The 2004 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Peru general assessment: adequate for most requirements domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable

Philippines general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations international: country code - 63; 9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan

Pitcairn Islands general assessment: only party line telephone service is available for this small, closely related community domestic: party line service only international: country code - 672; satellite earth station (Inmarsat)

Poland general assessment: underdeveloped and outmoded system in the process of being overhauled; partial privatization of the state-owned telephone monopoly is underway; the long waiting list for main line telephone service has resulted in a boom in mobile cellular telephone use domestic: cable, open-wire, and microwave radio relay; 3 cellular networks; local exchanges 56.6% digital international: country code - 48; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, 2 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Portugal general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53% domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations international: country code - 351; 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned

Puerto Rico general assessment: modern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service international: country code - 1-787, 939; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US

Qatar general assessment: modern system centered in Doha domestic: NA international: country code - 974; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Reunion general assessment: adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis domestic: modern open-wire and microwave radio relay network international: country code - 262; radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC/SAFE) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Romania general assessment: poor domestic service, but improving domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service international: country code - 40; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)

Russia general assessment: the telephone system underwent significant changes in the 1990s; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; however, a large demand for main line service remains unsatisfied domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density international: country code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by three undersea fiber-optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems

Rwanda general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)

Saint Helena general assessment: can communicate worldwide domestic: automatic network international: country code - 290; HF radiotelephone from Saint Helena to Ascension Island, which is a major coaxial submarine cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Saint Kitts and Nevis general assessment: good interisland and international connections domestic: inter-island links to Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) are handled by VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone international: country code - 1-869; international calls are carried by radiotelephone to Antigua and Barbuda and switched there to submarine cable or to Intelsat; or carried to Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) by radiotelephone and switched to Intelsat

Saint Lucia general assessment: adequate system domestic: system is automatically switched international: country code - 1-758; direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados; international calls beyond these countries are carried by Intelsat from Martinique

Saint Pierre and Miquelon general assessment: adequate domestic: NA international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines general assessment: adequate system domestic: islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines international: country code - 1-784; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; new SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and to Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia

Samoa general assessment: adequate domestic: NA international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

San Marino general assessment: adequate connections domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network

Sao Tome and Principe general assessment: adequate facilities domestic: minimal system international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Saudi Arabia general assessment: modern system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems international: country code - 966; microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Senegal general assessment: good system domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system international: country code - 221; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Serbia and Montenegro general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 381; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Seychelles general assessment: effective system domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Sierra Leone general assessment: marginal telephone and telegraph service domestic: the national microwave radio relay trunk system connects Freetown to Bo and Kenema international: country code - 232; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Singapore general assessment: excellent service domestic: excellent domestic facilities international: country code - 65; submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Slovakia general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added international: country code - 421; three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services

Slovenia general assessment: NA domestic: 100% digital (2000) international: country code - 386

Solomon Islands general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 677; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Somalia general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; private wireless companies offer service in most major cities and charge the lowest international rates on the continent domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite

South Africa general assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern in Africa domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria international: country code - 27; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken

Spain general assessment: generally adequate, modern facilities; teledensity is 44 main lines for each 100 persons domestic: NA international: country code - 34; 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Sri Lanka general assessment: very inadequate domestic service, particularly in rural areas; likely improvement with privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service (1999) domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems; telephone density remains low at 2.6 main lines per 100 persons (1999) international: country code - 94; submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (1999)

Sudan general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)

Suriname general assessment: international facilities are good domestic: microwave radio relay network international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Svalbard general assessment: probably adequate domestic: local telephone service international: country code - 47-790; satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)

Swaziland general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Sweden general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels international: country code - 46; 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Switzerland general assessment: excellent domestic and international services domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks international: country code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean)

Syria general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network international: country code - 963; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel

Taiwan general assessment: provides telecommunications service for every business and private need domestic: thoroughly modern; completely digitalized international: country code - 886; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); submarine cables to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe (1999)

Tajikistan general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network domestic: cable and microwave radio relay international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat

