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The 2004 CIA World Factbook
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United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD): established - NA 1963

aim - to conduct research into the problems of economic development during different phases of economic growth

members - no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of a chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 11 individual members

United Nations Secretariat: established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a Secretary General is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council

members - the UN Secretary General and staff

United Nations Security Council (UNSC): established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945

aim - to maintain international peace and security

permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US

nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly; Algeria (2004-05), Angola (2003-04), Benin (2004-05), Brazil (2004-05), Chile (2003-04), Germany (2003-04), Pakistan (2003- 04), Philippines (2004-05), Romania (2004-05), Spain (2003-04)

United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET): established 25 October 1999 to provide security throughout the territory of East Timor; to establish an effective administration; to ensure the coordination and delivery of humanitarian assistance; to support capacity-building for self-government; 28 members including Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Ireland, Jordan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mozambique, Nepal, NZ, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO): established - NA June 1948

aim - to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; currently supports timely deployment of reinforcements to other peacekeeping operations in the region as needed; initially established by the UN Security Council

members - (23) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, US

United Nations Trusteeship Council: established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, to supervise the administration of the 11 UN trust territories; members were China, France, Russia, UK, US; it formally suspended operations 1 November 1995 after the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) became the Republic of Palau, a constitutional government in free association with the US; the Trusteeship Council was not dissolved

United Nations University (UNU): established - 3 December 1973

aim - to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival and to train scholars

members - (24 members of UNU Council and the Rector are appointed by the Secretary General of the United Nations and the Director General of UNESCO)

Universal Postal Union (UPU): established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947; effective - 1 July 1948

aim - to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized agency

members - (188) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Warsaw Pact (WP): established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR; earlier members included GDR and Albania

West African Development Bank (WADB): note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD); is a financial institution of WAEMU

established - 14 November 1973

aim - to promote regional economic development and integration

regional members - (9) Central Bank of West African States, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo

international/nonregional members - (5) African Development Bank, Belgium, European Investment Bank, France, Germany

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU): note - also known as Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA)

established - 1 August 1994

aim - to increase competitiveness of members' economic markets; to create a common market

members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo

Western European Union (WEU): established - 23 October 1954; effective - 6 May 1955

aim - to provide mutual defense and to move toward political unification

members - (10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

associate members - (6) Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Turkey

associate partners - (7) Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia

observers - (5) Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden

World Bank Group: includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance Corporation (IFC)

World Confederation of Labor (WCL): established - 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (102 national organizations) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Malawi, Malta, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Customs Organization (WCO): note - began as the Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)

established - 15 December 1950

aim - to promote international cooperation in customs matters

members - (162) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU): established - 3 October 1945

aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (125 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization

World Food Program (WFP): established - 24 November 1961

aim - to provide food aid in support of economic development or disaster relief; an ECOSOC organization

members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

World Health Organization (WHO): established - 22 July 1946; effective - 7 April 1948

aim - to deal with health matters worldwide; a UN specialized agency

members - (192) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members - (2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau

observers - (2) Holy See, Liechtenstein

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): established - 14 July 1967; effective - 26 April 1970

aim - to furnish protection for literary, artistic, and scientific works; a UN specialized agency

members - (179) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Meteorological Organization (WMO): established - 11 October 1947; effective - 4 April 1951

aim - to sponsor meteorological cooperation; a UN specialized agency

members - (187) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Caribbean Territories, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea- Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Tourism Organization (WToO): established - 2 January 1975

aim - to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic development, international understanding, and peace

members - (142) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members - (7) Aruba, Flanders, Hong Kong, Macau, Madeira Islands, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico

observers - (2) Holy See, Palestine Liberation Organization

World Trade Organization (WTrO): note - succeeded General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT)

established - 15 April 1994; effective - 1 January 1995

aim - to provide a forum to resolve trade conflicts between members and to carry on negotiations with the goal of further lowering and/or eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers

members - (146) Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau,The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe

observers - (30) Algeria, Andorra, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Belarus, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Holy See, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon, Nepal, Russia, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tonga, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen; note - must start accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers

Zangger Committee (ZC): established - early 1970s

aim - to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT)

members - (35) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey Ukraine, UK, US

This page was last updated on 9 December, 2004



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Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Air Pollution

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes

Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Air Pollution-Sulfur 85

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulfur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30%

Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulfur Emissions

Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes

Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

see Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

Antarctic Treaty

opened for signature - 1 December 1959

entered into force - 23 June 1961

objective - to ensure that Antarctica is used for peaceful purposes only (such as international cooperation in scientific research); to defer the question of territorial claims asserted by some nations and not recognized by others; to provide an international forum for management of the region; applies to land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees South latitude

parties - (45) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

note - abbreviated as Hazardous Wastes

opened for signature - 22 March 1989 entered into force - 5 May 1992

objective - to reduce transboundary movements of wastes subject to the Convention to a minimum consistent with the environmentally sound and efficient management of such wastes; to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated and ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation; and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate

parties - (159) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Finland, France, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (3) Afghanistan, Haiti, US

Biodiversity

see Convention on Biological Diversity

Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals

note - abbreviated as Antarctic Seals

opened for signature - 1 June 1972 entered into force - 11 March 1978

objective - to promote and achieve the protection, scientific study, and rational use of Antarctic seals, and to maintain a satisfactory balance within the ecological system of Antarctica

parties - (16) Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Russia, South Africa, UK, US

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (1) NZ

Convention on Biological Diversity

note - abbreviated as Biodiversity

opened for signature - 5 June 1992

entered into force - 29 December 1993

objective - to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity

parties - (188) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (1) US

Climate Change

see United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

see Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas

note - abbreviated as Marine Life Conservation

opened for signature - 29 April 1958

entered into force - 20 March 1966

objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, considering that because of the development of modern technology some of these resources are in danger of being overexploited

parties - (37) Australia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Finland, France, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (21) Afghanistan, Argentina, Bolivia, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Panama, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Uruguay

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution

opened for signature - 13 November 1979

entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution

parties - (49) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, EU, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (2) Holy See, San Marino

Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

note - abbreviated as Antarctic-Marine Living Resources

opened for signature - 5 May 1980

entered into force - 7 April 1982

objective - to safeguard the environment and protect the integrity of the ecosystem of the seas surrounding Antarctica, and to conserve Antarctic marine living resources

parties - (31) Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Peru, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu

Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

note - abbreviated as Endangered Species

opened for signature - 3 March 1973

entered into force - 1 July 1975

objective - to protect certain endangered species from overexploitation by means of a system of import/export permits

parties - (165) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)

note - abbreviated as Marine Dumping

opened for signature - 29 December 1972

entered into force - 30 August 1975

objective - to control pollution of the sea by dumping and to encourage regional agreements supplementary to the Convention

parties - (80 + Hong Kong) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong (associate member), Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Libya, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nauru, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tonga, Tunisia, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Vanuatu

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

note - abbreviated as Environmental Modification

opened for signature - 10 December 1976

entered into force - 5 October 1978 objective - to prohibit the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques in order to further world peace and trust among nations

parties - (66) Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Malawi, Mauritius, Mongolia, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (17) Bolivia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Holy See, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Morocco, Nicaragua, Portugal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Turkey, Uganda

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)

note - abbreviated as Wetlands

opened for signature - 2 February 1971

entered into force - 21 December 1975

objective - to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value

parties - (125) Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea- Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia

Desertification

see United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa

Endangered Species

see Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

Environmental Modification

see Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

Hazardous Wastes

see Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

note - abbreviated as Whaling

opened for signature - 2 December 1946

entered into force - 10 November 1948

objective - to protect all species of whales from overhunting; to establish a system of international regulation for the whale fisheries to ensure proper conservation and development of whale stocks; and to safeguard for future generations the great natural resources represented by whale stocks

parties - (42) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominica, Finland, France, Germany, Grenada, Guinea, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Oman, Panama, Peru, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983

note - abbreviated as Tropical Timber 83

opened for signature - 18 November 1983

entered into force - 1 April 1985; this agreement expired when the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994, went into force

objective - to provide an effective framework for cooperation between tropical timber producers and consumers and to encourage the development of national policies aimed at sustainable utilization and conservation of tropical forests and their genetic resources

parties - (54) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Venezuela

International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994

note - abbreviated as Tropical Timber 94

opened for signature - 26 January 1994

entered into force - 1 January 1997

objective - to ensure that by the year 2000 exports of tropical timber originate from sustainably managed sources; to establish a fund to assist tropical timber producers in obtaining the resources necessary to reach this objective

parties - (58) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

note - abbreviated as Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

opened for signature - 16 March 1998, but not yet in force

objective - to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions by enhancing the national programs of developed countries aimed at this goal and by establishing percentage reduction targets for the developed countries

parties - (122) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niue, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (13) Australia, Croatia, Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Niger, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, US, Zambia

Law of the Sea

see United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)

Marine Dumping

see Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)

