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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Philip DIMITROV

chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969

FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973

consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard M. MILES

embassy: 1 Suborna Street, Sofia

mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5740

telephone: [359] (2) 980-52-41

FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)



Bulgaria Economy

Economy - overview: Bulgaria, a former communist country struggling to enter the European market economy, suffered a major economic downturn in 1996 and 1997, with triple digit inflation and GDP contraction of 10.6% and 6.9%. The current government - which took office in May 1997 after pre-term parliamentary elections - stabilized the economy and promoted growth by implementing a currency board, practicing sound financial policies, invigorating privatization, and pursuing structural reforms. Additionally, strong assistance from international financial institutions - most notably the IMF which approved a three-year Extended Fund Facility worth approximately $900 million in September 1998 - played a critical role in turning the economy around. After several years of tumult, Bulgaria's economy has stabilized. Its better-than-expected economic performance in 1999 - despite the impact of the Kosovo conflict, the 1998 Russian financial crisis, and structural reforms - and strong growth in 2000 portends solid growth over the next few years; this assumes continued fiscal restraint, additional structural reforms, aid from abroad, and prosperous times in the EU economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $48 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%

industry: 29%

services: 56% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.83 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 17.7% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $4.85 billion

expenditures: $4.92 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: electricity, gas and water; food, beverages and tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate: 10.8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 36.217 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 51.52%

hydro: 8.35%

nuclear: 40.12%

other: 0.01% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 33.182 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 2.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.7 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets

Exports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels

Exports - partners: Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%, Yugoslavia 8%, Belgium 6%, France 5%, US 4% (2000)

Imports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles

Imports - partners: Russia 24%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%, Greece 5%, France 5%, Romania 4%, Turkey 3%, US 3% (2000)

Debt - external: $10.4 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: lev (BGL)

Currency code: BGL

Exchange rates: leva per US dollar - 2.0848 (January 2001), 2.1233 (2000), 1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997), 177.89 (1996)

note: on 5 July 1999, the lev was redenominated; the post-5 July 1999 lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 lev

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bulgaria Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.255 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 596,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: extensive but antiquated

domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay

international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 24, FM 93, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 96 (plus 1,030 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code: .bg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 26 (2000)

Internet users: 200,000 (2000)



Bulgaria Transportation

Railways: total: 4,294 km

standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified; 917 km double track)

narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total: 36,724 km

paved: 33,786 km (including 314 km of expressways)

unpaved: 2,938 km (1999)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine: total: 81 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 938,706 GRT/1,440,374 DWT

ships by type: bulk 44, cargo 16, chemical tanker 4, container 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 6, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 215 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 128

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 87

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 75 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Bulgaria Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Forces, Internal Troops

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,891,498 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,581,697 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 56,104 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $344 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.4% (FY00)



Bulgaria Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals

======================================================================

@Burkina Faso



Burkina Faso Introduction

Background: Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) in 1960. Governmental instability during the 1970s and 1980s was followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Several hundred thousand farm workers migrate south every year to Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana.



Burkina Faso Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 274,200 sq km

land: 273,800 sq km

water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries: total: 3,192 km

border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 548 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m

highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver

Land use: arable land: 13%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 22%

forests and woodland: 50%

other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked



Burkina Faso People

Population: 12,272,289

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.5% (male 2,937,285; female 2,892,107)

15-64 years: 49.59% (male 2,903,153; female 3,183,121)

65 years and over: 2.91% (male 150,688; female 205,935) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 44.79 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 17.05 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.41 years

male: 45.86 years

female: 46.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.44% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 350,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 43,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)

adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 19.2%

male: 29.5%

female: 9.2% (1995 est.)



Burkina Faso Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Burkina Faso

former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

note: a new electoral code was approved by the National Assembly in January 1997; the number of administrative provinces was increased from 30 to 45 (Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Naumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondomo, Zoundweogo), however, this change has not yet been confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 11 December (1958)

Constitution: 2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6 November 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; the president may serve unlimited terms; election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature

election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5% percent of the vote, 56% of voter turnout

note: President COMPAORE faces an increasingly well-coordinated opposition; recent charges against a former member of his Presidential Guard in the 1998 assassination of a newspaper editor signify an attempt to defuse chronic areas of dissatisfaction

Legislative branch: bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (111 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the purely consultative Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants (178 seats; members are appointed to serve three-year terms)

elections: National Assembly election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDP 101, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Noyabtigungu Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or HBDHP; Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bruno ZIDOUEMBA

chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jimmy J. KOLKER

embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follerau, Koulouba, Secteur 4, Ouagadougou

mailing address: B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01

telephone: [226] 306723

FAX: [226] 303890

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Burkina Faso Economy

Economy - overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. About 90% of the population is engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture which is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of its macroeconomic progress in 2001-02 depends on continued low inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to encourage private investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 26%

industry: 27%

services: 47% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 39.5% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1999)

note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $277 million

expenditures: $492 million, including capital expenditures of $233 million (1995 est.)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

Electricity - production: 285 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 71.93%

hydro: 28.07%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 265.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports: $220 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, animal products, gold

Exports - partners: Italy 13%, France 10%, Indonesia 8%, Thailand 7% (1999)

Imports: $610 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum

Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire 30%, France 28%, Spain 3%, Benelux 3% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $484.1 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Burkina Faso Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 36,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,503 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: all services only fair

domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communication stations

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 370,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 100,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 4,000 (2000)



Burkina Faso Transportation

Railways: total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and 105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)

narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 12,506 km

paved: 2,001 km

unpaved: 10,505 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 33 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 16 (2000 est.)