Tanzania general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction domestic: trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Thailand general assessment: service to general public adequate, but investment in technological upgrades reduced by recession; bulk of service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and microwave radio relay network domestic: microwave radio relay and multichannel cable; domestic satellite system being developed international: country code - 66; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Togo general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie

Tokelau general assessment: adequate domestic: radiotelephone service between islands international: country code - 690; radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok), with 3 satellite earth stations, established in 1997

Tonga general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (1996)

Trinidad and Tobago general assessment: excellent international service; good local service domestic: NA international: country code - 1-868; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana

Tunisia general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available domestic: trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay international: country code - 216; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; two international gateway digital switches

Turkey general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially with cellular telephones domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)

Turkmenistan general assessment: poorly developed domestic: NA international: country code - 993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat

Turks and Caicos Islands general assessment: fair cable and radiotelephone services domestic: NA international: country code - 1-649; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Tuvalu general assessment: serves particular needs for internal communications domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands international: country code - 688

Uganda general assessment: seriously inadequate; two cellular systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase in the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short-range traffic international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania

Ukraine general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile cellular system domestic: at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is now rising slowly and the domestic trunk system is being improved; the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding at a high rate international: country code - 380; two new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems

United Arab Emirates general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber optic and coaxial cable international: country code - 971; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia

United Kingdom general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems international: country code - 44; 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers

United States general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country international: country code - 1; 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2000)

Uruguay general assessment: fully digitalized domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network international: country code - 598; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2002)

Uzbekistan general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent (Toshkent) and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System) international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)

Vanuatu general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 678; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Venezuela general assessment: modern and expanding domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services international: country code - 58; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network

Vietnam general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly international: country code - 84; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Virgin Islands general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay international: country code - 1-340; submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite earth stations - NA

Wake Island general assessment: satellite communications; 1 DSN circuit off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS) domestic: NA international: NA

Wallis and Futuna general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 681

West Bank general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: NA note: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for communication services in the West Bank

Western Sahara general assessment: sparse and limited system domestic: NA international: country code - 212; tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat, Morocco

World general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: NA

Yemen general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems international: country code - 967; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Zambia general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Zimbabwe general assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005


@2125 Terrain

Afghanistan mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Albania mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Algeria mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

American Samoa five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Andorra rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Angola narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Anguilla flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Antarctica about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

Antigua and Barbuda mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas

Arctic Ocean central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Argentina rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Armenia Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Aruba flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Ashmore and Cartier Islands low with sand and coral

Atlantic Ocean surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Australia mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Austria in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Azerbaijan large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Bahamas, The long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Bahrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Baker Island low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Bangladesh mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Barbados relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Bassas da India volcanic rock

Belarus generally flat and contains much marshland

Belgium flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Belize flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Benin mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Bermuda low hills separated by fertile depressions

Bhutan mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Bolivia rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Bosnia and Herzegovina mountains and valleys

Botswana predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest

Bouvet Island volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible

Brazil mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

British Indian Ocean Territory flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)

British Virgin Islands coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Brunei flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Bulgaria mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Burkina Faso mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast

Burma central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Burundi hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Cambodia mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Cameroon diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Canada mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Cape Verde steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Cayman Islands low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Central African Republic vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest

Chad broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Chile low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

China mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east

Christmas Island steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Clipperton Island coral atoll

Cocos (Keeling) Islands flat, low-lying coral atolls

Colombia flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Comoros volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Congo, Democratic Republic of the vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Congo, Republic of the coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

Cook Islands low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Coral Sea Islands sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Costa Rica coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes

Cote d'Ivoire mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Croatia geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Cuba mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast

Cyprus central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Czech Republic Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Denmark low and flat to gently rolling plains

Djibouti coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Dominica rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Dominican Republic rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed

East Timor mountainous

Ecuador coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Egypt vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

El Salvador mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Equatorial Guinea coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Eritrea dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Estonia marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south

Ethiopia high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley

Europa Island low and flat

European Union fairly flat along the Baltic and Atlantic coast; mountainous in the central and southern areas

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Faroe Islands rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Fiji mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Finland mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

France mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

French Guiana low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

French Polynesia mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

French Southern and Antarctic Lands volcanic

Gabon narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south

Gambia, The flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

Gaza Strip flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain

Georgia largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Germany lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Ghana mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Gibraltar a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Glorioso Islands low and flat

Greece mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Greenland flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast

Grenada volcanic in origin with central mountains

Guadeloupe Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin

Guam volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water), with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low hills in center, mountains in south

Guatemala mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau (Peten)

Guernsey mostly level with low hills in southwest

Guinea generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Guinea-Bissau mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east

Guyana mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south

Haiti mostly rough and mountainous

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island - 80% ice-covered, bleak and mountainous, dominated by a large massif (Big Ben) and an active volcano (Mawson Peak); McDonald Islands - small and rocky

Holy See (Vatican City) low hill

Honduras mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Hong Kong hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Howland Island low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Hungary mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Iceland mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

India upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Indian Ocean surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninetyeast Ridge

Indonesia mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Iran rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Iraq mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey

Ireland mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Israel Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

Italy mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Jamaica mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Jan Mayen volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers

Japan mostly rugged and mountainous

Jarvis Island sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Jersey gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Johnston Atoll mostly flat

Jordan mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Juan de Nova Island low and flat

Kazakhstan extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia

Kenya low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

Kingman Reef low and nearly level

Kiribati mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Korea, North mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Korea, South mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south

Kuwait flat to slightly undulating desert plain

Kyrgyzstan peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation

Laos mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus

Latvia low plain

Lebanon narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Lesotho mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains

Liberia mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low mountains in northeast

Libya mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions

Liechtenstein mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Lithuania lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Luxembourg mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Macau generally flat

Macedonia mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Madagascar narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Malawi narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains

Malaysia coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Maldives flat, with white sandy beaches

Mali mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Malta mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs

Man, Isle of hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Marshall Islands low coral limestone and sand islands

Martinique mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Mauritania mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Mauritius small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central plateau

Mayotte generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks

Mexico high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Micronesia, Federated States of islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Chuuk

Midway Islands low, nearly level

Moldova rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Monaco hilly, rugged, rocky

Mongolia vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Montserrat volcanic island, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland

Morocco northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Mozambique mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Namibia mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east

Nauru sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center

Navassa Island raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 m high)

Nepal Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Netherlands mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast

Netherlands Antilles generally hilly, volcanic interiors

New Caledonia coastal plains with interior mountains

New Zealand predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Nicaragua extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Niger predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north

Nigeria southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Niue steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Norfolk Island volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Northern Mariana Islands southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic

Norway glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Oman central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south

Pacific Ocean surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the northern Pacific, sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in winter; in the southern Pacific, sea ice from Antarctica reaches its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the Mariana Trench, which is the world's deepest

Pakistan flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Palau varying geologically from the high, mountainous main island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier reefs

Palmyra Atoll very low

Panama interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Papua New Guinea mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Paracel Islands mostly low and flat

Paraguay grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Peru western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Philippines mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Pitcairn Islands rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Poland mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Portugal mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Puerto Rico mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas

Qatar mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Reunion mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Romania central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Russia broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

Rwanda mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east

Saint Helena Saint Helena - rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains note: the other islands of the group have a volcanic origin

Saint Kitts and Nevis volcanic with mountainous interiors

Saint Lucia volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Saint Pierre and Miquelon mostly barren rock

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines volcanic, mountainous

Samoa two main islands (Savaii, Upolu) and several smaller islands and uninhabited islets; narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior

San Marino rugged mountains

Sao Tome and Principe volcanic, mountainous

Saudi Arabia mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Senegal generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Serbia and Montenegro extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Seychelles Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Sierra Leone coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east

Singapore lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve

Slovakia rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Slovenia a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Solomon Islands mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Somalia mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

