HotFreeBooks.com
The 2004 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Previous Part     1 ... 66  67  68  69  70  71  72  73  74  75  76  77  78 ... 82     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Paraguay Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite, and other Protestant

Peru Roman Catholic 90%

Philippines Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%

Pitcairn Islands Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

Poland Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Portugal Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)

Puerto Rico Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%

Qatar Muslim 95%

Reunion Roman Catholic 86%, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist (1995)

Romania Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 87%, Protestant 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2002)

Russia Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other

Rwanda Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)

Saint Helena Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic

Saint Kitts and Nevis Anglican, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Saint Lucia Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 3%, other Protestant 7%

Saint Pierre and Miquelon Roman Catholic 99%

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Anglican 47%, Methodist 28%, Roman Catholic 13%, Hindu Seventh-Day Adventist, other Protestant

Samoa Christian 99.7% (about one-half of population associated with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

San Marino Roman Catholic

Sao Tome and Principe Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Saudi Arabia Muslim 100%

Senegal Muslim 94%, indigenous beliefs 1%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic)

Serbia and Montenegro Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Seychelles Roman Catholic 86.6%, Anglican 6.8%, other Christian 2.5%, other 4.1%

Sierra Leone Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

Singapore Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist

Slovakia Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Slovenia Roman Catholic (Uniate 2%) 70.8%, Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%

Solomon Islands Anglican 45%, Roman Catholic 18%, United (Methodist/Presbyterian) 12%, Baptist 9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, other Protestant 5%, indigenous beliefs 4%

Somalia Sunni Muslim

South Africa Christian 68% (includes most whites and Coloreds, about 60% of blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of Indians), indigenous beliefs and animist 28.5%

Spain Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%

Sri Lanka Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 7% (1999)

Sudan Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)

Suriname Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant 25.2% (predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%

Swaziland Zionist (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship) 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish and other 30%

Sweden Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist

Switzerland Roman Catholic 46.1%, Protestant 40%, other 5%, none 8.9% (1990)

Syria Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

Taiwan mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%

Tajikistan Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)

Tanzania mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim

Thailand Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.6% (1991)

Togo indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%

Tokelau Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%, other 2% note: on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational Christian Church predominant

Tonga Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)

Trinidad and Tobago Roman Catholic 29.4%, Hindu 23.8%, Anglican 10.9%, Muslim 5.8%, Presbyterian 3.4%, other 26.7%

Tunisia Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Turkey Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Turkmenistan Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Turks and Caicos Islands Baptist 40%, Methodist 16%, Anglican 18%, Church of God 12%, other 14% (1990)

Tuvalu Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%

Uganda Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%

Ukraine Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate 19%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 9%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7%, Protestant, Jewish, none 38% (2004 est.)

United Arab Emirates Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%

United Kingdom Anglican and Roman Catholic 40 million, Muslim 1.5 million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 500,000, Hindu 500,000, Jewish 350,000

United States Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 24%, Mormon 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, other 10%, none 10% (2002 est.)

Uruguay Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, nonprofessing or other 31%

Uzbekistan Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Vanuatu Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Roman Catholic 15%, indigenous beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other 15.7% (including Jon Frum Cargo cult)

Venezuela nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%

Vietnam Buddhist, Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic, some Protestant), indigenous beliefs, Muslim

Virgin Islands Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%

Wallis and Futuna Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

West Bank Muslim 75% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 17%, Christian and other 8%

Western Sahara Muslim

World Christians 32.71% (of which Roman Catholics 17.28%, Protestants 5.61%, Orthodox 3.49%, Anglicans 1.31%), Muslims 19.67%, Hindus 13.28%, Buddhists 5.84%, Sikhs 0.38%, Jews 0.23%, other religions 13.05%, non-religious 12.43%, atheists 2.41% (2002 est.)

