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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Environment - current issues: fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Geography - note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation



Cocos (Keeling) Islands People

Population: 633 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Cocos Islander(s)

adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups: Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English, Malay



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands

conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general

head of government: Administrator (non-resident) William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999)

cabinet: NA

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council (NA seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Economy

Economy - overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage workers; tourism employs others

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: copra

Exports - partners: Australia

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 300 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .cc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 15 km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Colombia



Colombia Introduction

Background: Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.



Colombia Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 1,138,910 sq km

land: 1,038,700 sq km

water: 100,210 sq km

note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total: 6,004 km

border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m

note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 4%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 39%

forests and woodland: 48%

other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea



Colombia People

Population: 40,349,388 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.88% (male 6,507,282; female 6,354,454)

15-64 years: 63.37% (male 12,452,182; female 13,117,707)

65 years and over: 4.75% (male 859,967; female 1,057,796) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 22.41 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.69 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.57 years

male: 66.71 years

female: 74.55 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.31% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 71,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,700 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Colombian(s)

adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91.3%

male: 91.2%

female: 91.4% (1995 est.)



Colombia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Colombia

conventional short form: Colombia

local long form: Republica de Colombia

local short form: Colombia

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Distrito Capital de Santa Fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)

election results: no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the two leading candidates was held 21 June 1998; Andres PASTRANA elected president; percent of vote - 50.3%; Gustavo BELL elected vice president; percent of vote - 50.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (163 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 8 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2002); House of Representatives - last held 8 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2002)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PL 50%, PSC 24%, smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 26%; seats by party - PL 58, PSC 28, smaller parties 16; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PL 52%, PSC 17%, other 31%; seats by party - PL 98, PSC 52, indigenous parties 2, others 11

Judicial branch: four, coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Higher Council of Justice (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or PSC [Ciro RAMIREZ Anzon]; Liberal Party or PL [Luis Guillermo VELEZ]; Patriotic Union or UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of April Movement or M-19 [Antonio NAVARRO Wolff]

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - National Liberation Army or ELN and Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC; largest paramilitary group is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC

International organization participation: BCIE, CAN, Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia

chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338

FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC

consulate(s): Atlanta

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON

embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831

mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038

telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811

FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center



Colombia Economy

Economy - overview: Colombia is poised for muted growth in the next several years, marking continued recovery from the severe 1999 recession when GDP fell by about 4%. President PASTRANA's well-respected economic team is working to keep the economy on track, maintaining low interest rates, for example. In accordance with its IMF loan agreement, the administration also is taking steps to improve the public sector's fiscal health. However, many challenges to improved prosperity remain. Unemployment was stuck at a record 20% in 2000, contributing to the extreme inequality in income distribution. Two of Colombia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain future; new exploration is needed to offset declining oil production, while coffee harvests and prices are depressed. The lack of public security is a key concern for investors, making progress in the government's peace negotiations with insurgent groups an important driver of economic performance. Colombia is looking for continued support from the international community to boost economic and peace prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $250 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%

industry: 26%

services: 55% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 55% (1999)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 44% (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2000)

Labor force: 18.3 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 20% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $22 billion

expenditures: $24 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: 11% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 43.574 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 22.27%

hydro: 76.19%

nuclear: 0%

other: 1.54% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 40.532 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 27 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 35 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp

Exports: $14.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers

Exports - partners: US 50%, EU 14%, Andean Community of Nations 16%, Japan 2% (2000 est.)

Imports: $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

Imports - partners: US 35%, EU 16%, Andean Community of Nations 15%, Japan 5% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $34 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $40.7 million (1995)

Currency: Colombian peso (COP)

Currency code: COP

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,241.43 (January 2001), 2087.90 (2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96 (1997), 1,036.69 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Colombia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,433,565 (December 1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,800,229 (December 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system in many respects

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities

international: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios: 21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)

Televisions: 4.59 million (1997)

Internet country code: .co

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 18 (2000)

Internet users: 600,000 (2000)



Colombia Transportation

Railways: total: 3,304 km

standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to maritime port at Bahia de Portete)

narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (major sections not in use) (2000)

Highways: total: 110,000 km

paved: 26,000 km

unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)

Waterways: 18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (April 1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine: total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,322 GRT/69,444 DWT

ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 4, container 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1,091 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 92

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 38

914 to 1,523 m: 36

under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 999

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 64

914 to 1,523 m: 321

under 914 m: 613 (2000 est.)



