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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinand Amilcar Spencer LOPES

chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820

FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207

consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael D. METELITS

embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia

mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia

telephone: [238] 61 56 16

FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands



Cape Verde Economy

Economy - overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for almost 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 1998 was only 13%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances constitute a supplement to GDP of more than 20%. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 2001 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $670 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13%

industry: 19%

services: 68% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2000)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 24% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $188 million

expenditures: $228 million, including capital expenditures of $116 million (1996)

Industries: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 37.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports: $40 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: fuel, shoes, garments, fish, bananas, hides

Exports - partners: Portugal, UK, Germany, Spain, France, Malaysia

Imports: $250 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels

Imports - partners: Portugal, Netherlands, France, UK, Spain, US

Debt - external: $260 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $111.3 million (1995)

Currency: Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)

Currency code: CVE

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos per US dollar - 123.080 (December 2000), 115.877 (2000), 102.700 (1999), 98.158 (1998), 93.177 (1997), 82.591 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cape Verde Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 45,644 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 19,729 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: effective system, being improved

domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system which was scheduled for completion in 1998

international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 11 (and 14 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 73,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 2,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



Cape Verde Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,100 km

paved: 858 km

unpaved: 242 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine: total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,523 GRT/11,798 DWT

ships by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 8 (2000)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2000)



Cape Verde Military

Military branches: Army, Coast Guard/Marines

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 89,543 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 50,615 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY96)



Cape Verde Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Cayman Islands



Cayman Islands Introduction

Background: The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the British during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica from 1863, they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the former became independent.



Cayman Islands Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 259 sq km

land: 259 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 8%

forests and woodland: 23%

other: 69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Geography - note: important location between Cuba and Central America



Cayman Islands People

Population: 35,527 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.21% (male 3,807; female 4,084)

15-64 years: 69.74% (male 12,102; female 12,676)

65 years and over: 8.05% (male 1,318; female 1,540) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.12% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.79 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Sex ratio: at birth: 0.86 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.03 years

male: 76.24 years

female: 81.43 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Caymanian(s)

adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 98%

male: 98%

female: 98% (1970 est.)



Cayman Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: British crown colony

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day, first Monday in July

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Governor and President of the Executive Council Peter SMITH (since 5 May 1999)

head of government: Kurt TIBBETTS (since November 2000)

cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor, four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three appointed members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: there are no formal political parties but the following loose groupings act as political organizations; National Team; Democratic Alliance; Team Cayman

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS



Cayman Islands Economy

Economy - overview: With no direct taxation, the islands are a thriving offshore financial center. More than 40,000 companies were registered in the Cayman Islands as of 1997, including almost 600 banks and trust companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A stock exchange was opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors from North America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1.2 million visitors in 1997. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $930 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,500 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.4%

industry: 3.2%

services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1998)

Labor force: 19,820 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%, services 86% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 4.1% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $265.2 million

expenditures: $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 330 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 306.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Exports: $1.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners: mostly US

Imports: $507.6 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt - external: $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Caymanian dollar (KYD)

Currency code: KYD

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars per US dollar - 0.83 (3 November 1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Cayman Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,534 (1995)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 7,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ky

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cayman Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 406 km

paved: 304 km

unpaved: 102 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine: total: 106 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,656,452 GRT/2,643,036 DWT

ships by type: bulk 21, cargo 5, chemical tanker 27, container 4, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 13, refrigerated cargo 30, roll on/roll off 4, specialized tanker 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 2, Denmark 2, Finland 1, Greece 11, Norway 3, UK 3, US 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Cayman Islands Military

Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Cayman Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money laundering and drug transshipment to the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Central African Republic



Central African Republic Introduction

Background: The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African Republic upon independence in 1960. After three tumultuous decades of misrule - mostly by military governments - a civilian government was installed in 1993.