Marine Life Conservation

see Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas

Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

note - abbreviated as Ozone Layer Protection

opened for signature - 16 September 1987

entered into force - 1 January 1989 objective - to protect the ozone layer by controlling emissions of substances that deplete it

parties - (183) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Nuclear Test Ban

see Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water

Ozone Layer Protection

see Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)

note - abbreviated as Ship Pollution

opened for signature - 17 February 1978

entered into force - 2 October 1983

objective - to preserve the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances

parties - (119) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

note - abbreviated as Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

opened for signature - 4 October 1991

entered into force - 14 January 1998

objective - to provide for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems; applies to the area covered by the Antarctic Treaty

parties - (30) Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Peru, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, UK, US, Ukraine, Uruguay

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides

opened for signature - 31 October 1988

entered into force - 14 February 1991

objective - to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and their transboundary fluxes

parties - (28) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (1) Poland

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

opened for signature - 18 November 1991

entered into force - 29 September 1997

objective - to provide for the control and reduction of emissions of volatile organic compounds in order to reduce their transboundary fluxes so as to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects

parties - (21) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (6) Canada, EU, Greece, Portugal, Ukraine, US

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulfur Emissions

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

opened for signature - 14 June 1994

entered into force - 5 August 1998

objective - to provide for a further reduction in sulfur emissions or transboundary fluxes

parties - (23) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (5) Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Ukraine

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

opened for signature - 24 June 1998, but not yet in force

objective - to provide for the control and reduction of emissions of persistent organic pollutants in order to reduce their transboundary fluxes so as to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects

parties - (8) Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (28) Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Ukraine, UK, US

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulfur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30%

note - abbreviated as Air Pollution-Sulfur 85

opened for signature - 8 July 1985

entered into force - 2 September 1987

objective - to provide for a 30% reduction in sulfur emissions or transboundary fluxes by 1993

parties - (22) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine

Ship Pollution

see Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)

Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water

note - abbreviated as Nuclear Test Ban

opened for signature - 5 August 1963

entered into force - 10 October 1963

objective - to obtain an agreement on general and complete disarmament under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of the United Nations; to put an end to the armaments race and eliminate incentives for the production and testing of all kinds of weapons, including nuclear weapons

parties - (113) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Zambia

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (17) Algeria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chile, Ethiopia, Haiti, Libya, Mali, Pakistan, Paraguay, Portugal, Somalia, Tanzania, Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen

Tropical Timber 83

see International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983

Tropical Timber 94

see International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)

note - abbreviated as Law of the Sea

opened for signature - 10 December 1982

entered into force - 16 November 1994

objective - to set up a comprehensive new legal regime for the sea and oceans; to include rules concerning environmental standards as well as enforcement provisions dealing with pollution of the marine environment

parties - (145) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (29) Afghanistan, Belarus, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Iran, North Korea, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Malawi, Morocco, Niger, Niue, Rwanda, Swaziland, Switzerland, Thailand, UAE

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa

note - abbreviated as Desertification

opened for signature - 14 October 1994

entered into force - 26 December 1996

objective - to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements

parties - (178) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

note - abbreviated as Climate Change

opened for signature - 9 May 1992

entered into force - 21 March 1994

objective - to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a low enough level to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system

parties - (186) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (2) Afghanistan, Liberia

Wetlands

see Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)

Whaling

see International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling



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Appendix D - Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes

FIPS 10-4: Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions (FIPS PUB 10-4) is maintained by the Office of the Geographer and Global Issues (Department of State) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Department of Commerce). FIPS 10-4 codes are intended for general use throughout the US Government, especially in activities associated with the mission of the Department of State and national defense programs.

ISO 3166: Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (ISO 3166) is prepared by the International Organization for Standardization. ISO 3166 includes two- and three-character alphabetic codes and three-digit numeric codes that may be needed for activities involving exchange of data with international organizations that have adopted that standard. Except for the numeric codes, ISO 3166 codes have been adopted in the US as FIPS 104-1: American National Standard Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries, Dependencies, and Areas of Special Sovereignty for Information Interchange.

Internet: The Internet country code is the two-letter digraph maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166 Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Entity FIPS 10-4 —- ISO 3166 — Internet Comment

Afghanistan AF AF AFG 004 .af Albania AL AL ALB 008 .al Algeria AG DZ DZA 012 .dz American Samoa AQ AS ASM 016 .as Andorra AN AD AND 020 .ad Angola AO AO AGO 024 .ao Anguilla AV AI AIA 660 .ai Antarctica AY AQ ATA 010 .aq ISO defines as the territory south of 60 degrees south latitude

Antigua and Barbuda AC AG ATG 028 .ag Argentina AR AR ARG 032 .ar Armenia AM AM ARM 051 .am Aruba AA AW ABW 533 .aw Ashmore and Cartier Islands AT - - - - ISO includes with Australia