Colombia Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 10,779,148 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 7,205,211 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 379,295 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY00)



Colombia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 1999 - 122,500 hectares, a 20.3% increase over 1998); cultivation of opium in 1999 increased to 7,500 hectares from 6,100 hectares in 1998; potential production of opium in 1999 - 75 metric tons, a 25% increase over 1998; potential production of heroin in 1999 - nearly 8 metric tons, as compared with 6 tons in 1998; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of about 90% of the cocaine to the US and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets, and an important supplier of heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program

======================================================================

@Comoros



Comoros Introduction

Background: Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. In 1999, military chief Col. AZALI seized power. He has pledged to resolve the secessionist crisis through the 2000 Fomboni Accord, a confederal arrangement that the Organization of African Unity has yet to recognize.



Comoros Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,170 sq km

land: 2,170 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 35%

permanent crops: 10%

permanent pastures: 7%

forests and woodland: 18%

other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel



Comoros People

Population: 596,202 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.81% (male 127,955; female 127,267)

15-64 years: 54.26% (male 159,560; female 163,949)

65 years and over: 2.93% (male 8,326; female 9,145) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.02% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 39.52 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.35 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 84.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.41 years

male: 58.2 years

female: 62.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.32 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.12% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Comoran(s)

adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 57.3%

male: 64.2%

female: 50.4% (1995 est.)



Comoros Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros

conventional short form: Comoros

local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores

local short form: Comores

Government type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: 3 islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali); note - there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 6 May 1999); note - the interim government of President Tajiddine Ben Said MASSOUNDE, which had assumed power on 6 November 1998 upon the death of President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim, was overthrown in a bloodless coup on 30 April 1999

head of government: Prime Minister Hamada MADI (since late November 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6 and 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president

note: President AZALI claimed a one-year term at the time of the coup; but elections, promised for spring 2000, were not held

election results: results of the last presidential election before the coup were: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; percent of vote - 64.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (15 seats: five from each island); members selected by regional councils for six-year terms) and a Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - the Federal Assembly was dissolved following the coup of 30 April 1999

elections: Federal Assembly - last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to be held NA)

election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 39, FNJ 3, independent 1

note: the constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats in the Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in opposition, but if no party accomplishes that, the second most successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December 1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of the republic)

Political parties and leaders: Front National pour la Justice or FNJ (Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed Abdallah MOHAMED, Ahmed ABOUBACAR, Soidiki M'BAPANOZA]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND (party of the government) [Ali Bazi SELIM]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Deputy Permanent Representative Mahmoud Mohamed ABOUD (acting)

chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10022

telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010

FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992



Comoros Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be met. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans abroad help supplement GDP.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $419 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $720 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40%

industry: 4%

services: 56% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1999)

Labor force: 144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $48 million

expenditures: $53 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 17 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 88.24%

hydro: 11.76%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 15.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: $7.9 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra

Exports - partners: France 50%, Germany 25% (1998)

Imports: $55.1 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods; petroleum products, cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners: France 38%, Pakistan 13%, South Africa 8%, Kenya 8% (1998)

Debt - external: $197 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $28.1 million (1997)

Currency: Comoran franc (KMF)

Currency code: KMF

Exchange rates: Comoran francs per US dollar - 524.41 (January 2001), 533.98 (2000), 461.77 (1999), 442.46 (1998), 437.75 (1997), 383.66 (1996)

note: prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the French franc at 75 Comoran francs per French franc; since 1 January 1999, the Comoran franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Comoros Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 6,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations

domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay

international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1998)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .km

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 800 (2000)



Comoros Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 880 km

paved: 673 km

unpaved: 207 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,122 GRT/29,817 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Comoros Military

Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 141,120 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 83,920 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Comoros Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims French-administered Mayotte; the island of Anjouan (Nzwani) has moved to secede from Comoros

======================================================================

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Introduction

Background: Since 1994 the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC; formerly called Zaire) has been rent by ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees from the fighting in Rwanda and Burundi. The government of former president MOBUTU Sese Seko was toppled by a rebellion led by Laurent KABILA in May 1997; his regime was subsequently challenged by a Rwanda- and Uganda-backed rebellion in August 1998. Troops from Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia, Chad, and Sudan intervened to support the Kinshasa regime. A cease-fire was signed on 10 July 1999, but sporadic fighting continued. KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his son Joseph KABILA was named head of state. The new president quickly began overtures to end the war.



