The 2004 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005


@2112 Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

Afghanistan 23.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Albania -4.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Algeria -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

American Samoa -20.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Andorra 6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Angola 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Anguilla 10.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Antigua and Barbuda -6.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Argentina 0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Armenia -6.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Aruba 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Australia 3.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Austria 2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Azerbaijan -4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bahamas, The -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bahrain 1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bangladesh -0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Barbados -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Belarus 2.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Belgium 1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Belize 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Benin 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bermuda 2.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bhutan 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bolivia -1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Botswana 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Brazil -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

British Virgin Islands 10.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Brunei 3.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Bulgaria -4.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Burkina Faso 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Burma -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Burundi -0.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cambodia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cameroon 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Canada 5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cape Verde -12.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cayman Islands 18.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US (2004 est.)

Central African Republic 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Chad -0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Chile 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

China -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Christmas Island NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Colombia -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Comoros 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the -0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: fighting between the Congolese Government and Uganda- and Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels spawned a regional war in DROC in August 1998, which left 1.8 million Congolese internally displaced and caused 300,000 Congolese refugees to flee to surrounding countries (2004 est.)

Congo, Republic of the 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Costa Rica 0.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cote d'Ivoire -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Croatia 1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cuba -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Cyprus 0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Czech Republic 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Denmark 2.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Djibouti 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Dominica -13.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Dominican Republic -3.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

East Timor 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Ecuador -8.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Egypt -0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

El Salvador -3.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Equatorial Guinea 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Eritrea 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: UNHCR began repatriating about 150,000 Eritrean refugees from Sudan in 2001 following the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries in 2000 (2004 est.)

Estonia -3.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Ethiopia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan for refuge from war and famine in earlier years is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese and Somali refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2004 est.)

European Union 1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (July 2004 est.)

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Faroe Islands 1.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Fiji -3.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Finland 0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

France 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

French Guiana 6.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

French Polynesia 2.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Gabon 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Gambia, The 1.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Gaza Strip 1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Georgia -4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Germany 2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Ghana -0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Gibraltar 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Greece 2.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Greenland -8.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Grenada -13.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Guadeloupe -0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Guam 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Guatemala -1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Guernsey 3.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Guinea -3.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: as a result of conflict in neighboring countries, Guinea is host to approximately 150,000 Liberian and Sierra Leonean refugees (2004 est.)

Guinea-Bissau -1.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Guyana -2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Haiti -3.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Honduras -1.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Hong Kong 5.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Hungary 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Iceland 2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

India -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Indonesia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Iran -0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Iraq 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Ireland 4.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Israel 0.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Italy 2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Jamaica -4.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Japan 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Jersey 2.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Jordan 6.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Kazakhstan -3.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Kenya -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: according to UNHCR, by the end of 2001 Kenya was host to 220,000 refugees from neighboring countries, including: Somalia 145,000 and Sudan 68,000 (2004 est.)

Kiribati 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Korea, North 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Korea, South 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Kuwait 14.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Kyrgyzstan -2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Laos 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Latvia -2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Lebanon 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Lesotho -0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Liberia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: at least 200,000 Liberian refugees are in surrounding countries; the uncertain security situation has hindered their ability to return (2004 est.)

Libya 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Liechtenstein 4.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Lithuania -0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Luxembourg 8.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Macau 4.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Macedonia -1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Madagascar 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Malawi 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Malaysia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2004 est.)

Maldives 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Mali -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Malta 2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Man, Isle of 5.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Marshall Islands -6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Martinique -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Mauritania 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Mauritius -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Mayotte 6.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Mexico -4.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Micronesia, Federated States of -20.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Moldova -0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Monaco 7.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Mongolia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Montserrat 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Morocco -0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Mozambique 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Namibia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Nauru 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Nepal 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Netherlands 2.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Netherlands Antilles -0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