Yemen Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Zambia Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%

Zimbabwe syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005



======================================================================



@2123 Suffrage

Afghanistan 18 years of age; universal

Albania 18 years of age; universal

Algeria 18 years of age; universal

American Samoa 18 years of age; universal

Andorra 18 years of age; universal

Angola 18 years of age; universal

Anguilla 18 years of age; universal

Antigua and Barbuda 18 years of age; universal

Argentina 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Armenia 18 years of age; universal

Aruba 18 years of age; universal

Australia 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Austria 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Azerbaijan 18 years of age; universal

Bahamas, The 18 years of age; universal

Bahrain 18 years of age; universal

Bangladesh 18 years of age; universal

Barbados 18 years of age; universal

Belarus 18 years of age; universal

Belgium 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Belize 18 years of age; universal

Benin 18 years of age; universal

Bermuda 18 years of age; universal

Bhutan each family has one vote in village-level elections; note - in late 2003 Bhutan's legislature passed a new election law

Bolivia 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 years of age, universal

Botswana 18 years of age; universal

Brazil voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not vote

British Virgin Islands 18 years of age; universal

Brunei none

Bulgaria 18 years of age; universal

Burkina Faso universal

Burma 18 years of age; universal

Burundi NA years of age; universal adult

Cambodia 18 years of age; universal

Cameroon 20 years of age; universal

Canada 18 years of age; universal

Cape Verde 18 years of age; universal

Cayman Islands 18 years of age; universal

Central African Republic 21 years of age; universal

Chad 18 years of age; universal

Chile 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

China 18 years of age; universal

Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA

Colombia 18 years of age; universal

Comoros 18 years of age; universal

Congo, Democratic Republic of the 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Congo, Republic of the 18 years of age; universal

Cook Islands NA years of age; universal adult

Costa Rica 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Cote d'Ivoire 18 years of age; universal

Croatia 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Cuba 16 years of age; universal

Cyprus 18 years of age; universal

Czech Republic 18 years of age; universal

Denmark 18 years of age; universal

Djibouti 18 years of age; universal adult

Dominica 18 years of age; universal

Dominican Republic 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age note: members of the armed forces and national police cannot vote

East Timor 17 years of age; universal

Ecuador 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Egypt 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

El Salvador 18 years of age; universal

Equatorial Guinea 18 years of age; universal adult

Eritrea 18 years of age; universal

Estonia 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Ethiopia 18 years of age; universal

European Union 18 years of age; universal

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 18 years of age; universal

Faroe Islands 18 years of age; universal

Fiji 21 years of age; universal

Finland 18 years of age; universal

France 18 years of age; universal

French Guiana 18 years of age; universal

French Polynesia 18 years of age; universal

Gabon 21 years of age; universal

Gambia, The 18 years of age; universal

Georgia 18 years of age; universal

Germany 18 years of age; universal

Ghana 18 years of age; universal

Gibraltar 18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects who have been residents six months or more

Greece 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Greenland 18 years of age; universal

Grenada 18 years of age; universal

Guadeloupe 18 years of age; universal

Guam 18 years of age; universal; US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

Guatemala 18 years of age; universal (active duty members of the armed forces may not vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day)

Guernsey 18 years of age; universal

Guinea 18 years of age; universal

Guinea-Bissau 18 years of age; universal

Guyana 18 years of age; universal

Haiti 18 years of age; universal

Holy See (Vatican City) limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Honduras 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Hong Kong direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 200,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies

Hungary 18 years of age; universal

Iceland 18 years of age; universal

India 18 years of age; universal

Indonesia 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Iran 15 years of age; universal

Iraq formerly 18 years of age; universal

Ireland 18 years of age; universal

Israel 18 years of age; universal

Italy 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)

Jamaica 18 years of age; universal

Japan 20 years of age; universal

Jersey NA years of age; universal adult

Jordan 18 years of age; universal

Kazakhstan 18 years of age; universal

Kenya 18 years of age; universal

Kiribati 18 years of age; universal

Korea, North 17 years of age; universal

Korea, South 20 years of age; universal

Kuwait adult males who have been naturalized for 30 years or more or have resided in Kuwait since before 1920 and their male descendants at age 21 note: only 10% of all citizens are eligible to vote; in 1996, naturalized citizens who do not meet the pre-1920 qualification but have been naturalized for 30 years were eligible to vote for the first time

