, beaten to a froth, (the whites and yelks should be beaten separately,) the grated rind of two lemons, and the juice of half a lemon. Stir in gradually a pound of sifted flour. Line a couple of cake pans with white buttered paper, turn the cake into them, and bake it in a quick oven.

204. Scotch Cake.

Stir to a cream a pound of sugar, and three-quarters of a pound of butter—put in the juice and grated rind of a lemon, a wine glass of brandy. Separate the whites and yelks of nine eggs, beat them to a froth, and stir them into the cake—then add a pound of sifted flour, and just before it is put in the cake pans, a pound of seeded raisins.

205. Pound Cake.

Mix a pound of sugar with three-quarters of a pound of butter. When worked white, stir in the yelks of eight eggs, beaten to a froth, then the whites. Add a pound of sifted flour, and mace or nutmeg to the taste. If you wish to have your cake particularly nice, stir in, just before you put it into the pans, a quarter of a pound of citron, or almonds blanched, and powdered fine in rosewater.

206. Confectioner's Pound Cake.

Stir together a pound and a quarter of sugar, three quarters of a pound of butter. When of a light color, stir in twelve beaten eggs, a pound and a half of sifted flour, and mace or nutmeg to the taste.

207. Queen's Cake.

Rub together, till very white, a pound of sugar, three quarters of a pound of butter. Mix a wine glass of wine, one of brandy, one of milk, and if you wish to have the cake look dark, put in a tea-spoonful of saleratus. Stir them into the butter and sugar, together with a pound of flour, a tea-spoonful of rosewater, or essence of lemon, a quarter of an ounce of mace. Beat the whites and yelks separately of six eggs—if no saleratus is used, two more eggs will be necessary. When beaten to a froth, mix them with the cake. Stir the whole well together, then add, just before baking it, half a pound of seeded raisins, the same weight of Zante currants, a quarter of a pound of citron, or almonds blanched, and pounded fine in rosewater. The fruit should be stirred in gradually, a handful of each alternately. Line a couple of three pint tin pans with buttered white paper, put in the cake, and bake it directly. If it browns too fast, cover it with paper. It takes from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half to bake it, according to the heat of the oven.

208. Delicate Cake.

Stir to a cream a pound of powdered white sugar, seven ounces of butter—then add the whites of sixteen eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, half a nutmeg, or a tea-spoonful of rosewater. Stir in gradually a pound of sifted flour, and bake the cake immediately. The yelks of the eggs can be used for custards.

209. Jelly Cake.

Rub together, till white, half a pound of sugar, six ounces of butter. Beat eight eggs to a froth, and stir into the butter and sugar, together with a pound of sifted flour. Add the juice and grated rind of a fresh lemon, and turn this mixture on to scolloped tin plates, that have been well buttered. The cake should not be more than a quarter of an inch thick on each of the plates. Bake them directly, in a quick oven, till a light brown. Pile them on a plate with a layer of jelly or marmalade between each of the cakes, and a layer on the top.

210. Strawberry Cake.

Mix a quart of flour with a tea-spoonful of salt, four beaten eggs, and a tea-cup of thick cream, or melted butter. Add sufficient milk to enable you to roll it out—roll it out thin, line a shallow cake pan with part of it, then put in a thick layer of nice ripe strawberries, strew on sufficient white sugar to sweeten the strawberries, cover them with a thin layer of the crust, then add another layer of strawberries and sugar—cover the whole with another layer of crust, and bake it in a quick oven about twenty-five minutes.

211. Superior Sponge Cake.

Take the weight of ten eggs in powdered loaf sugar, beat it to a froth with the yelks of twelve eggs, put in the grated rind of a fresh lemon, leaving out the white part—add half the juice. Beat the whites of twelve eggs to a stiff froth, and mix them with the sugar and butter. Stir the whole without any cessation for fifteen minutes, then stir in gradually the weight of six eggs in sifted flour. As soon as the flour is well mixed in, turn the cake into pans lined with buttered paper—bake it immediately in a quick, but not a furiously hot oven. It will bake in the course of twenty minutes. If it bakes too fast, cover it with thick paper.