Australia AS AU AUS 036 .au ISO includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Coral Sea Islands

Austria AU AT AUT 040 .at Azerbaijan AJ AZ AZE 031 .az Bahamas, The BF BS BHS 044 .bs Bahrain BA BH BHR 048 .bh Baker Island FQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Bangladesh BG BD BGD 050 .bd Barbados BB BB BRB 052 .bb Bassas da India BS - - - - ISO includes with the Miscellaneous (French) Indian Ocean Islands

Belarus BO BY BLR 112 .by Belgium BE BE BEL 056 .be Belize BH BZ BLZ 084 .bz Benin BN BJ BEN 204 .bj Bermuda BD BM BMU 060 .bm Bhutan BT BT BTN 064 .bt Bolivia BL BO BOL 068 .bo Bosnia and Herzegovina BK BA BIH 070 .ba Botswana BC BW BWA 072 .bw Bouvet Island BV BV BVT 074 .bv Brazil BR BR BRA 076 .br British Indian Ocean Territory IO IO IOT 086 .io British Virgin Islands VI VG VGB 092 .vg Brunei BX BN BRN 096 .bn Bulgaria BU BG BGR 100 .bg Burkina Faso UV BF BFA 854 .bf Burma BM MM MMR 104 .mm ISO uses the name Myanmar

Burundi BY BI BDI 108 .bi Cambodia CB KH KHM 116 .kh Cameroon CM CM CMR 120 .cm Canada CA CA CAN 124 .ca Cape Verde CV CV CPV 132 .cv Cayman Islands CJ KY CYM 136 .ky Central African Republic CT CF CAF 140 .cf Chad CD TD TCD 148 .td Chile CI CL CHL 152 .cl China CH CN CHN 156 .cn see also Taiwan

Christmas Island KT CX CXR 162 .cx Clipperton Island IP - - - - ISO includes with French Polynesia

Cocos (Keeling) Islands CK CC CCK 166 .cc Colombia CO CO COL 170 .co Comoros CN KM COM 174 .km Congo, Democratic Republic of the CG CD COD 180 .cd formerly Zaire

Congo, Republic of the CF CG COG 178 .cg Cook Islands CW CK COK 184 .ck Coral Sea Islands CR - - - - ISO includes with Australia

Costa Rica CS CR CRI 188 .cr Cote d'Ivoire IV CI CIV 384 .ci Croatia HR HR HRV 191 .hr Cuba CU CU CUB 192 .cu Cyprus CY CY CYP 196 .cy Czech Republic EZ CZ CZE 203 .cz Denmark DA DK DNK 208 .dk Djibouti DJ DJ DJI 262 .dj Dominica DO DM DMA 212 .dm Dominican Republic DR DO DOM 214 .do East Timor TT TL TLS 626 .tp Ecuador EC EC ECU 218 .ec Egypt EG EG EGY 818 .eg El Salvador ES SV SLV 222 .sv Equatorial Guinea EK GQ GNQ 226 .gq Eritrea ER ER ERI 232 .er Estonia EN EE EST 233 .ee Ethiopia ET ET ETH 231 .et Europa Island EU - - - - ISO includes with the Miscellaneous (French) Indian Ocean Islands

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) FK FK FLK 238 .fk Faroe Islands FO FO FRO 234 .fo Fiji FJ FJ FJI 242 .fj Finland FI FI FIN 246 .fi France FR FR FRA 250 .fr France, Metropolitan - FX FXX 249 .fx ISO limits to the European part of France, excluding French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna

French Guiana FG GF GUF 254 .gf French Polynesia FP PF PYF 258 .pf ISO includes Clipperton Island

French Southern and Antarctic Lands FS TF ATF 260 .tf FIPS 10-4 does not include the French-claimed portion of Antarctica (Terre Adelie)

Gabon GB GA GAB 266 .ga Gambia, The GA GM GMB 270 .gm Gaza Strip GZ - - - - Georgia GG GE GEO 268 .ge Germany GM DE DEU 276 .de Ghana GH GH GHA 288 .gh Gibraltar GI GI GIB 292 .gi Glorioso Islands GO - - - - ISO includes with the Miscellaneous (French) Indian Ocean Islands

Greece GR GR GRC 300 .gr Greenland GL GL GRL 304 .gl Grenada GJ GD GRD 308 .gd Guadeloupe GP GP GLP 312 .gp Guam GQ GU GUM 316 .gu Guatemala GT GT GTM 320 .gt Guernsey GK - - - .gg ISO includes with the UK