Kyrgyzstan 18 years of age; universal

Laos 18 years of age; universal

Latvia 18 years of age; universal for Latvian citizens

Lebanon 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education

Lesotho 18 years of age; universal

Liberia 18 years of age; universal

Libya 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Liechtenstein 18 years of age; universal

Lithuania 18 years of age; universal

Luxembourg 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Macau direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies

Macedonia 18 years of age; universal

Madagascar 18 years of age; universal

Malawi 18 years of age; universal

Malaysia 21 years of age; universal

Maldives 21 years of age; universal

Mali 18 years of age; universal

Malta 18 years of age; universal

Man, Isle of 18 years of age; universal

Marshall Islands 18 years of age; universal

Martinique 18 years of age; universal

Mauritania 18 years of age; universal

Mauritius 18 years of age; universal

Mayotte 18 years of age; universal

Mexico 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Micronesia, Federated States of 18 years of age; universal

Moldova 18 years of age; universal

Monaco 21 years of age; universal

Mongolia 18 years of age; universal

Montserrat 18 years of age; universal

Morocco 18 years of age; universal (as of January 2003)

Mozambique 18 years of age; universal

Namibia 18 years of age; universal

Nauru 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Nepal 18 years of age; universal

Netherlands 18 years of age; universal

Netherlands Antilles 18 years of age; universal

New Caledonia 18 years of age; universal

New Zealand 18 years of age; universal

Nicaragua 16 years of age; universal

Niger 18 years of age; universal

Nigeria 18 years of age; universal

Niue 18 years of age; universal

Norfolk Island 18 years of age; universal

Northern Mariana Islands 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Norway 18 years of age; universal

Oman in Oman's most recent Majlis al-Shura elections in 2003, suffrage was universal for all Omanis over age 21 except for members of the military and security forces; the next Majlis al-Shura elections are scheduled for 2007

Pakistan 18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

Palau 18 years of age; universal

Panama 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Papua New Guinea 18 years of age; universal

Paraguay 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75

Peru 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military may not vote

Philippines 18 years of age; universal

Pitcairn Islands 18 years of age; universal with three years residency

Poland 18 years of age; universal

Portugal 18 years of age; universal

Puerto Rico 18 years of age; universal; island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Qatar 18 years of age; universal

Reunion 18 years of age; universal

Romania 18 years of age; universal

Russia 18 years of age; universal

Rwanda 18 years of age; universal adult

Saint Helena NA years of age

Saint Kitts and Nevis 18 years of age; universal

Saint Lucia 18 years of age; universal

Saint Pierre and Miquelon 18 years of age; universal

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 18 years of age; universal

Samoa 21 years of age; universal

San Marino 18 years of age; universal

Sao Tome and Principe 18 years of age; universal

Saudi Arabia none adult male citizens age 21 or older note: voter registration began in November 2004 for partial municipal council elections scheduled nationwide for February through April 2005

Senegal 18 years of age; universal

Serbia and Montenegro 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Seychelles 17 years of age; universal

Sierra Leone 18 years of age; universal

Singapore 21 years of age; universal and compulsory

Slovakia 18 years of age; universal

Slovenia 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Solomon Islands 21 years of age; universal

Somalia 18 years of age; universal

South Africa 18 years of age; universal

Spain 18 years of age; universal

Sri Lanka 18 years of age; universal

Sudan 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory

Suriname 18 years of age; universal

Swaziland 18 years of age

Sweden 18 years of age; universal

Switzerland 18 years of age; universal

Syria 18 years of age; universal

Taiwan 20 years of age; universal

Tajikistan 18 years of age; universal

Tanzania 18 years of age; universal

Thailand 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Togo NA years of age; universal adult