New Caledonia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

New Zealand 4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Nicaragua -1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Niger -0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Nigeria 0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Niue NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Norfolk Island NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Northern Mariana Islands 9.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Norway 1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Oman 0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Pakistan -2.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Palau 2.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Panama -0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Papua New Guinea 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Paraguay -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Peru -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Philippines -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Pitcairn Islands NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Poland -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Portugal 3.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Puerto Rico -1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Qatar 16.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Reunion 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Romania -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Russia 1.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Rwanda 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Saint Helena 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Saint Kitts and Nevis -7.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Saint Lucia -2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Saint Pierre and Miquelon -4.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -7.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Samoa -11.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

San Marino 10.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sao Tome and Principe -2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Saudi Arabia -2.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Senegal 0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Serbia and Montenegro -1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Seychelles -5.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sierra Leone 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: refugees currently in surrounding countries are slowly returning (2004 est.)

Singapore 11.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Slovakia 0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Slovenia 1.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Solomon Islands 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Somalia 5.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

South Africa -0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Spain 0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sri Lanka -1.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sudan -0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Suriname -8.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Svalbard NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Swaziland 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Sweden 1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Switzerland 4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Syria 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Taiwan 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Tajikistan -2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Tanzania -2.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Thailand 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Togo 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Tokelau NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Tonga 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Trinidad and Tobago -10.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Tunisia -0.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Turkey 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Turkmenistan -0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Turks and Caicos Islands 11.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Tuvalu 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Uganda 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: according to the UNHCR, by the end of 2001, Uganda was host to 178,815 refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 155,996, Rwanda 14,375, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 7,459 (2004 est.)

Ukraine -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

United Arab Emirates 1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

United Kingdom 2.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

United States 3.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Uruguay -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Uzbekistan -1.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Vanuatu 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Venezuela -0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Vietnam -0.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Virgin Islands -8.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Wallis and Futuna NA migrant(s)/1,000 population note: there has been steady emigration from Wallis and Futuna to New Caledonia (2004 est.)

West Bank 2.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Yemen 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Zambia 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Zimbabwe negligible migrant(s)/1,000 population note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2004 est.)

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005


@2113 Geography - note

Afghanistan landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)

Akrotiri British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Cyprus

Albania strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Algeria second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

American Samoa Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

Andorra landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

Angola the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Anguilla the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

Antarctica the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

Antigua and Barbuda Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

Arctic Ocean major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months

Argentina second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere

Armenia landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

Aruba a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

Atlantic Ocean major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

Australia world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer

Austria landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

Azerbaijan both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked

Bahamas, The strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain of which 30 are inhabited

Bahrain close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

Baker Island treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife

Bangladesh most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal

Barbados easternmost Caribbean island

Bassas da India the islands emerge from a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano

Belarus landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes; the country is geologically well endowed with extensive deposits of granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay

Belgium crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and NATO

Belize only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

Benin sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands

Bermuda consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

Bhutan landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Bolivia landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

Bosnia and Herzegovina within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

Botswana landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

Bouvet Island covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

Brazil largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

British Indian Ocean Territory archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

British Virgin Islands strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

Brunei close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

Bulgaria strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

Burkina Faso landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas

Burma strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

Burundi landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile

Cambodia a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap

Cameroon sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

Canada second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border

Cape Verde strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site

Cayman Islands important location between Cuba and Central America

Central African Republic landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

Chad landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

Chile strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

China world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak;

Christmas Island located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

Clipperton Island reef 12 km in circumference

Cocos (Keeling) Islands islands are thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

Colombia only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

Comoros important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

Congo, Democratic Republic of the straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

Congo, Republic of the about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them

Cook Islands the northern Cook Islands are seven low-lying, sparsely populated, coral atolls; the southern Cook Islands consist of eight elevated, fertile, volcanic isles where most of the populace lives

Coral Sea Islands important nesting area for birds and turtles

Costa Rica four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose in the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu, erupted destructively in 1963-65

Cote d'Ivoire most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

Croatia controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

Cuba largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles

Cyprus the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)

Czech Republic landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

Denmark controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

Dhekelia British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Cyprus

Djibouti strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa

Dominica known as "The Nature Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, and varied flora and fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system; the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are cones of lava craters and include Boiling Lake, the second-largest, thermally active lake in the world