Central African Republic Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 622,984 sq km

land: 622,984 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,203 km

border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m

highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 75%

other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa



Central African Republic People

Population: 3,576,884

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.23% (male 778,885; female 767,414)

15-64 years: 53% (male 929,717; female 965,947)

65 years and over: 3.77% (male 59,364; female 75,557) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.85% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 18.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 105.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 43.8 years

male: 42.17 years

female: 45.48 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.86 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.84% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 240,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 23,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Central African(s)

adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 1,500 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%, other 11%

note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 60%

male: 68.5%

female: 52.4% (1995 est.)



Central African Republic Government

Country name: conventional long form: Central African Republic

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republique Centrafricaine

local short form: none

former: Ubangi-Shari, Central African Empire

abbreviation: CAR

Government type: republic

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 1 December (1958)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January 1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ange-Felix PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister Martin ZIGUELE (since 1 April 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 19 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ange-Felix PATASSE reelected president; percent of vote - Ange-Felix PATASSE 51.63%, Andre KOLINGBA 19.38%, David DACKO 11.15%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (109 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - there were 85 seats in the National Assembly before the 1998 election)

elections: last held 22-23 November and 13 December 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD 9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%, independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8, FPP 7, PSD 6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7

note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together they are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (all judges appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Francois PEHOUA]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [the party of the president, Ange-Felix PATASSE]; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or UPR [leader NA]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Emmanuel TOUABOY

chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800

FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. PERRY

embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui

mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui

telephone: [236] 61 02 00

FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band



Central African Republic Economy

Economy - overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for nearly 54%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The 50% devaluation of the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton exports increased, leading an estimated rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and nearly 5% in 1995. Military rebellions and social unrest in 1996 were accompanied by widespread destruction of property and a drop in GDP of 2%. The IMF approved an Extended Structure Adjustment Facility in 1998 and the World Bank extended further credits in 1999 and approved a $10 million loan in early 2001. The government has set targets of 3.5% GDP growth in 2001 and 2002. As of January 2001, many civil servants were owed as much as 30 months pay, leading them to go on strike and further damaging the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 53%

industry: 20%

services: 27% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 47.7% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 6% (1993)

Budget: revenues: $638 million

expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888 million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 102 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 20.59%

hydro: 79.41%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 94.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports: $166 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports - partners: Benelux 64%, Cote d'Ivoire, Spain, China, Egypt, France (1999)

Imports: $154 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products

Imports - partners: France 35%, Cameroon 13%, Benelux, Cote d'Ivoire, Germany, Japan (1999)

Debt - external: $790 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $172.2 million (1995); note - traditional budget subsidies from France

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Central African Republic Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 10,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 570 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: fair system

domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 283,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 18,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Central African Republic Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 23,810 km

paved: 429 km

unpaved: 23,381 km (2000)

Waterways: 900 km

note: traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river, navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 52 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 49

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 15 (2000 est.)



Central African Republic Military

Military branches: Central African Armed Forces (includes Army, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, Police Force)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 824,139 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 430,922 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $29 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY96)



Central African Republic Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Chad



Chad Introduction

Background: Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997 respectively. In 1998 a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which continued to escalate throughout 2000. Despite movement toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern ethnic oligarchy.



Chad Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1.284 million sq km

land: 1,259,200 sq km

water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries: total: 5,968 km

border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m

highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use: arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 36%

forests and woodland: 26%

other: 35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel



Chad People

Population: 8,707,078 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.73% (male 2,091,724; female 2,064,514)

15-64 years: 49.46% (male 2,035,099; female 2,271,389)

65 years and over: 2.81% (male 101,579; female 142,773) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.29% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 48.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 15.4 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.88 years

male: 48.86 years

female: 52.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.56 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.69% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 92,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 10,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chadian(s)

adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims, commonly referred to as "northerners" or "gorane" (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba); non-Muslims, commonly referred to as "southerners" (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa) including nonindigenous 150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)

note: ethnicity and regional background more commonly used to identify Chadians than religious affiliation

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic

total population: 48.1%

male: 62.1%

female: 34.7% (1995 est.)