Tokelau 21 years of age; universal

Tonga 21 years of age; universal

Trinidad and Tobago 18 years of age; universal

Tunisia 20 years of age; universal

Turkey 18 years of age; universal

Turkmenistan 18 years of age; universal

Turks and Caicos Islands 18 years of age; universal

Tuvalu 18 years of age; universal

Uganda 18 years of age; universal

Ukraine 18 years of age; universal

United Arab Emirates none

United Kingdom 18 years of age; universal

United States 18 years of age; universal

Uruguay 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Uzbekistan 18 years of age; universal

Vanuatu 18 years of age; universal

Venezuela 18 years of age; universal

Vietnam 18 years of age; universal

Virgin Islands 18 years of age; universal; note - island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Wallis and Futuna 18 years of age; universal

Western Sahara none; a UN-sponsored voter identification campaign not yet completed

Yemen 18 years of age; universal

Zambia 18 years of age; universal

Zimbabwe 18 years of age; universal

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005



======================================================================



@2124 Telephone system

Afghanistan general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service domestic: telephone service is improving with the establishment of two mobile phone operators by 2003; telephone main lines remain weak with only .1 line per 10 people international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed in Kabul, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity

Albania general assessment: Despite new investment in fixed lines, the density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly 8 lines per 100 people. However, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective. domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines; adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2003)

Algeria general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: country code - 213; 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)

American Samoa general assessment: NA domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: country code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Andorra general assessment: NA domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain

Angola general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Anguilla general assessment: NA domestic: modern internal telephone system international: country code - 1-264; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Antarctica general assessment: local systems at some research stations domestic: NA international: country code - 672; via satellite (mobile Inmarsat and Iridium system) from some research stations

Antigua and Barbuda general assessment: NA domestic: good automatic telephone system international: country code - 1-268; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Argentina general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment with the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentina encouraged the growth of modern telecommunication technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is being improved; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and making telephone service universally available will take time domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding international: country code - 54; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways near Buenos Aires (1999)

Armenia general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service) international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)

Aruba general assessment: NA domestic: more than adequate international: country code - 297; 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Australia general assessment: excellent domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones international: country code - 61; submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998)

Austria general assessment: highly developed and efficient domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)

Azerbaijan general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002) domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Bahamas, The general assessment: modern facilities domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed international: country code - 1-242; tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Bahrain general assessment: modern system domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Bangladesh general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities international: country code - 880; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)

Barbados general assessment: NA domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system international: country code - 1-246; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Belarus general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus' fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Belgium general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network international: country code - 32; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Belize general assessment: above-average system domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay international: country code - 501; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Benin general assessment: NA domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections international: country code - 229; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Bermuda general assessment: good domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system international: country code - 1-441; 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Bhutan general assessment: NA domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones in use international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Bolivia general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Bosnia and Herzegovina general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics domestic: NA international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations

Botswana general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast international: country code - 267; two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Brazil general assessment: good working system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station

British Indian Ocean Territory general assessment: separate facilities for military and public needs are available domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet international: international telephone service is carried by satellite (2000)

British Virgin Islands general assessment: worldwide telephone service domestic: NA international: country code - 1-284; submarine cable to Bermuda

Brunei general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US domestic: every service available international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)

Bulgaria general assessment: extensive but antiquated domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Burkina Faso general assessment: all services only fair domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Burma general assessment: barely meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government; international service is fair domestic: NA international: country code - 95; satellite earth station - 2, Intelsat (Indian Ocean), and ShinSat

Burundi general assessment: primitive system domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Cambodia general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas domestic: NA international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Cameroon general assessment: available only to business and government domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: country code - 237; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Canada general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Cape Verde general assessment: effective system, being improved domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system which is scheduled for completion in 2003 international: country code - 238; 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Cayman Islands general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 1-345; 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Central African Republic general assessment: fair system domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Chad general assessment: primitive system domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Chile general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations international: country code - 56; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

China general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany (2000)