Dominican Republic shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti

East Timor Timor comes from the Malay word for "East;" the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands

Ecuador Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Egypt controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

El Salvador smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

Equatorial Guinea insular and continental regions rather widely separated

Eritrea strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993

Estonia the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

Ethiopia landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

Europa Island wildlife sanctuary

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season

Faroe Islands archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands

Fiji includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

Finland long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

France largest West European nation

French Guiana mostly an unsettled wilderness; the only non-independent portion of the South American continent

French Polynesia includes five archipelagoes (4 volcanic, 1 coral); Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru

French Southern and Antarctic Lands islands component is widely scattered across remote locations in the southern Indian Ocean

Gabon a small population and oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries; in general, these circumstances have allowed the country to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversity

Gambia, The almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa

Gaza Strip there are 25 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Gaza Strip (February 2002 est.)

Georgia strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them

Germany strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

Ghana Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake

Gibraltar strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

Glorioso Islands the islands and rocks are surrounded by an extensive reef system

Greece strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands

Greenland dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap

Grenada the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

Guadeloupe a narrow channel, the Riviere Salee, divides Guadeloupe proper into two islands: the larger, western Basse-Terre and the smaller, eastern Grande-Terre

Guam largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean

Guatemala no natural harbors on west coast

Guernsey large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port

Guinea the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands

Guinea-Bissau this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying further inland

Guyana the third-smallest country in South America after Suriname and Uruguay; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Venezuela and Suriname respectively

Haiti shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

Holy See (Vatican City) urban; landlocked; enclave in Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

Honduras has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast

Hong Kong more than 200 islands

Howland Island almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife

Hungary landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

Iceland strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital in the world; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe

India dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

Indian Ocean major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait

Indonesia archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Iran strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport

Iraq strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf

Ireland strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 97 km of Dublin

Israel there are 242 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (February 2002 est.); Sea of Galilee is an important freshwater source

Italy strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

Jamaica strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal

Jan Mayen barren volcanic island with some moss and grass

Japan strategic location in northeast Asia

Jarvis Island sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife

Jersey largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

Johnston Atoll strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to the public; a former US nuclear weapons test site; site of now-closed Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); most facilities dismantled and cleanup complete in 2004; some low-growing vegetation

Jordan strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank

Juan de Nova Island wildlife sanctuary

Kazakhstan landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050

Kenya the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

Kingman Reef barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public

Kiribati 21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru

Korea, North strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated

Korea, South strategic location on Korea Strait

Kuwait strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

Kyrgyzstan landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

Laos landlocked; most of the country is mountainous and thickly forested; the Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand

Latvia most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, with some hills in the east

Lebanon Nahr el Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity

Lesotho landlocked, completely surrounded by South Africa; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 meters above sea level

Liberia facing the Atlantic Ocean, the coastline is characterized by lagoons, mangrove swamps, and river-deposited sandbars; the inland grassy plateau supports limited agriculture

Libya more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert

Liechtenstein along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Lithuania fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

Luxembourg landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world

Macau essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland

Macedonia landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

Madagascar world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

Malawi landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature

Malaysia strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

Maldives 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago with strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

Mali landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan

Malta the country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration

Man, Isle of one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird sanctuary

Marshall Islands two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

Martinique the island is dominated by Mount Pelee, which on 8 May 1902 erupted and completely destroyed the city of Saint Pierre, killing 30,000 inhabitants

Mauritania most of the population concentrated in the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern part of the country

Mauritius the main island, from which the country derives its name, is of volcanic origin and is almost entirely surrounded by coral reefs

Mayotte part of Comoro Archipelago; 18 islands

Mexico strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico

Micronesia, Federated States of four major island groups totaling 607 islands

Midway Islands a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation and photography, sport fishing, snorkeling, and scuba diving; the refuge is temporarily closed for reorganization at present (2004)