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Geography

Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,345,410 sq km

land: 2,267,600 sq km

water: 77,810 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 10,744 km

border countries: Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 473 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 7%

forests and woodland: 77%

other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in mid-1994 were responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching in the eastern part of the country (most of those refugees were repatriated in November and December 1996)

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands



Congo, Democratic Republic of the People

Population: 53,624,718

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.24% (male 12,988,488; female 12,878,232)

15-64 years: 49.21% (male 12,931,886; female 13,459,109)

65 years and over: 2.55% (male 575,113; female 791,890) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 46.02 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 15.15 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: one million refugees fled into Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo or DROC) in 1994 to escape the fighting between the Hutus and the Tutsis; fighting in the DROC between rebels and government forces in October 1996 caused 875,000 refugees to return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early 1997; an additional 173,000 Rwandan refugees disappeared in early 1997 and are assumed to have been killed by Zairian forces; fighting between the Congolese government and Uganda- and Rwanda-backed Congolese rebels spawned a regional war in DROC in August 1998, which left 1.8 million Congolese displaced in DROC and caused 300,000 Congolese refugees to flee to surrounding countries

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 48.94 years

male: 46.96 years

female: 50.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.84 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.1 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 95,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba

total population: 77.3%

male: 86.6%

female: 67.7% (1995 est.)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo

local short form: none

former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

abbreviation: DROC

Government type: dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative government

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provinces, singular - province) and one city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 June (1960)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in April 1994; in November 1998, a draft constitution was approved by former President Laurent KABILA but it has not been ratified by a national referendum

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note - the president succeeded his father Laurent Desire KABILA after his assassination on 16 January 2001; as president he is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note - the president succeeded his father Laurent Desire KABILA after his assassination on 16 January 2001; as president he is both chief of state and head of government

cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president

elections: before Laurent Desire KABILA seized power, the president was elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 29 July 1984 (next was scheduled to be held in May 1997); formerly, the prime minister was elected by the High Council of the Republic; note - elections were not held in 1991 as called for by the constitution

election results: results of the last election were: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected president in 1984 without opposition

note: Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga was president from 24 November 1965 until forced into exile on 16 May 1997 when his government was overthrown militarily by Laurent Desire KABILA, who immediately assumed governing authority; KABILA pledged to hold elections by April 1999, but in December 1998 announced that elections would be postponed until all foreign military forces attempting to topple the government had withdrawn from the country; KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and was succeeded by his son Joseph KABILA

Legislative branch: a 300-member Transitional Constituent Assembly established in August 2000

elections: NA; members of the Transitional Constituent Assembly were appointed by former President KABILA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR [leader NA]; Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI [Kouyoumba MUCHULI Mulembe]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU

chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691

FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING

embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa

mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828

telephone: [243] (12) 21804, 21807

FAX: [243] (88) 43805

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed stars along the hoist side



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast potential wealth - has declined drastically since the mid-1980s. The new government instituted a tight fiscal policy that initially curbed inflation and currency depreciation, but these small gains were quickly reversed when the foreign-backed rebellion in the eastern part of the country began in August 1998. The war has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue and has increased external debt. Foreign businesses have curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict and because of increased government harassment and restrictions. The war has intensified the impact of such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption, raging inflation, and lack of openness in government economic policy and financial operations. A number of IMF and World Bank missions have met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan but associated reforms are on hold.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $31 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -15% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 58%

industry: 17%

services: 25% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 540% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 14.51 million (1993 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 16%, services 19% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $269 million

expenditures: $244 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Industries: mining (diamonds, copper, zinc), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages), cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 5.268 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.05%

hydro: 97.95%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 4.55 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 404 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 55 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products

Exports: $960 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, coffee, cobalt, crude oil

Exports - partners: Benelux 62%, US 18%, South Africa, Finland, Italy (1999)

Imports: $660 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners: South Africa 28%, Benelux 14%, Nigeria 9%, Kenya 7%, China (1999)

Debt - external: $13 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $195.3 million (1995)

Currency: Congolese franc (CDF)