Chad Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad

conventional short form: Chad

local long form: Republique du Tchad

local short form: Tchad

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: passed by referendum 31 March 1995

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)

head of government: Prime Minister Nagoum YAMASSOUM (since 13 December 1999)

cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7%

note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); replaces the Higher Transitional Council or the Conseil Superieur de Transition

elections: National Assembly - last held in two rounds on 5 January and 23 February 1997 (next to be held in late 2001); in the first round of voting some candidates won clear victories by receiving 50% or more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two highest scoring candidates stood for a second round of voting

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPS 65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: National Union for Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president); Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE

chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009

FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT

embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena

mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena

telephone: [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33

FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France



Chad Economy

Economy - overview: Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers from its geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure, and political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on agriculture, including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's Francophone countries, Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies in January 1994. Financial aid from the World Bank, the African Development Fund, and other sources is directed largely at the improvement of agriculture, especially livestock production. The World Bank's decision to back the Doba oil field development and the Chad-Cameroon pipeline will add Chad to the group of already booming West African oil exporters. However, the rank and file may not benefit much from the oil development projects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40%

industry: 14%

services: 46% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 64% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $198 million

expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)

Electricity - production: 90 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 83.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports: $172 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles

Exports - partners: Portugal 38%, Germany 12%, Thailand, Costa Rica, South Africa, France (1999)

Imports: $223 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: France 40%, Cameroon 13%, Nigeria 12%, India 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Chad Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 7,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: primitive system

domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .td

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Chad Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 33,400 km

paved: 267 km

unpaved: 33,133 km (1996)

Waterways: 2,000 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 50 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 7

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 43

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)



Chad Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force, Police, Rural and Nomadic Guard (GNNT)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,814,578 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 949,997 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 82,003 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (FY96)



Chad Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

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@Chile



Chile Introduction

Background: A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973 by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, which ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, first implemented by the PINOCHET dictatorship, led to unprecedented growth in 1991-97 and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Growth slowed in 1998-99, but recovered strongly in 2000.



Chile Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 756,950 sq km

land: 748,800 sq km

water: 8,150 sq km

note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total: 6,171 km

border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200/350 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 5%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 18%

forests and woodland: 22%

other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions



Chile People

Population: 15,328,467 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.25% (male 2,135,755; female 2,041,552)

15-64 years: 65.39% (male 4,993,416; female 5,029,739)

65 years and over: 7.36% (male 467,477; female 660,528) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.13% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.94 years

male: 72.63 years

female: 79.42 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.19% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chilean(s)

adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.2%

male: 95.4%

female: 95% (1995 est.)



Chile Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chile

conventional short form: Chile

local long form: Republica de Chile

local short form: Chile

Government type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso

note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981, amended 30 July 1989, 1993, and 1997

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16 January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent of vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular vote and 10 appointed (all former presidents who served 6 years are senators for life); members serve eight-year terms - one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2001); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2001)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CPD (PDC 14, PS 4, PPD 2), RN 7, UDI 10, UCCP 1, independents 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CPD 50.55% (PDC 22.98%, PS 11.10%, PPD 12.55%, PRSD 3.13%), RN 16.78%, UDI 14.43%; seats by party - CPD 70 (PDC 39, PPD 16, PRSD 4, PS 11), RN 24, UDI 21, Socialist Party 1, right-wing independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: Center-Center Union Party or UCCP [Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ricardo HORMAZABAL]; Coalition of Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD - including PDC, PS, PPD, PRSD; Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Pablo LONGUEIRA]; National Renewal or RN [Alberto CARDEMIL]; Party for Democracy or PPD [Guido GIRARDI]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Anselmo SULE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ricardo NUNEZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andres BIANCHI

chancery: 1140 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746

FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John O'LEARY

embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago

mailing address: APO AA 34033

telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600

FAX: [56] (2) 339-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag



Chile Economy

Economy - overview: Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military in 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in 1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic growth for the first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of 1999, exports and economic activity had begun to recover, and growth rebounded to 5.5% in 2000. Unemployment remains stubbornly high, however, putting pressure on President LAGOS to improve living standards. Meanwhile, Chile has launched free trade negotiations with the US.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $153.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8%

industry: 38%

services: 54% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 41.3% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5.8 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 14%, industry 27%, services 59% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (December 2000)

Budget: revenues: $16 billion

expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 38.092 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 61%

hydro: 35%

nuclear: 0%

other: 4% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 35.426 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Exports: $18 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 27%, US 16%, Japan 14%, Brazil 6%, Argentina 5% (1998)

Imports: $17 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles, fuels, electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food

Imports - partners: US 24%, EU 23%, Argentina 11%, Brazil 6%, Japan 6%, Mexico 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $39 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $40 million (2001 est.)