Christmas Island general assessment: service provided by the Australian network domestic: only analog mobile telephone service is available international: country code - 61-891; satellite earth stations - one Intelsat earth station provides telephone and telex service (2000)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication system domestic: NA international: country code - 61-891; telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA type (2002)

Colombia general assessment: modern system in many respects domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Comoros general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay international: country code - 269; HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion

Congo, Democratic Republic of the general assessment: poor domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Congo, Republic of the general assessment: services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Cook Islands general assessment: Telecom Cook Islands offers international direct dialing, Internet, email, fax, and Telex domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable international: country code - 682; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Costa Rica general assessment: good domestic telephone service in terms of breadth of coverage; restricted cellular telephone service domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available international: country code - 506; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two submarine cables (1999)

Cote d'Ivoire general assessment: well developed by African standards but operating well below capacity domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized international: country code - 225; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 submarine cables (June 1999)

Croatia general assessment: NA domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)

Cuba general assessment: greater investment beginning in 1994 and the establishment of a new Ministry of Information Technology and Communications in 2000 has resulted in improvements in the system; cellular service, initially restricted, was opened to public access in 2003 domestic: national fiber-optic system scheduled to be completed by end of 2003; 85% of switches digitized by end of 2002 with entire system by end 2003; telephone line density remains low; cellular service expanding international: country code - 53; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Cyprus general assessment: excellent in both Republic of Cyprus and north Cyprus areas domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay international: country code - 357; tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Czech Republic general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar

Denmark general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems international: country code - 45; 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)

Djibouti general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country domestic: microwave radio relay network international: country code - 253; submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles, Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network

Dominica general assessment: NA domestic: fully automatic network international: country code - 1-767; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia

Dominican Republic general assessment: NA domestic: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network international: country code - 1-809; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

East Timor NA

Ecuador general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Egypt general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay international: country code - 20; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

El Salvador general assessment: NA domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Equatorial Guinea general assessment: poor system with adequate government services domestic: NA international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Eritrea general assessment: inadequate domestic: very inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system (2002) international: country code - 291; note - international connections exist

Estonia general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by September 2000 domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)

Ethiopia general assessment: open-wire and microwave radio relay system; adequate for government use domestic: open-wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

European Union note - see individual country entries of member states

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) general assessment: NA domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands international: country code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries

Faroe Islands general assessment: good international communications; good domestic facilities domestic: digitalization was completed in 1998; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installed international: country code - 298; satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable to the Shetland Islands, linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland; fiber-optic submarine cable connection to Canada-Europe cable

Fiji general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center domestic: NA international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Finland general assessment: modern system with excellent service domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs international: country code - 358; 1 submarine cable (Finland Estonia Connection); satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

France general assessment: highly developed domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system international: country code - 33; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries

French Guiana general assessment: NA domestic: fair open-wire and microwave radio relay system international: country code - 594; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

French Polynesia general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 689; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Gabon general assessment: adequate service by African standards and improving with the help of the growing mobile cell system domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: country code - 241; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Gambia, The general assessment: adequate; a packet switched data network is available domestic: adequate network of microwave radio relay and open-wire international: country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Gaza Strip general assessment: NA domestic: rudimentary telephone services provided by an open-wire system international: NA

Georgia general assessment: NA domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available international: country code - 995; Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available

Germany general assessment: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the INMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems (2001)

Ghana general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed international: country code - 233; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Gibraltar general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities domestic: automatic exchange facilities international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Greece general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands international: country code - 30; tropospheric scatter; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Greenland general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995 domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)

Grenada general assessment: automatic, islandwide telephone system domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links international: country code - 1-473; new SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad

Guadeloupe general assessment: domestic facilities inadequate domestic: NA international: country code - 590; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique

Guam general assessment: modern system, integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers domestic: modern digital system, including cellular mobile service and local access to the Internet international: country code - 1-671; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to US and Japan (Guam is a trans-Pacific communications hub for MCI, Sprint, AT&T, IT&E, and GTE, linking the US and Asia)