Moldova landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

Monaco second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban

Mongolia landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Montserrat the island is entirely volcanic in origin and contains seven active volcanoes

Morocco strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

Mozambique the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

Namibia first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip

Nauru Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

Navassa Island strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock but with enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

Nepal landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest - the world's tallest - on the border with China

Netherlands located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)

Netherlands Antilles the five islands of the Netherlands Antilles are divided geographically into the Leeward Islands (northern) group (Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten) and the Windward Islands (southern) group (Bonaire and Curacao)

New Caledonia consists of the main island of New Caledonia (one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls

New Zealand about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world

Nicaragua largest country in Central America; contains the largest freshwater body in Central America, Lago de Nicaragua

Niger landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world: northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture

Nigeria the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

Niue one of world's largest coral islands

Norfolk Island most of the 32-km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated

Northern Mariana Islands strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

Norway about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world

Oman strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

Pacific Ocean the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean

Pakistan controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Palau westernmost archipelago in the Caroline chain, consists of six island groups totaling more than 300 islands; includes World War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands

Palmyra Atoll about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

Panama strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

Papua New Guinea shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast

Paracel Islands composed of 130 small coral islands and reefs divided into the northeast Amphitrite Group and the western Crescent Group

Paraguay landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country

Peru shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

Philippines the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait

Pitcairn Islands Britain's most isolated dependency; only the larger island of Pitcairn is inhabited but it has no port or natural harbor; supplies must be transported by rowed longboat from larger ships stationed offshore

Poland historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

Portugal Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

Puerto Rico important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north

Qatar strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

Reunion this mountainous, volcanic island has an active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise; there is a tropical cyclone center at Saint-Denis, which is the monitoring station for the whole of the Indian Ocean

Romania controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

Russia largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak

Rwanda landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural

Saint Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown anywhere else in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns

Saint Kitts and Nevis with coastlines in the shape of a baseball bat and ball, the two volcanic islands are separated by a three-km-wide channel called The Narrows; on the southern tip of long, baseball bat-shaped Saint Kitts lies the Great Salt Pond; Nevis Peak sits in the center of its almost circular namesake island and its ball shape complements that of its sister island

Saint Lucia the twin Pitons (Gros Piton and Petit Piton), striking cone-shaped peaks south of Soufriere, are one of the scenic natural highlights of the Caribbean

Saint Pierre and Miquelon vegetation scanty

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is comprised of 32 islands and cays

Samoa occupies an almost central position within Polynesia

San Marino landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

Sao Tome and Principe the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous

Saudi Arabia extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

Senegal westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

Serbia and Montenegro controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

Seychelles 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

Sierra Leone rainfall along the coast can reach 495 cm (195 inches) a year, making it one of the wettest places along coastal, western Africa

Singapore focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

Slovakia landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

Slovenia despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes

Solomon Islands strategic location on sea routes between the South Pacific Ocean, the Solomon Sea, and the Coral Sea

Somalia strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

South Africa South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South Georgia

Southern Ocean the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Southern Ocean; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the very cold polar surface waters to the south from the warmer waters to the north; the Front and the Current extend entirely around Antarctica, reaching south of 60 degrees south near New Zealand and near 48 degrees south in the far South Atlantic coinciding with the path of the maximum westerly winds

Spain strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

Spratly Islands strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central South China Sea; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

Sri Lanka strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

Sudan largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

Suriname smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast

Svalbard northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area

Swaziland landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

Sweden strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

Switzerland landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with southeastern France, northern Italy, and southwestern Austria, has the highest elevations in the Alps

Syria there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (February 2002 est.)