South Africa vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes

Southern Ocean the Southern Ocean is deep, 4,000 to 5,000 meters over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the Antarctic continental shelf is generally narrow and unusually deep, its edge lying at depths of 400 to 800 meters (the global mean is 133 meters); the Antarctic icepack grows from an average minimum of 2.6 million square kilometers in March to about 18.8 million square kilometers in September, better than a sixfold increase in area; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (21,000 km in length) moves perpetually eastward; it is the world's largest ocean current, transporting 130 million cubic meters of water per second - 100 times the flow of all the world's rivers

Spain large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north

Spratly Islands flat

Sri Lanka mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior

Sudan generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north

Suriname mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Svalbard wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts

Swaziland mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Sweden mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Switzerland mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Syria primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

Taiwan eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west

Tajikistan Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Tanzania plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Thailand central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere

Togo gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Tokelau low-lying coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

Tonga most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Trinidad and Tobago mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Tromelin Island low, flat, and sandy; likely volcanic

Tunisia mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara

Turkey high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Turkmenistan flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

Turks and Caicos Islands low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Tuvalu very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Uganda mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Ukraine most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south

United Arab Emirates flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

United Kingdom mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast

United States vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Uruguay mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Uzbekistan mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Vanuatu mostly mountainous islands of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Venezuela Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

Vietnam low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

Virgin Islands mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land

Wake Island atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim

Wallis and Futuna volcanic origin; low hills

West Bank mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in east

Western Sahara mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

World the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in the Pacific Ocean

Yemen narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Zambia mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Zimbabwe mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005


@2127 Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

Afghanistan 6.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Albania 2.05 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Algeria 2.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)

American Samoa 3.41 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Andorra 1.28 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Angola 6.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Anguilla 1.74 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Antigua and Barbuda 2.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Argentina 2.24 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Armenia 1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Aruba 1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Australia 1.76 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Austria 1.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Azerbaijan 2.39 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bahamas, The 2.23 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bahrain 2.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bangladesh 3.15 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Barbados 1.65 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Belarus 1.36 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Belgium 1.64 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Belize 3.77 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Benin 5.95 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bermuda 1.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bhutan 4.87 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bolivia 3.08 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.71 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Botswana 3.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Brazil 1.97 children born/woman (2004 est.)

British Virgin Islands 1.72 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Brunei 2.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Bulgaria 1.37 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Burkina Faso 6.28 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Burma 2.08 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Burundi 5.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cambodia 3.51 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cameroon 4.55 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Canada 1.61 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cape Verde 3.62 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cayman Islands 1.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Central African Republic 4.59 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Chad 6.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Chile 2.06 children born/woman (2004 est.)

China 1.69 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Christmas Island NA children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA children born/woman (2004 est.)

Colombia 2.59 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Comoros 5.15 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the 6.62 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Congo, Republic of the 3.54 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cook Islands NA children born/woman (2004 est.)

Costa Rica 2.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cote d'Ivoire 5.42 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Croatia 1.39 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cuba 1.66 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Cyprus 1.85 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Czech Republic 1.18 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Denmark 1.74 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Djibouti 5.48 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Dominica 1.98 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Dominican Republic 2.89 children born/woman (2004 est.)

East Timor 3.7 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Ecuador 2.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Egypt 2.95 children born/woman (2004 est.)

El Salvador 3.2 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Equatorial Guinea 4.68 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Eritrea 5.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Estonia 1.39 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Ethiopia 5.44 children born/woman (2004 est.)

European Union 1.48 children born/woman (July 2004 est.)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA children born/woman (2004 est.)

Faroe Islands 2.22 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Fiji 2.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Finland 1.73 children born/woman (2004 est.)

France 1.85 children born/woman (2004 est.)

French Guiana 3.05 children born/woman (2004 est.)

French Polynesia 2.09 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Gabon 4.8 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Gambia, The 5.46 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Gaza Strip 6.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Georgia 1.4 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Germany 1.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Ghana 3.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Gibraltar 1.65 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Greece 1.32 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Greenland 2.42 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Grenada 2.41 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Guadeloupe 1.91 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Guam 2.61 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Guatemala 4.6 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Guernsey 1.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Guinea 5.87 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Guinea-Bissau 5 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Guyana 2.06 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Haiti 4.76 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Honduras 3.97 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Hong Kong 0.91 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Hungary 1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Iceland 1.93 children born/woman (2004 est.)