Guinea GV GN GIN 324 .gn Guinea-Bissau PU GW GNB 624 .gw Guyana GY GY GUY 328 .gy Haiti HA HT HTI 332 .ht Heard Island and McDonald Islands HM HM HMD 334 .hm Holy See (Vatican City) VT VA VAT 336 .va Honduras HO HN HND 340 .hn Hong Kong HK HK HKG 344 .hk Howland Island HQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Hungary HU HU HUN 348 .hu Iceland IC IS ISL 352 .is India IN IN IND 356 .in Indonesia ID ID IDN 360 .id Iran IR IR IRN 364 .ir Iraq IZ IQ IRQ 368 .iq Ireland EI IE IRL 372 .ie Israel IS IL ISR 376 .il Italy IT IT ITA 380 .it Jamaica JM JM JAM 388 .jm Jan Mayen JN SJ SJM 744 - ISO includes with Svalbard

Japan JA JP JPN 392 .jp Jarvis Island DQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Jersey JE - - - .je ISO includes with the UK

Johnston Atoll JQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Jordan JO JO JOR 400 .jo Juan de Nova Island JU - - - - ISO includes with the Miscellaneous (French) Indian Ocean Islands

Kazakhstan KZ KZ KAZ 398 .kz Kenya KE KE KEN 404 .ke Kingman Reef KQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Kiribati KR KI KIR 296 .ki Korea, North KN KP PRK 408 .kp Korea, South KS KR KOR 410 .kr Kuwait KU KW KWT 414 .kw Kyrgyzstan KG KG KGZ 417 .kg Laos LA LA LAO 418 .la Latvia LG LV LVA 428 .lv Lebanon LE LB LBN 422 .lb Lesotho LT LS LSO 426 .ls Liberia LI LR LBR 430 .lr Libya LY LY LBY 434 .ly Liechtenstein LS LI LIE 438 .li Lithuania LH LT LTU 440 .lt Luxembourg LU LU LUX 442 .lu Macau MC MO MAC 446 .mo Macedonia, The Republic of MK MK MKD 807 .mk Madagascar MA MG MDG 450 .mg Malawi MI MW MWI 454 .mw Malaysia MY MY MYS 458 .my Maldives MV MV MDV 462 .mv Mali ML ML MLI 466 .ml Malta MT MT MLT 470 .mt Man, Isle of IM - - - .im ISO includes with the UK

Marshall Islands RM MH MHL 584 .mh Martinique MB MQ MTQ 474 .mq Mauritania MR MR MRT 478 .mr Mauritius MP MU MUS 480 .mu Mayotte MF YT MYT 175 .yt Mexico MX MX MEX 484 .mx Micronesia, Federated States of FM FM FSM 583 .fm Midway Islands MQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Miscellaneous (French) Indian Ocean Islands - - - - - ISO includes Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Tromelin Island

Moldova MD MD MDA 498 .md Monaco MN MC MCO 492 .mc Mongolia MG MN MNG 496 .mn Montserrat MH MS MSR 500 .ms Morocco MO MA MAR 504 .ma Mozambique MZ MZ MOZ 508 .mz Myanmar - - - - - see Burma

Namibia WA NA NAM 516 .na Nauru NR NR NRU 520 .nr Navassa Island BQ - - - - Nepal NP NP NPL 524 .np Netherlands NL NL NLD 528 .nl Netherlands Antilles NT AN ANT 530 .an New Caledonia NC NC NCL 540 .nc New Zealand NZ NZ NZL 554 .nz Nicaragua NU NI NIC 558 .ni Niger NG NE NER 562 .ne Nigeria NI NG NGA 566 .ng Niue NE NU NIU 570 .nu Norfolk Island NF NF NFK 574 .nf Northern Mariana Islands CQ MP MNP 580 .mp Norway NO NO NOR 578 .no Oman MU OM OMN 512 .om Pakistan PK PK PAK 586 .pk Palau PS PW PLW 585 .pw Palmyra Atoll LQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Panama PM PA PAN 591 .pa Papua New Guinea PP PG PNG 598 .pg Paracel Islands PF - - - - Paraguay PA PY PRY 600 .py Peru PE PE PER 604 .pe Philippines RP PH PHL 608 .ph Pitcairn Islands PC PN PCN 612 .pn Poland PL PL POL 616 .pl Portugal PO PT PRT 620 .pt Puerto Rico RQ PR PRI 630 .pr Qatar QA QA QAT 634 .qa Reunion RE RE REU 638 .re Romania RO RO ROU 642 .ro Russia RS RU RUS 643 .ru Rwanda RW RW RWA 646 .rw Saint Helena SH SH SHN 654 .sh Saint Kitts and Nevis SC KN KNA 659 .kn Saint Lucia ST LC LCA 662 .lc Saint Pierre and Miquelon SB PM SPM 666 .pm Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VC VC VCT 670 .vc Samoa WS WS WSM 882 .ws San Marino SM SM SMR 674 .sm Sao Tome and Principe TP ST STP 678 .st Saudi Arabia SA SA SAU 682 .sa Senegal SG SN SEN 686 .sn Serbia and Montenegro YI CS SCG 891 .yu Seychelles SE SC SYC 690 .sc Sierra Leone SL SL SLE 694 .sl Singapore SN SG SGP 702 .sg Slovakia LO SK SVK 703 .sk Slovenia SI SI SVN 705 .si Solomon Islands BP SB SLB 090 .sb Somalia SO SO SOM 706 .so South Africa SF ZA ZAF 710 .za South Georgia and the Islands SX GS SGS 239 .gs Spain SP ES ESP 724 .es Spratly Islands PG - - - - Sri Lanka CE LK LKA 144 .lk Sudan SU SD SDN 736 .sd Suriname NS SR SUR 740 .sr Svalbard SV SJ SJM 744 .sj ISO includes Jan Mayen