Currency: Chilean peso (CLP)

Currency code: CLP

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos per US dollar - 571.12 (January 2001), 535.47 (2000), 508.78 (1999), 460.29 (1998), 419.30 (1997), 412.27 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Chile Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.603 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 944,225 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities

domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (one inactive) (1998)

Radios: 5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.15 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cl

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2000)

Internet users: 625,000 (2000)



Chile Transportation

Railways: total: 6,701 km

broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1317 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 117 km 1.067-m gauge (28 km electrified); 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total: 79,800 km

paved: 11,012 km

unpaved: 68,788 km (1996)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso

Merchant marine: total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 606,506 GRT/884,023 DWT

ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, container 4, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 366 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 69

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 22

914 to 1,523 m: 21

under 914 m: 14 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 297

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 62

under 914 m: 219 (2000 est.)



Chile Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force, Carabineros of Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

note: Carabineros and Investigations Police are normally administered by the Ministry of Interior, but in times of national emergency, they are considered part of the military

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,057,466 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,003,134 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 136,830 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.1% (FY99)



Chile Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined for the US and Europe; economic prosperity has made Chile more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising

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@China



China Introduction

Background: For centuries China has stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the first half of the 20th century, China was beset by major famines, civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making. Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the world's second largest GDP. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls continue to weaken.



China Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 9,596,960 sq km

land: 9,326,410 sq km

water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: total: 22,147.24 km

border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,676.9 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m

highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 43%

forests and woodland: 14%

other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US)



China People

Population: 1,273,111,290 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.01% (male 166,754,893; female 151,598,117)

15-64 years: 67.88% (male 445,222,858; female 418,959,646)

65 years and over: 7.11% (male 42,547,296; female 48,028,480) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.95 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.62 years

male: 69.81 years

female: 73.59 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 500,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 17,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.)

note: officially atheist

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.5%

male: 89.9%

female: 72.7% (1995 est.)



China Government

Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of China

conventional short form: China

local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo

local short form: Zhong Guo

abbreviation: PRC

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998)

head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18 March 1998)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)

elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March 1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress

election results: JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained, and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held NA December 1997-NA February 1998 (next to be held late 2002-NA March 2003)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate YANG Jiechi

chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph W. PRUEHER

embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3431

FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6422

consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner



China Economy

Economy - overview: In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state managers and enterprises has been steadily increasing. The authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In 2000, with its 1.26 billion people but a GDP of just $3,600 per capita, China stood as the second largest economy in the world after the US (measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises many of which had been shielded from competition by subsides and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to maintaining growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Weakness in the global economy in 2001 could hamper growth in exports. Beijing will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure—such as water control and power grids—and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on farmers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%

industry: 50%

services: 35% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 10% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 700 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 24%, services 26% (1998)

Unemployment rate: urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.173 trillion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 79.82%

hydro: 18.98%

nuclear: 1.2%

other: 0.01% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.084 trillion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 7.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 90 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports: $232 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels

Exports - partners: US 21%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 17%, South Korea, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Singapore, Taiwan (2000)

Imports: $197 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals

Imports - partners: Japan 18%, Taiwan 11%, US 10%, South Korea 10%, Germany, Hong Kong, Russia, Malaysia (2000)

Debt - external: $162 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: yuan (CNY)

Currency code: CNY

Exchange rates: yuan per US dollar - 8.2776 (January 2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996)

note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year



China Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 135 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 65 million (January 2001)

Telephone system: general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns

domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place

international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios: 417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)