Currency code: CDF

Exchange rates: Congolese francs per US dollar - 50 (January 2001), 4.5 (January 2000), 4.02 (1999), 1.61 (1998), 1.31 (1997), 0.50 (1996)

note: on 30 June 1998 the Congolese franc was introduced, replacing the new zaire

Fiscal year: calendar year



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,900 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 12, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 18.03 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 20 (1999)

Televisions: 6.478 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 1,500 (1999)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Transportation

Railways: total: 5,138 km (1995)

note: severely reduced route-distance in use because of damage to facilities by civil strife

narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 157,000 km (including 30 km of expressways)(1996)

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

Waterways: 15,000 km (including the Congo and its tributaries, and unconnected lakes)

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Ports and harbors: Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 232 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 24

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 208

1,524 to 2,437 m: 20

914 to 1,523 m: 96

under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Special Presidential Security Group

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 11,615,554 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,915,251 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $250 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.6% (FY97)



Congo, Democratic Republic of the Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Democratic Republic of the Congo is in the grip of a civil war that has drawn in military forces from neighboring states, with Uganda and Rwanda supporting the rebel movements that occupy much of the eastern portion of the state; most of the Congo river boundary with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption

======================================================================

@Congo, Republic of the



Congo, Republic of the Introduction

Background: Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO.



Congo, Republic of the Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 342,000 sq km

land: 341,500 sq km

water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total: 5,504 km

border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 29%

forests and woodland: 62%

other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonal flooding

Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them



Congo, Republic of the People

Population: 2,894,336

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.43% (male 618,411; female 609,633)

15-64 years: 54.23% (male 765,501; female 804,125)

65 years and over: 3.34% (male 38,772; female 57,894) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.2% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 38.24 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.57 years

male: 44.38 years

female: 50.85 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.43% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 86,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,600 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans NA%; note - Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the 1997 civil war; may be half that of 1998, following the widespread destruction of foreign businesses in 1997

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo has the most users)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74.9%

male: 83.1%

female: 67.2% (1995 est.)



Congo, Republic of the Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Congo

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republique du Congo

local short form: none

former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo

Government type: republic

Capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: Draft constitution approved by transitional parliament in September 2000

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997 but will be delayed for several years pending the drafting of a new constitution)

election results: Pascal LISSOUBA elected president in 1992; percent of vote - Pascal LISSOUBA 61.3%, Bernard KOLELAS 38.7%; note - LISSOUBA was deposed in 1997, replaced by Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO

Legislative branch: unicameral National Transitional Council (75 seats, members elected by reconciliation forum of 1,420 delegates on NA January 1998); note - the National Transitional Council replaced the bicameral Parliament

elections: National Transitional Council - last held NA January 1998 (next to be held NA 2001); note - at that election the National Transitional Council is to be replaced by a bicameral assembly

election results: National Transitional Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: the most important of the many parties are the Democratic and Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance of Convention for Alternative Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican Party, National Union for Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union for the National Reconstruction, and Union for the National Renewal) [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Association for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Serge MOMBOULI

chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011

telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500

FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David H. KAEUPER

embassy: NA

mailing address: NA

telephone: [243] (88) 43608

FAX: [243] (88) 41036

note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Congo, Republic of the Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. Moreover, the government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to the government's shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994, but inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continued with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the Republic of the Congo's budget deficit. Even with the IMF's renewed confidence and high world oil prices, Congo is unlikely to realize growth of more than 5% in 2001-02. With the return to fragile peace, the IMF approved a $14 million credit in November 2000 to aid post-conflict reconstruction.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%

industry: 48%

services: 42% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $870 million

expenditures: $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 302 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.66%

hydro: 99.34%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 406.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 126 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products

Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: petroleum 50%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds

Exports - partners: US 23%, Benelux 14%, Germany, Italy, Taiwan, China (1998)

Imports: $870 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: petroleum products, capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: France 23%, US 9%, Belgium 8%, UK 7%, Italy (1997 est.)

Debt - external: $5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $159.1 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Congo, Republic of the Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 22,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,000 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out-of-order

domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 341,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 33,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Congo, Republic of the Transportation

Railways: total: 894 km

narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 12,800 km

paved: 1,242 km

unpaved: 11,558 km (1996)

Waterways: 1,120 km

note: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports and harbors: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Airports: 33 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 29

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)



Congo, Republic of the Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 684,922 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 347,946 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 32,350 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $110 million (FY93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY93)



Congo, Republic of the Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the Congo river boundary with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in the Stanley Pool/Pool Malebo area)

======================================================================

@Cook Islands



Cook Islands Introduction

Background: Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770, the islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, administrative control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are continuing problems.