Swaziland WZ SZ SWZ 748 .sz Sweden SW SE SWE 752 .se Switzerland SZ CH CHE 756 .ch Syria SY SY SYR 760 .sy Taiwan TW TW TWN 158 .tw Tajikistan TI TJ TJK 762 .tj Tanzania TZ TZ TZA 834 .tz Thailand TH TH THA 764 .th Togo TO TG TGO 768 .tg Tokelau TL TK TKL 772 .tk Tonga TN TO TON 776 .to Trinidad and Tobago TD TT TTO 780 .tt Tromelin Island TE - - - - ISO includes with the Miscellaneous Islands

Tunisia TS TN TUN 788 .tn Turkey TU TR TUR 792 .tr Turkmenistan TX TM TKM 795 .tm Turks and Caicos Islands TK TC TCA 796 .tc Tuvalu TV TV TUV 798 .tv Uganda UG UG UGA 800 .ug Ukraine UP UA UKR 804 .ua United Arab Emirates AE AE ARE 784 .ae United Kingdom UK GB GBR 826 .uk ISO includes Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey

United States US US USA 840 .us United States Minor Outlying Islands - UM UMI 581 .um ISO includes Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Wake Island

Uruguay UY UY URY 858 .uy Uzbekistan UZ UZ UZB 860 .uz Vanuatu NH VU VUT 548 .vu Venezuela VE VE VEN 862 .ve Vietnam VM VN VNM 704 .vn Virgin Islands VQ VI VIR 850 .vi Virgin Islands (UK) VI VG VGB 092 .vg see British Virgin Islands

Virgin Islands (US) VQ VI VIR 850 .vi see Virgin Islands

Wake Island WQ UM UMI 581 - ISO includes with the US Minor Outlying Islands

Wallis and Futuna WF WF WLF 876 .wf West Bank WE - - - - Western Sahara WI EH ESH 732 .eh Western Samoa - - - - .ws see Samoa

World - - - - - the Factbook uses the W data code from DIAM 65-18 Geopolitical Data Elements and Related Features, Data Standard No. 3, December 1994, published by the Defense Intelligence Agency

Yemen YM YE YEM 887 .ye Zaire - - - - - see Democratic Republic of the Congo

Zambia ZA ZM ZWB 894 .zm Zimbabwe ZI ZW ZWE 716 .zw

This page was last updated on 9 December, 2004



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Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

IHO 23-4th: Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special Publication 23, Draft 4th Edition 1986, published by the International Hydrographic Bureau of the International Hydrographic Organization

IHO 23-3rd: Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special Publication 23, 3rd Edition 1953, published by the International Hydrographic Organization

ACIC M 49-1: Chart of Limits of Seas and Oceans, revised January 1958, published by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC), United States Air Force; note - ACIC is now part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA)

DIAM 65-18: Geopolitical Data Elements and Related Features, Data Standard No. 4, Defense Intelligence Agency Manual 65-18, December 1994, published by the Defense Intelligence Agency

The US Government has not yet adopted a standard for hydrographic codes similar to the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 10-4 country codes. The names and limits of the following oceans and seas are not always directly comparable because of differences in the customers, needs, and requirements of the individual organizations. Even the number of principal water bodies varies from organization to organization. Factbook users, for example, find the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean entries useful, but none of the following standards include those oceans in their entirety. Nor is there any provision for combining codes or overcodes to aggregate water bodies. The recently delimited Southern Ocean is not included.