Taiwan strategic location adjacent to both the Taiwan Strait and the Luzon Strait

Tajikistan landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

Tanzania Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest

Thailand controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

Togo the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

Tokelau consists of three atolls, each with a lagoon surrounded by a number of reef-bound islets of varying length and rising to over three meters above sea level

Tonga archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)

Trinidad and Tobago Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt

Tromelin Island climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones; wildlife sanctuary (seabirds, tortoises)

Tunisia strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration

Turkey strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

Turkmenistan landlocked; the western and central low-lying, desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau

Turks and Caicos Islands about 40 islands (eight inhabited)

Tuvalu one of the smallest and most remote countries on Earth; six of the coral atolls - Nanumea, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, and Nukulaelae - have lagoons open to the ocean; Nanumaya and Niutao have landlocked lagoons; Niulakita does not have a lagoon

Uganda landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers

Ukraine strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe

United Arab Emirates strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

United Kingdom lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

United States world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Mt. McKinley is highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent

Uruguay second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising

Uzbekistan along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

Vanuatu a Y-shaped chain of four main islands and 80 smaller islands; several of the islands have active volcanoes

Venezuela on major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall

Vietnam extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point

Virgin Islands important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the Caribbean

Wake Island strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; emergency landing location for transpacific flights

Wallis and Futuna both island groups have fringing reefs

West Bank landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers; there are 244 West Bank settlements and 29 East Jerusalem settlements in addition to at least 20 occupied outposts(August 2003 est.)

Western Sahara the waters off the coast are particularly rich fishing areas

World the world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13-billion-year age estimated for the universe

Yemen strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

Zambia landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005


@2115 Political pressure groups and leaders

Afghanistan Jamiat-e Islami (Society of Islam), [former President Burhanuddin RABBANI]; Ittihad-e Islami (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), [Abdul Rasul SAYYAF]; there are also small monarchist, communist, and democratic groups

Albania Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]

Algeria The Algerian Human Rights League or LADH or LADDH [Yahia Ali ABDENOUR]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]

American Samoa NA

Andorra NA

Angola Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE] note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

Anguilla NA

Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

Argentina Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and unemployed workers); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic Church; students

Armenia Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

Aruba NA

Australia Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA]

Austria Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights

Azerbaijan Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces (UPAF)

Bahamas, The NA

Bahrain Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active

Bangladesh NA

Barbados Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]

Belarus NA

Belgium Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants

Belize Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele CATZIM]

Benin NA

Bermuda Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

Bhutan Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)

Bolivia Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB [Roman LOAYZA]

Bosnia and Herzegovina NA

Botswana NA

Brazil Landless Worker's Movement; large farmers' associations; labor unions and federations; religious groups including evangelical christian churches and the Catholic Church

British Virgin Islands NA

Brunei NA

Bulgaria Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

Burkina Faso Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities

Burma National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form parallel government in exile); Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU; several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (progovernment, a social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general secretary]

Burundi loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government security forces

Cambodia NA

Cameroon Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]

Canada NA

Cape Verde NA

Cayman Islands NA

Central African Republic NA

Chad NA

Chile revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations

China no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the China Democracy Party as subversive groups

Christmas Island none

Cocos (Keeling) Islands none

Colombia two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary group is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC

Comoros NA

Congo, Democratic Republic of the NA

Congo, Republic of the Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC

Cook Islands NA

Costa Rica Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert Brown]

Cote d'Ivoire NA

Croatia NA

Cuba NA

Cyprus Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)

Czech Republic Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Confederation [Milan STECH]

Denmark NA

Djibouti Union for Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union for Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, UDJ, and PDD) [Ahmed Dini AHMED]

Dominica Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)

Dominican Republic Collective of Popular Organizations or COP; Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Foundation for Institution-Building (FINJUS)

East Timor Popular Council for the Defense of the Democratic Republic of East Timor or CPD-RDTL [leader Antonio-Aitahan MATAK] is largest political pressure group; it rejects current government and claims to be rightful government; Kolimau 2000 [leader Dr. Bruno MAGALHAES] is another opposition group; dissatisfied veterans of struggle against Indonesia, led by one-time government advisor Cornelio GAMA (also known as L-7), also play an important role in pressuring government

Ecuador Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]

Egypt despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

El Salvador labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI

Equatorial Guinea NA

Eritrea Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ [leader NA] (also including Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM (also known as the Abu Sihel Movement) [leader NA]); Eritrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement) [leader NA]; Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Eritrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]