Cook Islands Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 240 sq km

land: 240 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 9%

permanent crops: 13%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Cook Islands People

Population: 20,611 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Cook Islander(s)

adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: 95%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Cook Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Cook Islands

former: Harvey Islands

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, first Monday in August (1965)

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998), representative of New Zealand

head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Terepai MAOATE (since 18 November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Norman GEORGE (since NA)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively responsible to Parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually becomes prime minister

note: ten years of rule by the Cook Islands Party (CIP) came to an end 18 November 1999 with the resignation of Prime Minister Joe WILLIAMS; WILLIAMS had led a minority government since October 1999 when the New Alliance Party (NAP) left the government coalition and joined the main opposition Democratic Alliance Party (DAP); on 18 November 1999, DAP leader Dr. Terepai MAOATE was sworn in as prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held NA June 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CIP 12, DAP 12, NAP 1

note: the House of Ariki (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands People's Party or CIP [Tai CARPENTER]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE]; New Alliance Party or NAP [Norman GEORGE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag



Cook Islands Economy

Economy - overview: Like many other South Pacific island nations, the Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the country from foreign markets, the limited size of domestic markets, lack of natural resources, periodic devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure. Agriculture provides the economic base with major exports made up of copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to fruit processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade deficits are made up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid, overwhelmingly from New Zealand. In the 1980s and 1990s, the country lived beyond its means, maintaining a bloated public service and accumulating a large foreign debt. Subsequent reforms, including the sale of state assets, the strengthening of economic management, the encouragement of tourism, and a debt restructuring agreement, have rekindled investment and growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $100 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 18%

industry: 9%

services: 73% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 6,601 (1993)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services 56% (1995) note - shortage of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $25 million

expenditures: $23 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 99/00)

Industries: fruit processing, tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 21 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 19.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans, pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee; pigs, poultry

Exports: $3 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit, coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing

Exports - partners: Japan 42%, New Zealand 25%, US 9%, Australia 9% (1999)

Imports: $85 million (c.i.f., 1994)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods

Imports - partners: NZ 70%, Australia 8% (1999)

Debt - external: $141 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $13.1 million (1995); note - New Zealand continues to furnish the greater part

Currency: New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code: NZD

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.2502 (January 2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Cook Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 14,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus eight low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ck

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cook Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 320 km (1992)

paved: NA

unpaved: NA

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,310 GRT/2,181 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Cook Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request



Cook Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Coral Sea Islands



Coral Sea Islands Introduction

Background: Scattered over some 1 million square kilometers of ocean, the Coral Sea Islands were declared a territory of Australia in 1969. They are uninhabited except for a small meteorological staff on Willis Island. Automated weather stations, beacons, and a lighthouse occupy many other islands and reefs.



Coral Sea Islands Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: less than 3 sq km

land: less than 3 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most important

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Geography - note: important nesting area for birds and turtles



Coral Sea Islands People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological station (July 2001 est.)



Coral Sea Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory

conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Coral Sea Islands Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Coral Sea Islands Communications

Communications - note: there are automatic weather stations on many of the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland



Coral Sea Islands Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Coral Sea Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors



Coral Sea Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Costa Rica



Costa Rica Introduction

Background: Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its democratic development. Although still a largely agricultural country, it has achieved a relatively high standard of living. Land ownership is widespread. Tourism is a rapidly expanding industry.



Costa Rica Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 51,100 sq km

land: 50,660 sq km

water: 440 sq km

note: includes Isla del Coco

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 639 km

border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 46%

forests and woodland: 31%

other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; water pollution (rivers); coastal marine pollution; wetlands degradation; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air pollution

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation



Costa Rica People

Population: 3,773,057 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.38% (male 605,728; female 578,128)

15-64 years: 63.37% (male 1,209,084; female 1,181,754)

65 years and over: 5.25% (male 92,314; female 106,049) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.65% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.27 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.02 years

male: 73.49 years

female: 78.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.54% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 750 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Costa Rican(s)

adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, other Protestant 0.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.8%

male: 94.7%

female: 95% (1995 est.)