212. Good Sponge Cake.

Beat together the yelks of ten eggs, with a pound of powdered white sugar—beat to a stiff froth the whites of the eggs, and stir them into the yelks and sugar. Beat the whole ten or fifteen minutes, then stir in gradually three-quarters of a pound of sifted flour. Flavor it with a nutmeg, or the grated rind of a lemon. Bake it as soon as the flour and spices are well mixed in.

213. Almond Cake.

Beat the yelks of twelve eggs to a froth, with a pound of powdered white sugar. Beat the whites of nine eggs to a stiff froth, and stir them into the yelks and sugar. When the whole has been stirred together for ten minutes, add gradually a pound of sifted flour, and half a pound of almonds, blanched and pounded fine, then stir in three table-spoonsful of thick cream. As soon as the ingredients are well mixed in, turn the cake into buttered pans, and bake it immediately. Frost the cake with the reserved whites of the eggs as soon as it is baked.

214. Fruit Cake.

One pound of flour, one of sugar, three-quarters of a pound of butter, two pounds of seeded raisins, two of currants, one of citron, a quarter of a pound of almonds, half an ounce of mace, a tea-spoonful of rosewater, a wine glass of brandy, one of wine, and ten eggs. Stir the sugar and butter to a cream, then add the whites and yelks of the eggs, beaten separately to a froth—stir in the flour gradually, then the wine, brandy, and spice. Add the fruit just before it is put into the pans. It takes over two hours to bake it if the loaves are thick—if the loaves are thin, it will bake in less time. This kind of cake is the best after it has been made three or four weeks, and it will keep good five or six months.

215. Black Cake.

One pound of flour, one of sugar, fourteen ounces of butter, ten eggs, three pounds of seeded raisins, three pounds of Zante currants, and one pound of citron, a wine glass of wine, one of brandy, and one of milk, a tea-spoonful of saleratus, a table-spoonful of molasses, a table-spoonful of cinnamon, a tea-spoonful of cloves, a quarter of an ounce of mace, or one nutmeg. The sugar should be the brown kind, and stirred a few minutes with the butter, then the eggs beaten to a froth, and stirred in. Brown the flour in a pan, over a few coals—stir it constantly to prevent its burning. It should be done before you commence making the cake, so as to have it get cold. Stir it into the butter and sugar gradually, then add the molasses and spice. Dissolve the saleratus in the milk, then strain it, and mix it with the brandy and wine, to curdle them—stir the whole into the cake. Just before you put it into the cake pans, stir in the fruit gradually, a handful of each alternately. When well mixed in, put it into cake pans, and bake it immediately. If baked in thick loaves, it takes from two hours and a half to three hours to bake it sufficiently. The oven should not be of a furious heat. Black cake cuts the best when three or four weeks old.

216. Maccaroons.

Soak half a pound of sweet almonds in boiling hot water, till the skins will rub off easily—wipe them dry. When you have rubbed off the skins, pound them fine with rosewater. Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, then stir in gradually half a pound of powdered white sugar, then add the almonds. When the almonds are well mixed in, drop the mixture in small parcels on buttered baking plates, several inches apart, sift sugar over them, and bake them in a slow oven.

217. Cocoanut Cakes.

Take equal weights of grated cocoanut and powdered white sugar, (the brown part of the cocoanut should be cut off before grating it)—add the whites of eggs beaten to a stiff froth, in the proportion of half a dozen to a pound each of cocoanut and sugar. There should be just eggs enough to wet up the whole stiff. Drop the mixture on to buttered plates, in parcels of the size of a cent, several inches apart. Bake them immediately in a moderately warm oven.

218. Tory Wafers.

Melt a tea-cup of butter, half a one of lard, and mix them with a quart of flour, a couple of beaten eggs, a tea-spoonful of salt, a wine glass of wine. Add milk till of the right consistency to roll out—roll it out about the third of an inch in thickness, cut it into cakes with a wine glass, lay them on buttered baking plates, and bake them a few minutes. Frost them as soon as baked, and sprinkle comfits or sugar sand on the top.