Principal Oceans and Seas of the World With Hydrographic Codes by Institution

IHO 23-4th IHO 23-3rd* ACIC M 49-1 DIAM 65-18

Arctic Ocean 9 17 A 5A Atlantic Ocean - - - - North Atlantic Ocean 1 23 B 1A South Atlantic Ocean 4 32 C 2A Baltic Sea 2 1 B26 7B Indian Ocean 5 45 F 6A Mediterranean Sea 3.1 28 B11 - Eastern Mediterranean 3.1.2 28 B - 8E Western Mediterranean 3.1.1 28 A - 8W Pacific Ocean - - - - North Pacific Ocean 7 57 D 3A South Pacific Ocean 8 61 E 4A South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas 6 49, 48 D18 plus 3U plus others others

*The letters after the numbers are subdivisions, not footnotes.



This page was last updated on 9 December, 2004



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Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Name Entry in The World Latitude Longitude Factbook (deg min) (deg min)

Abidjan (capital) Cote d'Ivoire 5 19 N 4 02 W Abkhazia (region) Georgia 43 00 N 41 00 E Abu Dhabi (capital) United Arab 24 28 N 54 22 E Emirates Abu Musa (island) Iran 25 52 N 55 03 E Abuja (capital) Nigeria 9 12 N 7 11 E Abyssinia (former name for Ethiopia 8 00 N 38 00 E Ethiopia) Acapulco (city) Mexico 16 51 N 99 55 W Accra (capital) Ghana 5 33 N 0 13 W Adamstown (capital) Pitcairn Islands 25 04 S 130 05 W Addis Ababa (capital) Ethiopia 9 02 N 38 42 E Adelie Land (claimed by Antarctica 66 30 S 139 00 E France; also Terre Adelie) Aden (city) Yemen 12 46 N 45 01 E Aden, Gulf of Indian Ocean 12 30 N 48 00 E Admiralty Island United States 57 44 N 134 20 W (Alaska) Admiralty Islands Papua New Guinea 2 10 S 147 00 E Adriatic Sea Atlantic Ocean 42 30 N 16 00 E Adygey (region) Russia 44 30 N 40 10 E Aegean Islands Greece 38 00 N 25 00 E Aegean Sea Atlantic Ocean 38 30 N 25 00 E Afars and Issas, French Djibouti 11 30 N 43 00 E Territory of the (or FTAI; former name for Djibouti) Afghanestan (local name for Afghanistan 33 00 N 65 00 E Afghanistan) Agalega Islands Mauritius 10 25 S 56 40 E Agana (city; former name for Guam 13 28 N 144 45 E Hagatna) Ajaccio (city) France (Corsica) 41 55 N 8 44 E Ajaria (region) Georgia 41 45 N 42 10 E Akmola (city; former name for Kazakhstan 51 10 N 71 30 E Astana) Aksai Chin (region) China (de facto), 35 00 N 79 00 E India (claimed) Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah Saudi Arabia 25 00 N 45 00 E (local name for Saudi Arabia) Al Bahrayn (local name for Bahrain 26 00 N 50 33 E Bahrain) Al Imarat al Arabiyah al United Arab 24 00 N 54 00 E Muttahidah (local name for Emirates the United Arab Emirates) Al Iraq (local name for Iraq) Iraq 33 00 N 44 00 E Al Jaza'ir (local name for Algeria 28 00 N 3 00 E Algeria) Al Kuwayt (local name for Kuwait 29 30 N 45 45 E Kuwait) Al Maghrib (local name for Morocco 32 00 N 5 00 W Morocco) Al Urdun (local name for Jordan 31 00 N 36 00 E Jordan) Al Yaman (local name for Yemen 15 00 N 48 00 E Yemen) Aland Islands Finland 60 15 N 20 00 E Alaska (state) United States 65 00 N 153 00 W Alaska, Gulf of Pacific Ocean 58 00 N 145 00 W Alboran Sea Atlantic Ocean 36 00 N 2 30 W Aldabra Islands (Groupe Seychelles 9 25 S 46 22 E d'Aldabra) Alderney (island) Guernsey 49 43 N 2 12 W Aleutian Islands United States 52 00 N 176 00 W (Alaska) Alexander Archipelago (island United States 57 00 N 134 00 W group) (Alaska) Alexander Island Antarctica 71 00 S 70 00 W Alexandretta (region; former Turkey 36 34 N 36 08 E name for