Televisions: 400 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 22 million (January 2001)



China Transportation

Railways: total: 67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)

standard gauge: 63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified; 20,250 km double track)

narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge local industrial lines (1998 est.)

note: a new total of 68,000 km was estimated for early 1999 to take new construction programs into account (1999)

Highways: total: 1.4 million km

paved: 271,300 km (with at least 16,000 km of expressways)

unpaved: 1,128,700 km (1999)

Waterways: 110,000 km (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas 9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine: total: 1,745 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,533,521 GRT/24,746,859 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 324, cargo 825, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 132, liquefied gas 24, multi-functional large-load carrier 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 258, refrigerated cargo 22, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 41, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 489 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 324

over 3,047 m: 27

2,438 to 3,047 m: 88

1,524 to 2,437 m: 147

914 to 1,523 m: 30

under 914 m: 32 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 165

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 29

914 to 1,523 m: 56

under 914 m: 78 (2000 est.)



China Military

Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA) - which includes Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 366,306,353 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 200,886,946 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 10,089,458 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $12.608 billion (FY99); note - China's real defense spending may be several times higher than the official figure because a number of significant items are funded elsewhere

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)



China Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of boundary with India in dispute; dispute over at least two small sections of the boundary with Russia remains to be settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; portions of the boundary with Tajikistan are indefinite; 33-km section of boundary with North Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary agreement with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin awaits ratification; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for chemical precursors and methamphetamine

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@Christmas Island



Christmas Island Introduction

Background: Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed and settlement was begun by the UK in 1888. Phosphate mining began in the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to Australia in 1958. The phosphate mine, closed in 1987, was reopened four years later, but the need for an alternative industry has spurred investment in tourism. Old mining areas are being restored, and almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.



Christmas Island Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 135 sq km

land: 135 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 12 NM

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use: arable land: NA%

permanent crops: NA%

permanent pastures: NA%

forests and woodland: NA%

other: NA%

note: mainly tropical rainforest of which 60%-70% is in a national park

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean



Christmas Island People

Population: 2,771 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate: 7.77% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Christmas Islander(s)

adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English, Chinese, Malay



Christmas Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island

conventional short form: Christmas Island

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general

head of government: Administrator William Leonard TAYLOR (since 4 February 1999)

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)

elections: last held NA December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2001)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Christmas Island Economy

Economy - overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened by union workers. With the support of the government, Australian-based Casinos Austria International Ltd. built a $34 million casino on Christmas Island, which opened in 1993. As of yearend 1999, gaming facilities at the casino were temporarily closed but were expected to reopen in early 2000. Another economic prospect is the possible location of a space-launching site on the island.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people (1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: NA

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: phosphate

Exports - partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: consumer goods

Imports - partners: principally Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Christmas Island Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth stations - one Intelsat earth station provides telephone and telex service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 600 (1997)

Internet country code: .cx

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Christmas Island Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways: total: 140 km (not including 100 km that is maintained by private industry)

paved: 30 km

unpaved: 110 km (1999)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Christmas Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Christmas Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Clipperton Island



Clipperton Island Introduction

Background: This isolated island was named for John CLIPPERTON, a pirate who made it his hideout early in the 18th century. Annexed by France in 1855, it was seized by Mexico in 1897. Arbitration eventually awarded the island to France, which took possession in 1935.



Clipperton Island Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area: total: 7 sq km

land: 7 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: reef about 8 km in circumference



Clipperton Island People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Clipperton Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Clipperton Island

local long form: none

local short form: Ile Clipperton

former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Clipperton Island Economy

Economy - overview: Although 115 species of fish have been identified in the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic activity is tuna fishing.



Clipperton Island Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Clipperton Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Clipperton Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Introduction

Background: The islands were discovered in 1609, but remained uninhabited until the 19th century. Annexed by the UK in 1857, they were transferred to the Australian Government in 1955. The population on the two inhabited islands is split between the mostly Europeans on West Island and the Malays on Home Island.



Cocos (Keeling) Islands Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 14 sq km

land: 14 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area - comparative: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year

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