India 2.85 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Indonesia 2.47 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Iran 1.93 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Iraq 4.4 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Ireland 1.87 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Israel 2.47 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Italy 1.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Jamaica 1.98 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Japan 1.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Jersey 1.57 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Jordan 2.86 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Kazakhstan 1.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Kenya 3.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Kiribati 4.24 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Korea, North 2.2 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Korea, South 1.56 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Kuwait 3.03 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Kyrgyzstan 2.71 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Laos 4.86 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Latvia 1.25 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Lebanon 1.95 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Lesotho 3.44 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Liberia 6.16 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Libya 3.42 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Liechtenstein 1.51 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Lithuania 1.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Luxembourg 1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Macau 0.93 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Macedonia 1.74 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Madagascar 5.7 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Malawi 6.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Malaysia 3.1 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Maldives 5.14 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Mali 6.58 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Malta 1.49 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Man, Isle of 1.65 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Marshall Islands 4.02 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Martinique 1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Mauritania 6.01 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Mauritius 1.97 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Mayotte 5.98 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Mexico 2.49 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Micronesia, Federated States of 3.37 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Moldova 1.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Monaco 1.76 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Mongolia 2.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Montserrat 1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Morocco 2.81 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Mozambique 4.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Namibia 4.65 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Nauru 3.29 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Nepal 4.29 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Netherlands 1.66 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Netherlands Antilles 2.02 children born/woman (2004 est.)

New Caledonia 2.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)

New Zealand 1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Nicaragua 2.89 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Niger 6.83 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Nigeria 5.32 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Niue NA children born/woman (2004 est.)

Norfolk Island NA children born/woman (2004 est.)

Northern Mariana Islands 1.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Norway 1.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Oman 5.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Pakistan 4.29 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Palau 2.46 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Panama 2.49 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Papua New Guinea 4.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Paraguay 3.98 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Peru 2.61 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Philippines 3.22 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Pitcairn Islands NA children born/woman

Poland 1.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Portugal 1.46 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Puerto Rico 1.91 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Qatar 2.95 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Reunion 2.5 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Romania 1.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Russia 1.26 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Rwanda 5.55 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Saint Helena 1.54 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Saint Kitts and Nevis 2.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Saint Lucia 2.25 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Saint Pierre and Miquelon 2.05 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Samoa 3.11 children born/woman (2004 est.)

San Marino 1.32 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Sao Tome and Principe 5.8 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Saudi Arabia 4.11 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Senegal 4.84 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Serbia and Montenegro 1.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Seychelles 1.77 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Sierra Leone 5.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Singapore 1.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Slovakia 1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Slovenia 1.23 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Solomon Islands 4.19 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Somalia 6.91 children born/woman (2004 est.)

South Africa 2.18 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Spain 1.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Sri Lanka 1.88 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Sudan 4.97 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Suriname 2.37 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Svalbard NA children born/woman

Swaziland 3.81 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Sweden 1.66 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Switzerland 1.42 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Syria 3.61 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Taiwan 1.57 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Tajikistan 4.11 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Tanzania 5.15 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Thailand 1.89 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Togo 4.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Tokelau NA children born/woman

Tonga 3 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Trinidad and Tobago 1.77 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Tunisia 1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Turkey 1.98 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Turkmenistan 3.45 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Turks and Caicos Islands 3.11 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Tuvalu 3.02 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Uganda 6.64 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Ukraine 1.37 children born/woman (2004 est.)

United Arab Emirates 3.02 children born/woman (2004 est.)

United Kingdom 1.66 children born/woman (2004 est.)

United States 2.07 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Uruguay 1.96 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Uzbekistan 2.97 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Vanuatu 2.87 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Venezuela 2.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Vietnam 2.22 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Virgin Islands 2.21 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Wallis and Futuna NA children born/woman

West Bank 4.52 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Western Sahara NA children born/woman

World 2.62 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Yemen 6.75 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Zambia 5.14 children born/woman (2004 est.)