Iskenderun) Alexandria (city) Egypt 31 12 N 29 54 E Algiers (capital) Algeria 36 47 N 2 03 E Alhucemas, Penon de (island Spain 35 13 N 3 53 W group) Alma-Ata (city; former name Kazakhstan 43 15 N 76 57 E for Almaty) Almaty (former capital) Kazakhstan 43 15 N 76 57 E Alofi (capital) Niue 19 01 S 169 55 W Alphonse Island Seychelles 7 01 S 52 45 E Alsace (region) France 48 30 N 7 20 E Amami Strait Pacific Ocean 28 40 N 129 30 E Amindivi Islands (former name India 11 30 N 72 30 E for Laccadive Islands) Amirante Isles (island group; Seychelles 6 00 S 53 10 E also Les Amirantes) Amman (capital) Jordan 31 57 N 35 56 E Amsterdam (capital) Netherlands 52 23 N 4 54 E Amsterdam Island (Ile French Southern and 37 52 S 77 32 E Amsterdam) Antarctic Lands Amundsen Sea Southern Ocean 72 30 S 112 00 W Amur River China, Russia 52 56 N 141 10 E Amurskiy Liman (strait) Pacific Ocean 53 00 N 141 30 E Anadyrskiy Zaliv (gulf) Pacific Ocean 64 00 N 177 00 E Anatolia (region) Turkey 39 00 N 35 00 E Andaman Islands India 12 00 N 92 45 E Andaman Sea Indian Ocean 10 00 N 95 00 E Andorra la Vella (capital) Andorra 42 30 N 1 30 E Andros (island) Greece 37 45 N 24 42 E Andros Island The Bahamas 24 26 N 77 57 W Anegada Passage Atlantic Ocean 18 30 N 63 40 W Angkor Wat (ruins) Cambodia 13 26 N 103 50 E Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (former Sudan 15 00 N 30 00 E name for Sudan) Anjouan (island) Comoros 12 15 S 44 25 E Ankara (capital) Turkey 39 56 N 32 52 E Annobon (island) Equatorial Guinea 1 25 S 5 36 E Antananarivo (capital) Madagascar 18 52 S 47 30 E Antigua (island) Antigua and Barbuda 14 34 N 90 44 W Antipodes Islands New Zealand 49 41 S 178 43 E Antwerp (city) Belgium 51 13 N 4 25 E Aomen (local Chinese short- Macau 22 10 N 113 33 E form name for Macau) Aozou Strip (region) Chad 22 00 N 18 00 E Apia (capital) Samoa 13 50 S 171 45W Aqaba, Gulf of Indian Ocean 29 00 N 34 30 E Arab, Shatt al (river) Iran, Iraq 29 57 N 48 34 E Arabian Sea Indian Ocean 15 00 N 65 00 E Arafura Sea Pacific Ocean 9 00 S 133 00 E Aral Sea Kazakhstan, 45 00 N 60 00 E Uzbekistan Argun River China, Russia 53 20 N 121 28 E Aru Sea Pacific Ocean 6 15 S 135 00 E Ascension Island Saint Helena 7 57 S 14 22 W Ashgabat (capital) Turkmenistan 37 57 N 58 23 E Ashkhabad (see Ashgabat) Turkmenistan 37 57 N 58 23 E Asmara (capital) Eritrea 15 20 N 38 53 E Asmera (see Asmara) Eritrea 15 20 N 38 53 E As-Sudan (local name for Sudan 15 00 N 30 00 E Sudan) Assumption Island Seychelles 9 46 S 46 34 E Astana (capital; formerly Kazakhstan 51 10 N 71 30 E Akmola) Asuncion (capital) Paraguay 25 16 S 57 40 W Asuncion Island Northern Mariana 19 40 N 145 24 E Islands Atacama (desert) Chile 23 00 S 70 10 W Atacama (region) Chile 24 30 S 69 15 W Athens (capital) Greece 37 59 N 23 44 E Attu Island United States 52 55 N 172 57 E Auckland Islands New Zealand 51 00 S 166 30 E Australes, Iles (island French Polynesia 23 20 S 151 00 W group; also Iles Tubuai) Avarua (capital) Cook Islands 21 12 S 159 46 W Axel Heiberg Island Canada 79 30 N 90 00 W Azad Kashmir (region) Pakistan 34 30 N 74 00 E Azarbaycan (local name for Azerbaijan 40 30 N 47 30 E Azerbaijan) Azerbaidzhan (local name for Azerbaijan 40 30 N 47 30 E Azerbaijan) Azores (islands) Portugal 38 30 N 28 00 W Azov, Sea of Atlantic Ocean 49 00 N 36 00 E

This page was last updated on 9 December, 2004



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