Guatemala general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala domestic: NA international: country code - 502; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Guernsey general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: 1 submarine cable

Guinea general assessment: poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system domestic: microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communication international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Guinea-Bissau general assessment: small system domestic: combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and cellular communications international: country code - 245

Guyana general assessment: fair system for long-distance calling domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines international: country code - 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Haiti general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Holy See (Vatican City) general assessment: automatic exchange domestic: tied into Italian system international: country code - 39; uses Italian system

Honduras general assessment: inadequate system domestic: NA international: country code - 504; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Hong Kong general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network international: country code - 852; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Hungary general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Iceland general assessment: extensive domestic service domestic: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables and microwave radio relay links international: country code - 354; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)

India general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid change; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but telephone density remains low at about seven for each 100 persons nationwide but only one per 100 persons in rural areas and a national waiting list of over 1.7 million; fastest growth is in cellular service with modest growth in fixed lines domestic: expansion of domestic service, although still weak in rural areas, resulted from increased competition and dramatic reductions in price led in large part by wireless service; mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan cities and 19 telecom circles each with about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 5 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) international: country code - 91; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 5 submarine cables, including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with landing site at Cochin, i2icn linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic (2004)

Indonesia general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Iran general assessment: inadequate but currently being modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages, not presently connected domestic: as a result of heavy investing in the telephone system since 1994, the number of long-distance channels in the microwave radio relay trunk has grown substantially; many villages have been brought into the net; the number of main lines in the urban systems has approximately doubled; and thousands of mobile cellular subscribers are being served; moreover, the technical level of the system has been raised by the installation of thousands of digital switches international: country code - 98; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; satellite earth stations - 9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat

Iraq general assessment: the 2003 war severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; USAID is overseeing the repair of switching capability and the construction of mobile and satellite communications facilities domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed in the recent fighting continue but sabotage remains a problem; cellular service is expected to be in place within two years international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably nonoperational

Ireland general assessment: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay domestic: microwave radio relay international: country code - 353; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Israel general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital international: country code - 972; 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Italy general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks international: country code - 39; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables

Jamaica general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network domestic: NA international: country code - 1-876; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables

Japan general assessment: excellent domestic and international service domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind international: country code - 81; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); submarine cables to China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam) (1999)

Jersey general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: 3 submarine cables

Johnston Atoll general assessment: NA domestic: 512 KB satellite link to Hawaii teleport; 20 (POTS) voice and data lines international: NA (2002)

Jordan general assessment: service has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment, but better access to the telephone system is needed in the rural areas and easier access to pay telephones is needed by the urban public domestic: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; considerable use of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is available international: country code - 962; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; connection to international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); participant in MEDARABTEL; international links total about 4,000

Kazakhstan general assessment: service is poor; equipment antiquated domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat

Kenya general assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except for service to business domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Kiribati general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) note: country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service

Korea, North general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 850; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Russian (Indian Ocean region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing

Korea, South general assessment: excellent domestic and international services domestic: NA international: country code - 82; fiber-optic submarine cable to China; the Russia-Korea-Japan submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Kuwait general assessment: the quality of service is excellent domestic: new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwait, and the country is well supplied with pay telephones international: country code - 965; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; linked to Bahrain, Qatar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 2 Arabsat

Kyrgyzstan general assessment: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones domestic: principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line

Laos general assessment: service to general public is poor but improving with over 20,000 telephones currently in service and an additional 48,000 expected by 2001; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with remote areas domestic: radiotelephone communications international: country code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Latvia general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an international capability independent of the Moscow international switch; more facilities are being installed for individual use domestic: expansion underway in intercity trunk line connections, rural exchanges, and mobile systems; still many unsatisfied subscriber applications international: country code - 371; international connections are now available via cable and a satellite earth station at Riga, enabling direct connections for most calls (1998)

Lebanon general assessment: telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding well underway domestic: primarily microwave radio relay and cable international: country code - 961; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan; 3 submarine coaxial cables