Zimbabwe 3.6 children born/woman (2004 est.)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005


@2128 Government type

Afghanistan Islamic republic

Albania emerging democracy

Algeria republic

American Samoa NA

Andorra parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives

Angola republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

Anguilla NA

Antarctica Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 26th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Madrid, Spain in June 2003; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the end of 2003, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 18 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999); Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, and 5) area protection and management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research

Antigua and Barbuda constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Argentina republic

Armenia republic

Aruba parliamentary democracy

Australia democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign

Austria federal republic

Azerbaijan republic

Bahamas, The constitutional parliamentary democracy

Bahrain constitutional hereditary monarchy

Bangladesh parliamentary democracy

Barbados parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth

Belarus republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship

Belgium federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch

Belize parliamentary democracy

Benin republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Bermuda parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government

Bhutan monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Bolivia republic

Bosnia and Herzegovina emerging federal democratic republic

Botswana parliamentary republic

Brazil federative republic

British Virgin Islands NA

Brunei constitutional sultanate

Bulgaria parliamentary democracy

Burkina Faso parliamentary republic

Burma military junta

Burundi republic

Cambodia multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993

Cameroon unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990) note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Canada confederation with parliamentary democracy

Cape Verde republic

Cayman Islands British crown colony

Central African Republic republic

Chad republic

Chile republic

China Communist state

Christmas Island NA

Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA

Colombia republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Comoros independent republic

Congo, Democratic Republic of the dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative government

Congo, Republic of the republic

Cook Islands self-governing parliamentary democracy

Costa Rica democratic republic

Cote d'Ivoire republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Croatia presidential/parliamentary democracy

Cuba Communist state

Cyprus republic note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek junta-supported coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a bizonal, bicommunal federation.

Czech Republic parliamentary democracy

Denmark constitutional monarchy

Djibouti republic

Dominica parliamentary democracy; republic within the Commonwealth

Dominican Republic representative democracy

East Timor Republic

Ecuador republic

Egypt republic

El Salvador republic

Equatorial Guinea republic

Eritrea transitional government note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections had been scheduled in December 2001, but were postponed indefinitely; currently the sole legal party is the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ)

Estonia parliamentary republic

Ethiopia federal republic

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA

Faroe Islands NA

Fiji republic note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Finland republic

France republic

French Guiana NA

French Polynesia NA

Gabon republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990)

Gambia, The republic under multiparty democratic rule

Georgia republic

Germany federal republic

Ghana constitutional democracy

Gibraltar NA

Greece parliamentary republic; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Greenland parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy

Grenada constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style parliament

Guadeloupe NA

Guam NA

Guatemala constitutional democratic republic

Guernsey NA

Guinea republic

Guinea-Bissau republic, multiparty since mid-1991

Guyana republic within the Commonwealth

Haiti elected government

Holy See (Vatican City) ecclesiastical

Honduras democratic constitutional republic

Hong Kong limited democracy

Hungary parliamentary democracy

Iceland constitutional republic

India federal republic

Indonesia republic

Iran theocratic republic

Iraq none; note - the Iraqi Interim Government (IG) was appointed on 1 June 2004

Ireland republic

Israel parliamentary democracy

Italy republic

Jamaica constitutional parliamentary democracy

Japan constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government

Jersey NA

Jordan constitutional monarchy

Kazakhstan republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch

Kenya republic

Kiribati republic

Korea, North Communist state one-man dictatorship

Korea, South republic

Kuwait nominal constitutional monarchy

Kyrgyzstan republic

Laos Communist state

Latvia parliamentary democracy

Lebanon republic

Lesotho parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Liberia republic

Libya Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Liechtenstein hereditary constitutional monarchy on a democratic and parliamentary basis

Lithuania parliamentary democracy

Luxembourg constitutional monarchy

Macau limited democracy

Macedonia parliamentary democracy

Madagascar republic

Malawi multiparty democracy

Malaysia constitutional monarchy note: Malaya (what is now Peninsular Malaysia) formed 31 August 1957; Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore) formed 9 July 1963 (Singapore left Federation on 9 August 1965); nominally headed by paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers except Melaka and Penang; those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah - currently holds 20 seats in House of Representatives and will hold 25 seats after the next election; Sarawak holds 28 seats in House of Representatives