Estonia NA

Ethiopia Afar Revolutionary Democratic Union Front or ARDUF [leader NA]; Council of Alternative Forces for Peace and Democracy in Ethiopia or CAFPDE [BEYANE Petros]; Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition or SEPDC [BEYANE Petros]

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) none

Faroe Islands NA

Fiji NA

France historically-Communist labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, approximately 700,000 members (claimed); left-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, approximately 889,000 members (claimed); independent labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere) or FO, 300,000 members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) or CGC, 196,000 members (claimed); employers' union (Mouvement des Entreprises de France) or MEDEF, 750,000 companies as members (claimed)

French Guiana NA

French Polynesia NA

Gabon NA

Gambia, The NA

Georgia Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government in exile; separatists in the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; supporters of the late ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA

Germany business associations, employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups

Ghana NA

Gibraltar Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association

Greece General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Khristos POLYZOGOPOLOS]; Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Odysseas KYRIAKOPOULOS]; Civil Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]

Greenland NA

Grenada NA

Guadeloupe Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG; General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G; General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG; Movement for Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI; The Socialist Renewal Movement

Guam NA

Guatemala Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM

Guernsey none

Guinea NA

Guinea-Bissau NA

Guyana Civil Liberties Action Committee or CLAC; Guyana Council of Indian Organizations or GCIO; Trades Union Congress or TUC note: the GCIO and the CLAC are small and active but not well organized

Haiti Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; Group of 184 Civil Society Organization, or G-184 [Andy APAID]; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church

Holy See (Vatican City) none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)

Honduras Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Federation of Honduran Workers or FUTH

Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; The Alliance [Bernard CHAN, exco member]

Hungary NA

Iceland NA

India numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference

Indonesia NA

Iran political pressure groups conduct most of Iran's political activities; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, Tehran Militant Clergy Association (Ruhaniyat), Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh), and Islamic Engineers Society; active pro-reform student groups include the Organization for Strengthening Unity; opposition groups include Freedom Movement of Iran, the National Front, Marz-e Por Gohar, and various ethnic and Monarchist organizations; armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government include Mujahidin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, and Komala

Iraq an insurgency against the Iraqi Interim Government and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated in Baghdad and in areas west and north of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency is led principally by Sunni Arabs whose only common denominator is a shared desire to oust the Coalition and end US influence in Iraq

Ireland NA

Israel Israeli nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Yesha (settler) Council promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem monitors human rights abuses

Italy Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Guglielmo EPIFANI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Savino PEZZOTTA], which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)

Jamaica New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)

Japan NA

Jersey none

Jordan Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordanian Bar Association [Saleh ARMOUTI, president]; Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Abd-al-Majid DHUNAYBAT, secretary general]

Kazakhstan Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Group [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency International [Sergei ZLOTNIKOV]

Kenya human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]

Kiribati NA

Korea, North none

Korea, South Federation of Korean Industries; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations

Kuwait several political groups act as de facto parties: Bedouins, merchants, Sunni and Shi'a activists, and secular leftists and nationalists

Kyrgyzstan Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs

Laos noncommunist political groups proscribed; most opposition leaders fled the country in 1975

Latvia Headquarters for the Protection of Russian Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV]

Lebanon NA

Lesotho NA

Liberia NA

Libya various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libyan exile movement exists, primarily based in London, but has little influence

Liechtenstein NA

Lithuania NA

Luxembourg ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)

Macau Catholic Church [LAI Hung-sing, bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]

Macedonia Civic Movement of Macedonia [Gordana SILJANOVSKA]; Movement for Macedonia's Euro-Atlantic Integration [Dosta DIMOVSKA]

Madagascar Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM

Malawi NA

Malaysia NA

Maldives none

Mali Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA

Malta NA

Man, Isle of none

Marshall Islands NA

Martinique Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM [Marc PULVAR]; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP

Mauritania Arab nationalists; Ba'athists; General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Islamists; Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]

Mauritius various labor unions

Mayotte NA

Mexico Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Union of Workers or UNT; Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers or CROM; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants or CROC; Roman Catholic Church