Lesotho general assessment: rudimentary system domestic: consists of a few landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a minor radiotelephone communication system; a cellular mobile telephone system is growing international: country code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Liberia general assessment: telephone and telegraph service via microwave radio relay network; main center is Monrovia domestic: NA international: country code - 231; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Libya general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996 domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999)

Liechtenstein general assessment: automatic telephone system domestic: NA international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay

Lithuania general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications international: country code - 370; landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite

Luxembourg general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable international: country code - 352; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)

Macau general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services domestic: NA international: country code - 853; HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Macedonia general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 389

Madagascar general assessment: system is above average for the region domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Malawi general assessment: NA domestic: system employs open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Malaysia general assessment: modern system; international service excellent domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations international: country code - 60; submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2001)

Maldives general assessment: minimal domestic and international facilities domestic: interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands are connected with telephone and fax service international: country code - 960; satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Mali general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Malta general assessment: automatic system satisfies normal requirements domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands international: country code - 356; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Man, Isle of general assessment: NA domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system international: fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable

Marshall Islands general assessment: digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) international: country code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2001)

Martinique general assessment: domestic facilities are adequate domestic: NA international: country code - 596; microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Mauritania general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations (improvements being made) domestic: mostly cable and open-wire lines; a recently completed domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitals international: country code - 222; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 2 Arabsat

Mauritius general assessment: small system with good service domestic: primarily microwave radio relay trunk system international: country code - 230; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC/SAFE) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Mayotte general assessment: small system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications domestic: NA international: country code - 269; microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communications to Comoros (2001)

Mexico general assessment: low telephone density with about 15.2 main lines per 100 persons; privatized in December 1990; the opening to competition in January 1997 improved prospects for development, but Telemex remains dominant domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable international: country code - 52; satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Morocco, Spain, and Italy (1997)

Micronesia, Federated States of general assessment: adequate system domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; cellular service available on Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap international: country code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2002)

Moldova general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some effort to modernize is under way domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

Monaco general assessment: modern automatic telephone system domestic: NA international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Mongolia general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons domestic: NA international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Montserrat general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 1-664

Morocco general assessment: modern system with all important capabilities; however, density is low with only 4.6 main lines available for each 100 persons domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay international: country code - 212; 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (1998)

Mozambique general assessment: fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 16 telephones for each 1,000 persons) domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)

Namibia general assessment: good system; about 6 telephones for each 100 persons domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire; 100% digital international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to Africa ONE and South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cables through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2002)

Nauru general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities domestic: NA international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Nepal general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile cellular telephone network domestic: NA international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Netherlands general assessment: highly developed and well maintained domestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; cellular telephone system is one of the largest in Europe with five major network operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) international: country code - 31; 9 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2004)

Netherlands Antilles general assessment: generally adequate facilities domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links international: country code - 599; submarine cables - 2; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

New Caledonia general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 687; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

New Zealand general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems domestic: NA international: country code - 64; submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Nicaragua general assessment: inadequate system being upgraded by foreign investment domestic: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System international: country code - 505; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Niger general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Nigeria general assessment: an inadequate system, further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made domestic: intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Niue domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island international: country code - 683

Norfolk Island general assessment: adequate domestic: NA international: country code - 672; undersea coaxial cable links with Australia, New Zealand, and Canada; satellite service planned for near future

Northern Mariana Islands general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 1-670; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Norway general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)

Oman general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable domestic: open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations international: country code - 968; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Pakistan general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)

Palau general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: country code - 680; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Panama general assessment: domestic and international facilities well developed domestic: NA international: country code - 507; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System

Papua New Guinea general assessment: services are adequate; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services domestic: mostly radiotelephone international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service

Paraguay general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is Asuncion domestic: fair microwave radio relay network international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Previous Part     1 ... 66  67  68  69  70  71  72  73  74  75  76  77  78 ... 82     Next Part
Home - Random Browse