219. Sugar Drops.

Stir to a cream three ounces of butter, six of powdered white sugar—then add three beaten eggs, half a pound of sifted flour, half of a nutmeg. Drop this mixture by the large spoonful on to buttered plates, several inches apart, sprinkle small sugar plums on the top, and bake them directly.

220. Savoy Cakes.

Beat eight eggs to a froth—the whites and yelks should be beaten separately, then mixed together, and a pound of powdered white sugar stirred in gradually. Beat the whole well together, for eight or ten minutes, then add the grated rind of a fresh lemon, and half the juice, a pound of sifted flour, a couple of table-spoonsful of coriander seed. Drop this mixture by the large spoonful on to buttered baking plates, several inches apart, sift white sugar over them, and bake them immediately in a quick, but not a furiously hot oven.

221. Almond Cheese Cakes.

Boil a pint of new milk—beat three eggs, and stir into the milk while boiling. When it boils up, take it from the fire, put in half a wine glass of wine, separate the curd from the whey, and put to the curd three eggs, six ounces of powdered white sugar, previously beaten together. Add a tea-spoonful of rosewater, half a pound of sweet almonds that have been blanched and pounded fine, a quarter of a pound of melted butter. Mix the whole well together, then pour it into small pans that are lined with pastry. Ornament the top with Zante currants, and almonds cut in thin slips—bake them directly.

222. Flummery.

Lay sponge or Savoy cakes in a deep dish—pour on white wine sufficient to make them quite moist. Make a rich boiled custard, using only the yelks of the eggs—turn it over the cakes when cool—beat the whites of the eggs to a froth, and turn them over the whole.

223. Floating Island.

Mix a pint and a half of sweet thick cream with a gill of wine, the juice of half a lemon, and a tea-spoonful of essence of lemon, or rosewater. Sweeten the whole with powdered loaf sugar—turn it into a deep dish. Beat the whites of four eggs to a froth, and stir in half a pound of any dark-colored preserved small fruit you may happen to have. Beat the whole to a strong froth, then turn it into the centre of the cream.

224. Whip Syllabub.

Take good sweet cream—to each pint put six ounces of double refined, powdered white sugar, half a tumbler of white wine, the juice and grated rind of a lemon. Beat the whole well together—put jelly in glasses, and cover them with the froth as fast as it rises.

225. Ornamental Froth for Blanc Mange or Creams.

Beat the whites of four eggs to a froth, then stir in half a pound of preserved raspberries, cranberries, or strawberries—beat the whole well together, then turn it over the top of your creams or blanc mange.

226. Ice Currants.

Take large bunches of ripe currants, wash and drain them dry, then dip them into the whites of eggs, previously beaten to a stiff froth. Lay them on a sieve, at such a distance from each other as not to touch—sift double refined sugar over them thick, and set them in a warm place to dry.

227. Apple Snow.

Put a dozen good tart apples into cold water, set them over a slow fire. When soft, drain off the water, pull the skins from the apples, take out the cores, and lay the apples in a deep dish. Beat the whites of twelve eggs to a strong froth—put half a pound of powdered white sugar on the apples, beat them to a strong froth, then add the beaten eggs. Beat the whole to a stiff snow, then turn it into a dessert dish, and ornament it with myrtle or box.

228. Comfits.

Mix a pound of white sugar with just sufficient water to make a thick syrup. When the sugar has dissolved, drop in a pound of coriander seed, then drain off the syrup, and put the seeds in a sieve, with two or three ounces of flour—shake them well in it, then set them where they will dry. When dry, put them in the syrup again, repeat the above process till they are of the size you wish.

229. Isinglass Blanc Mange.

Pull an ounce of mild white isinglass into small pieces—rinse them, and put to them a quart of milk if the weather is hot, and three pints if it is cold weather. Set it on a few coals, stir it constantly till the isinglass dissolves, then sweeten it to the taste with double refined loaf sugar, put in a small stick of cinnamon, a vanilla bean, or blade of mace. Set it where it will boil five or six minutes, stirring it constantly. Strain it, and fill the moulds with it—let it remain in them till cold. The same bean will do to use several times.