Costa Rica Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica

conventional short form: Costa Rica

local long form: Republica de Costa Rica

local short form: Costa Rica

Government type: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 7 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998), Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note - president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998), Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note - president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president

elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held 3 February 2002)

election results: Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ elected president; percent of vote - Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 46.6%, Jose Miguel CORRALES (PLN) 44.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held 3 February 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - PUSC 41%, PLN 35%, minority parties 24%; seats by party - PUSC 27, PLN 23, minority parties 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Agricultural Labor Action or PALA [Carlos Alberto SOLIS Blanco]; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Justo OROZCO]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Jose M. NUNEZ]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Alejandro MADRIGAL]; National Independent Party or PNI [Jorge GONZALEZ Marten]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Sonia PICADO]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis Manuel CHACON]

note: mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN; numerous small parties share less than 25% of population's support

Political pressure groups and leaders: Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert Brown]

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime DAREMBLUM Rosenstein

chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945

FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Francisco, St. Paul, and Tampa

consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD

embassy: Calle 120 Avenida O, Pavas, San Jose

mailing address: APO AA 34020

telephone: [506] 220-3939

FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red band



Costa Rica Economy

Economy - overview: Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends on tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social safety net has been put into place. Foreign investors remain attracted by the country's political stability and high education levels, and tourism continues to bring in foreign exchange. However, traditional export sectors have not kept pace. Low coffee prices and an overabundance of bananas have hurt the agricultural sector. The government continues to grapple with its large deficit and massive internal debt and with the need to modernize the state-owned electricity and telecommunications sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $25 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12.5%

industry: 30.7%

services: 56.8% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 20.6% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3%

highest 10%: 34.7% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services 58% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.95 billion

expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (2000)

Electricity - production: 5.805 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.41%

hydro: 83.32%

nuclear: 0%

other: 14.27% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.303 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 165 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 69 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, pineapples, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber

Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, bananas, sugar; pineapples; textiles, electronic components, medical equipment

Exports - partners: US 54.1%, EU 21.3%, Central America 8.6% (1999)

Imports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum

Imports - partners: US 56.4%, EU 9%, Mexico 5.4%, Japan 4.7%, (1999)

Debt - external: $4.2 billion (2000 est.)

Currency: Costa Rican colon (CRC)

Currency code: CRC

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones per US dollar - 318.95 (2001), 308.19 (2000), 285.68 (1999), 257.23 (1998), 232.60 (1997), 207.69 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Costa Rica Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 450,000 (1998)

note: 584,000 installed in 1997, but only about 450,000 were in use 1998

Telephones - mobile cellular: 143,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: very good domestic telephone service

domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available

international: connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two submarine cables (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 43, shortwave 19 (1998)

Radios: 980,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 11 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 525,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (of which only one is legal) (2000)

Internet users: 150,000 (2000)



Costa Rica Transportation

Railways: total: 950 km

narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total: 37,273 km

paved: 7,827 km

unpaved: 29,446 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 730 km (seasonally navigable)

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,716 GRT/NA DWT

ships by type: passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 152 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 29

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 123

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 95 (2000 est.)



Costa Rica Military

Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public Security Force (Fuerza Publica)

note: Costa Rica has no military, only domestic police forces, including the Coast Guard and Air Section

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,035,090 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 692,973 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 39,411 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $69 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY99)



Costa Rica Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: legal dispute over navigational rights of Rio San Juan on border with Nicaragua

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots; domestic cocaine consumption is rising, particularly crack cocaine; those who previously only trafficked are now becoming users

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@Cote d'Ivoire



Cote d'Ivoire Introduction

Background: Close ties to France since independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the tropical African states. Falling cocoa prices and political turmoil, however, sparked an economic downturn in 1999 and 2000. On 25 December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government led by President Henri Konan BEDIE. Presidential and legislative elections held in October and December 2000 provoked violence due to the exclusion of opposition leader Alassane OUATTARA. In October 2000, Laurent GBAGBO replaced junta leader Robert GUEI as president, ending 10 months of military rule.



Cote d'Ivoire Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 322,460 sq km

land: 318,000 sq km

water: 4,460 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 3,110 km

border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m

highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 8%

permanent crops: 4%

permanent pastures: 41%

forests and woodland: 22%

other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues: deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Cote d'Ivoire People

Population: 16,393,221

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

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