Maldives republic

Mali republic

Malta republic

Man, Isle of parliamentary democracy

Marshall Islands constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force in May 2004

Martinique NA

Mauritania republic

Mauritius parliamentary democracy

Mayotte NA

Mexico federal republic

Micronesia, Federated States of constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force May 2004

Moldova republic

Monaco constitutional monarchy

Mongolia mixed parliamentary/presidential

Montserrat NA

Morocco constitutional monarchy

Mozambique republic

Namibia republic

Nauru republic

Nepal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy

Netherlands constitutional monarchy

Netherlands Antilles parliamentary

New Caledonia NA

New Zealand parliamentary democracy

Nicaragua republic

Niger republic

Nigeria republic transitioning from military to civilian rule

Niue self-governing parliamentary democracy

Norfolk Island NA

Northern Mariana Islands commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature

Norway constitutional monarchy

Oman monarchy

Pakistan federal republic

Palau constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994

Panama constitutional democracy

Papua New Guinea constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy

Paraguay constitutional republic

Peru constitutional republic

Philippines republic

Pitcairn Islands NA

Poland republic

Portugal parliamentary democracy

Puerto Rico commonwealth

Qatar traditional monarchy

Reunion NA

Romania republic

Russia federation

Rwanda republic; presidential, multiparty system

Saint Helena NA

Saint Kitts and Nevis constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style parliament

Saint Lucia Westminster-style parliamentary democracy

Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth

Samoa constitutional monarchy under native chief

San Marino independent republic

Sao Tome and Principe republic

Saudi Arabia monarchy

Senegal republic under multiparty democratic rule

Serbia and Montenegro republic

Seychelles republic

Sierra Leone constitutional democracy

Singapore parliamentary republic

Slovakia parliamentary democracy

Slovenia parliamentary democratic republic

Solomon Islands parliamentary democracy tending toward anarchy

Somalia no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary national government

South Africa republic

Spain parliamentary monarchy

Sri Lanka republic

Sudan authoritarian regime - ruling military junta took power in 1989; government is run by an alliance of the military and the National Congress Party (NCP), formerly the National Islamic Front (NIF), which espouses an Islamist platform

Suriname constitutional democracy

Svalbard NA

Swaziland monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Sweden constitutional monarchy

Switzerland federal republic

Syria republic under military regime since March 1963

Taiwan multiparty democratic regime headed by popularly-elected president and unicameral legislature

Tajikistan republic

Tanzania republic

Thailand constitutional monarchy

Togo republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule

Tokelau NA

Tonga hereditary constitutional monarchy

Trinidad and Tobago parliamentary democracy

Tunisia republic

Turkey republican parliamentary democracy

Turkmenistan republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch

Turks and Caicos Islands NA

Tuvalu constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy; began debating republic status in 1992

Uganda republic

Ukraine republic

United Arab Emirates federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates

United Kingdom constitutional monarchy

United States Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Uruguay constitutional republic

Uzbekistan republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch

Vanuatu parliamentary republic

Venezuela federal republic

Vietnam Communist state

Virgin Islands NA

Wallis and Futuna NA

Western Sahara legal status of territory and issue of sovereignty unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR),led by President Mohamed ABDELAZIZ; territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6 September 1991

Yemen republic

Zambia republic

Zimbabwe parliamentary democracy

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005


@2129 Unemployment rate (%)

Afghanistan NA (2003)

Albania 15.8% officially; may be as high as 30% (2003 est.)

Algeria 26.2% (2003 est.)

American Samoa 6% (2000)

Andorra 0% (1996 est.)

Angola extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)

Anguilla 6.7% (2001)

Antigua and Barbuda 11% (2001 est.)

Argentina 17.3% (2003)

Armenia 20% (2001 est.)

Aruba 0.6% (2003 est.)

Australia 6% (2003)

Austria 4.4% (2003 est.)

Azerbaijan 1.1% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)

Bahamas, The 6.9% (2001 est.)

Bahrain 15% (1998 est.)

Bangladesh 40% (includes underemployment) (2002 est.)

Barbados 10.7% (2003 est.)

Belarus 2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number of underemployed workers (2003 est.)

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