230. Calf's Feet Blanc Mange.

Boil four feet in five quarts of water, without any salt. When the liquor is reduced to one quart, strain and mix it with one quart of milk, several sticks of cinnamon, or a vanilla bean. Boil the whole ten minutes, sweeten it to the taste with white sugar, strain it, and fill your moulds with it.

231. Rice Flour Blanc Mange.

Mix four table-spoonsful of ground rice, smoothly, with half a pint of cold milk, then stir it into a quart of boiling milk. Put in the grated rind of a lemon, and half the juice, a blade of mace—sweeten to the taste with white sugar. Boil the whole seven or eight minutes, stirring it frequently. Take it from the fire—when cool, put in the beaten whites of three eggs, put it back on the fire, stir it constantly till nearly boiling hot, then turn it into moulds, or deep cups, and let it remain till cold. This is nice food for invalids.

232. Rice Blanc Mange.

Boil a tea-cup of rice in a pint of water, with a blade of mace, and a tea-spoonful of salt. When it swells out and becomes dry, add sufficient milk to prevent its burning. Let it boil till quite soft, stirring it constantly to keep it from burning—sweeten it with white sugar. Dip your moulds in cold water, then turn in the rice, without drying the moulds. Let the rice remain in the moulds till it becomes quite cold. Turn it into dessert dishes, ornament it with marmalade cut in slices, and box and serve it up with cream or preserved strawberries. It should be made the day before it is to be eaten, in order to have it become firm.

233. Snow Cream.

Beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth—then stir in two table-spoonsful of powdered white sugar, a table-spoonful of sweet wine, a tea-spoonful of rosewater. Beat the whole together, then add a pint of thick cream. This is a nice accompaniment to a dessert of sweetmeats.

234. Orange Cream.

Beat the yelks of eight eggs, and the whites of two, to a froth, then stir in half a pound of powdered white sugar—add half a pint of wine, and the juice of six fresh oranges, and the juice of one lemon. Flavor it with orange-flower water—strain it, and set it on a few coals—stir it till it thickens, then add a piece of butter, of the size of a nutmeg. When the butter has melted, take it from the fire, continue to stir it till cool, then fill your glasses with it. Beat up the whites of the eggs to a froth, and lay the froth on top of the glasses of cream.

235. Lemon Cream.

Pare four fresh lemons very thin, so as to get none of the white part. Soak the rinds twelve hours in half a pint of cold water, then add the juice of the lemons, and half a pint more of cold water. Beat to a froth the whites of eight eggs, and the yelks of three—strain the lemon-juice and water, mix it with the eggs—set the whole on a few coals, sweeten it with double refined sugar, stir it till it grows thick, then take it from the fire, stir it till cold—serve it up in glasses.

236. Ice Creams.

Sweeten thick rich cream with powdered white sugar—it should be made very sweet, as the process of freezing extracts a great deal of the saccharine matter. Essence of lemon, the juice of strawberries or pine-apples, are nice to flavor the cream with—the juice should be sweetened before being mixed with the cream. Where cream cannot be procured, a custard, made in the following manner, may be substituted: To a quart of milk put the beaten yelks of four eggs, the rind of a lemon, or a vanilla bean—set it on a few coals, make it extremely sweet, with white sugar—stir it constantly till scalding hot—care must be taken that it does not boil. Take it from the fire, take out the bean, or lemon peel—when perfectly cold, put it in an ice cream form—if one cannot be procured, a milk kettle, with a tight cover, may be substituted. Set the form into the centre of a tub that is large enough to leave a space of five inches from the form to the outside of the tub. Fill the space round the form with alternate layers of finely cracked ice and rock salt, having a layer of ice last, and the whole should be just as high as the form. Care should be taken to keep the salt from the cream. The tub should be covered with a woollen cloth while the cream is freezing, and the form should be constantly shaken. If you wish to shape the cream, turn it into moulds as soon as it freezes, set them in the tub, let them remain till just before they are to be eaten, then dip them in warm water, and take them out instantly, and turn them into dessert dishes.