Moldova NA

Monaco NA

Mongolia NA

Montserrat NA

Morocco Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]

Mozambique Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]

Namibia NA

Nauru NA

Nepal Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRAHANDA, chairman; Dr. Baburam BHATTARAI, from Communist Party of Nepal/Maoist, chief negotiator]; numerous small, left-leaning student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups

Netherlands Netherlands Trade Union Federation (FNV) (consisting of a merger of Socialist and Catholic trade unions); Christian Trade Union Federation (CNV); Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel (MHP); Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; Interchurch Peace Council or IKV; large multinational firms; the nondenominational Federation of Netherlands Enterprises

Netherlands Antilles NA

New Caledonia NA

New Zealand NA

Nicaragua National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups

Niger NA

Nigeria Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC [Adams OSHIOMOLE]

Niue NA

Norfolk Island none

Northern Mariana Islands NA

Norway NA

Oman none

Pakistan military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential

Palau NA

Panama Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP

Papua New Guinea NA

Paraguay Ahorristas Estafados or AE; Coordinating Table of National Campesino Organizations or MCNOC; National Federation of Campesinos or FNC; National Workers Central or CNT; Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT;;

Peru leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]

Philippines AKBAYAN [Reps. Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ANAKPAWIS [Reps. Crispin BELTRAN and Rafael MARIANO]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Reps. Edgar VALDEZ, Ernesto PABLO, and Sunny Rose MADAMBA]; Bayan Muna [Reps. Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Reps. Rene VELARDE and Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Rep. Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Rep. Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; GABRIELA [Rep. Liza MAZA}; PARTIDO NG MANGGAGAWA [Rep. Renato MAGTUBO] (2003)

Pitcairn Islands none

Poland All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Maciej MANICKI]; Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Jozef GLEMP]; Solidarity Trade Union [Janusz SNIADEK]

Portugal NA

Puerto Rico Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN; Armed Forces of Popular Resistance; Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution

Qatar none

Reunion NA

Romania various human rights and professional associations

Russia NA

Rwanda IBUKA - association of genocide survivors

Saint Helena none

Saint Kitts and Nevis NA

Saint Lucia NA

Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines NA

Samoa NA

San Marino NA

Sao Tome and Principe NA

Saudi Arabia none

Senegal labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers

Serbia and Montenegro Political Council for Presevo, Medvedja and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]; Group for Changes of Montenegro or GZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]

Seychelles Roman Catholic Church; trade unions

Sierra Leone Trade Unions and Student Unions

Singapore NA

Slovakia Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG

Slovenia NA

Solomon Islands NA

Somalia numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power

South Africa Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; South African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC

Spain business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Workers Confederation or CC.OO; Nunca Mas (Galician for "Never Again"; formed in response to the oil tanker Prestige oil spill)

Sri Lanka Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting for a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups

Sudan Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Congress Party [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John GARANG]; Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]

Suriname General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK]; Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement [Leendert ADAMS]; Tucayana Amazonica [Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO]; Union for Liberation and Democracy [Kofi AFONGPONG]

Swaziland NA

Sweden NA

Switzerland NA

Syria conservative religious leaders; Kurdish Democratic Alliance [leader NA]; Kurdish Democratic Front [lader NA]; Muslim Brotherhood (operates in exile in London) [Ali Badr Eddine al-BAYANOUNI]; National Democratic Front [Hassan Abd al-AZIM]

Taiwan Taiwan independence movement, various business and environmental groups note: debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization and the increased representation of opposition parties in Taiwan's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that Taiwan currently enjoys de facto independence and - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification or independence - that Taiwan's people must have the deciding voice; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland China; goals of the Taiwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Taiwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting Taiwan independence include the World United Formosans for Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation Building

Tajikistan there are three unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party or APT [Hikmatullo Nasriddinov]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]

Tanzania NA

Thailand NA

Togo NA

Tokelau none

Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chair]

Trinidad and Tobago Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]

Tunisia the Islamic fundamentalist party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed

Turkey Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]

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