237. Pastry.

For a good common pie-crust allow half a pound of shortening to a pound of flour. If liked quite short, allow three-quarters of a pound of shortening to a pound of the flour. Pie crust looks the nicest made entirely of lard, but it does not taste so good as it does to have some butter used in making it. In winter, beef shortening, mixed with butter, makes good plain pie crust. Rub half of the shortening with two-thirds of the flour—to each pound of flour put a tea-spoonful of salt. When the shortening is thoroughly mixed with the flour, add just sufficient cold water to render it moist enough to roll out easily. Divide the crust into two equal portions—lay one of them one side for the upper crust, take the other, roll it out quite thin, flouring your rolling-board and pin, so that the crust will not stick to them, and line your pie plates, which should be previously buttered—fill your plates with your fruit, then roll out the upper crust as thin as possible, spread on the reserved shortening, sprinkle over the flour, roll it up, and cut it into as many pieces as you have pies to cover. Roll each one out about half an inch thick, and cover the pies—trim the edges off neatly with a knife, and press the crust down, round the edge of the plate, with a jagging iron, so that the juices of the fruit may not run out while baking. Pastry, to be nice, should be baked in a quick oven. In cold weather it is necessary to warm the shortening before using it for pie crust, but it must not be melted, or the crust will not be flaky.

238. Puff Paste, or Confectioner's Pastry.

Weigh out a pound and a quarter of sifted flour, and a pound of butter. Rub about one-third of the butter with two-thirds of the flour, a tea-spoonful of salt. When the butter is thoroughly mixed with the flour, add one beaten egg, and cold water to moisten it sufficiently to roll out. Sprinkle part of the reserved flour on a board, cut the butter into small pieces, and roll them out as thin as possible. In order to do so, it will be necessary to rub a great deal of the flour on the moulding-board and rolling-pin. Lay the butter, as fast as rolled out, on to a floured plate, each piece by itself—roll out the pastry as thin as it can be rolled, cover it with the rolled butter, sprinkle on part of the reserved flour, and roll the crust up. Continue to roll out the crust, and put on the reserved butter and flour, till the whole is used. Roll it out lightly, about half an inch thick, for the upper crust, or rim to your pies—plain pie crust should be used for the under crust to the pies. Puff pastry, to be nice, should be baked in a quick oven till of a light brown color. If it browns before the fruit in the pie is sufficiently baked, cover it with thick paper.

239. Apple Pie.

When apples are very small and green, they are nice stewed whole, with the skins on, and strained when soft, and sweetened. Pare, quarter, and take out the cores of the apples, when of a large size. If they are not ripe, stew them with just water enough to prevent their burning. When soft, sweeten and season them to the taste. When apples are ripe, they make better pies not to be stewed before baking. Fill your pie plates, cover them with a thick crust, and bake them from half to three-quarters of an hour. When baked sufficiently, cut the upper crust through the centre, remove it carefully with a broad knife, put a piece of butter, of the size of a walnut, into a pie, sweeten it to your taste, and if the apples are not tart enough, squeeze in the juice of part of a lemon—flavor the pie with either nutmeg, rosewater, or grated lemon peel. Apples cut into quarters, without paring, and stewed soft in new cider and molasses, make good plain pies. The apples should be strained after stewing, and seasoned with cinnamon or nutmeg. If made quite sweet, it will keep good several months. Dried apples should have boiling water turned on to cover them, and stewed till very soft. If they are not tart enough, turn in sour cider, when they are partly stewed. A little orange peel stewed with the apples, gives them a fine flavor. Season them, when soft, with sugar and nutmeg, and strain them if you like.

240. Mince Pie.

The best kind of meat for mince pies is neat's tongue and feet—the shank of beef makes very good pies. Boil the meat till perfectly tender—then take it up, clear it from the bones and gristle, chop it fine enough to strain through a sieve, mix it with an equal weight of tart apples, chopped very fine. If the meat is not fat, put in a little suet, or melted butter. Moisten the whole with cider—sweeten it to the taste with sugar, and very little molasses—add mace, cinnamon, cloves, and salt, to the taste. If you wish to make your pies rich, put in wine or brandy to the taste, and raisins, citron, and Zante currants. The grated rind and juice of lemons improve the pie. Make the pies on shallow plates, with apertures in the upper crust, and bake them from half to three-quarters of an hour, according to the heat of the oven. Meat prepared for pies in the following manner, will keep good several months, if kept in a cool dry place: To a pound of finely chopped meat, a quarter of a pound of suet, put half an ounce of mace, one ounce of cinnamon, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, two tea-spoonsful of salt. Add if you like the following fruits: half a pound of seeded raisins, half a pound of Zante currants, a quarter of a pound of citron. Put in half a pint of French brandy or wine, three table-spoonsful of molasses, and sugar sufficient to make it quite sweet. Put the whole in a stone pot—cover it with a paper wet in brandy. When you wish to use any of it for pies, put to what meat you use an equal weight of apples, pared and chopped fine. If not seasoned high enough, add more spice and sugar. If the apples are not tart, put in lemon-juice or sour cider.

241. Rice Pie.

To a quart of boiling water, put a small tea-cup of rice. Boil it till very soft, then take it from the fire, and add a quart of cold milk. Put in a tea-spoonful of salt, a grated nutmeg, five eggs beaten to a froth—add sugar to the taste, and strain it through a sieve. Bake it in deep pie plates, with an under crust and rim of pastry—add if you like a few raisins.

242. Peach Pie.

Take mellow, juicy peaches—wash and put them in a deep pie plate, lined with pie crust. Sprinkle a thick layer of sugar on each layer of peaches, put in about a table-spoonful of water, and sprinkle a little flour over the top—cover it with a thick crust, and bake the pie from fifty to sixty minutes. Pies made in this manner are much better than with the stones taken out, as the prussic acid of the stone gives the pie a fine flavor. If the peaches are not mellow, they will require stewing before being made into a pie. Dried peaches should be stewed soft, and sweetened, before they are made into a pie—they do not require any spice.

243. Tart Pie.

Sour apples, cranberries, and peaches, all make nice tarts. Stew, and strain them when soft. Peach tarts require a little lemon-juice, without they are sour. Grate in lemon peel, add brown sugar to the taste. Put in each pie one beaten egg, to make it cut smooth. Bake the pies on shallow plates, with an under crust and rim of pastry—ornament the pie with very small strips of pastry. When the crust is done, remove the pies from the oven.

244. Rhubarb Pies.

Take the tender stalks of the rhubarb, strip off the skin, and cut the stalks into thin slices. Line deep plates with pie crust, then put in the rhubarb, with a thick layer of sugar to each layer of rhubarb—a little grated lemon peel improves the pie. Cover the pies with a thick crust—press it down tight round the edge of the plate, and prick the crust with a fork, so that the crust will not burst while baking, and let out the juices of the pie. Rhubarb pies should be baked about an hour, in a slow oven—it will not do to bake them quick. Some cooks stew the rhubarb before making it into pies, but it is not so good as when used without stewing.

245. Tomato Pie.

Take green tomatoes, turn boiling water on them, and let them remain in it a few minutes—then strip off the skin, cut the tomatoes in slices, and put them in deep pie plates. Sprinkle sugar over each layer, and a little ginger. Grated lemon peel, and the juice of a lemon, improve the pie. Cover the pies with a thick crust, and bake them slowly for about an hour.

246. Lemon Pie.

For one pie, take a couple of good sized fresh lemons, squeeze out the juice, and mix it with half a pint of molasses, or sufficient sugar to make the juice sweet. Chop the peel fine, line a deep pie plate with your pastry, then sprinkle on a layer of your chopped lemon peel, turn in part of the mixed sugar or molasses, and juice, then cover the whole with pie crust, rolled very thin—put in another layer of peel, sweetened juice, and crust, and so on, till all the lemon is used. Cover the whole with a thick crust, and bake the pie about half an hour.

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