Burkina Faso Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's Militia

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,592,974 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,329,995 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $66 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96)



Burkina Faso Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Burma



Burma Introduction

Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the military junta ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi, under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, was again placed under house detention in September 2000; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.



Burma Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 678,500 sq km

land: 657,740 sq km

water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,876 km

border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m

highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 15%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 49%

other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes



Burma People

Population: 41,994,678

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.14% (male 6,245,798; female 5,992,074)

15-64 years: 66.08% (male 13,779,571; female 13,970,707)

65 years and over: 4.78% (male 895,554; female 1,110,974) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.13 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.3 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.16 years

male: 53.73 years

female: 56.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.99% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 530,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 48,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burmese (singular and plural)

adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 83.1%

male: 88.7%

female: 77.7% (1995 est.)

note: these are official statistics; estimates of functional literacy are likely closer to 30% (1999 est.)



Burma Government

Country name: conventional long form: Union of Burma

conventional short form: Burma

local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)

local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw

former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Government type: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution; progress has since been stalled

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta, so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18 September 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration Council; the SPDC oversees the cabinet

elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NLD 392, SNLD 23, NUP 10, other 60

Judicial branch: remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (proregime) [THA KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [U KHUN TUN OO]; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (proregime, a social and political organization) [THAN AUNG, general secretary]; and other smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: All Burma Student Democratic Front or ABSDF; Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU; National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB [Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government; several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA

International organization participation: ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate U LINN MYAING

chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044

FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Permanent Charge d'Affaires Priscilla A. CLAPP

embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)

mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546

telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282182

FAX: [95] (1) 280409

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions



Burma Economy

Economy - overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the 1990s has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three decades of tight central planning. Private activity markedly increased in the early to mid-1990s, but began to decline in the past several years due to frustrations with the unfriendly business environment and political pressure from western nations. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume of black-market, illicit, and border trade. A major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Burma remains a poor Asian country and living standards for the majority have not improved over the past decade. Short-term growth will continue to be restrained because of poor government planning and minimal foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $63.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 42%

industry: 17%

services: 41% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1999)

Labor force: 19.7 million (FY98/99 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 10%, services 25% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (official FY97/98 est.)

Budget: revenues: $7.9 billion

expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7 billion (FY96/97)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 4.813 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 68.56%

hydro: 31.44%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 4.476 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; hardwood

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: apparel 36%, foodstuffs 22%, wood products 21%, precious stones 5% (1999)

Exports - partners: India 13%, Singapore 11%, China 11%, US 8% (1999 est.)

note: official trade statistics do not include trade in illicit goods - such as narcotics, teak, and gems - or the largely unrecorded border trade with China and Thailand

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials, food products

Imports - partners: Singapore 28%, Thailand 12%, China 10%, Japan 10%, South Korea 9% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $6 billion (FY99/00 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $99 million (FY98/99)

Currency: kyat (MMK)

Currency code: MMK

Exchange rates: kyats per US dollar - official rate - 6.5972 (January 2001), 6.5167 (2000), 6.2858 (1999), 6.3432 (1998), 6.2418 (1997), 5.9176 (1996); kyats per US dollar - black market exchange rate - 435 (yearend 2000)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Burma Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 250,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,492 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government; international service is good

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1998)

Televisions: 320,000 (2000)

Internet country code: .mm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1

note: as of September 2000, Internet connections were legal only for the government, tourist offices, and a few large businesses (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Burma Transportation

Railways: total: 3,991 km

narrow gauge: 3,991 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 28,200 km

paved: 3,440 km

unpaved: 24,760 km (1996)

Waterways: 12,800 km

note: 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine: total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 411,181 GRT/632,769 DWT

ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 20, container 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Japan 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 80 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 71

over 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 32 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Burma Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 12,050,964

females age 15-49: 12,070,017

note: both sexes liable for military service (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 6,425,514

females age 15-49: 6,419,677 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 470,667

females: 479,691 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY97/98)



Burma Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: sporadic border hostilities with Thailand over border alignment and ethnic Shan rebels operating in cross-border region

Illicit drugs: world's second largest producer of illicit opium, after Afghanistan (potential production in 1999 - 1,090 metric tons, down 38% due to drought; cultivation in 1999 - 89,500 hectares, a 31% decline from 1998); surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major counternarcotics success, but lack of government will and ability to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; becoming a major source of methamphetamine for regional consumption

======================================================================

@Burundi



Burundi Introduction

Background: Between 1993 and 2000, wide-spread, often intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi created hundreds of thousands of refugees and left tens of thousands dead. Although some refugees have returned from neighboring countries, continued ethnic strife has forced many others to flee. Burundian troops, seeking to secure their borders, have intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.



Burundi Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 27,830 sq km

land: 25,650 sq km

water: 2,180 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 974 km

border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m

highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 44%

permanent crops: 9%

permanent pastures: 36%

forests and woodland: 3%

other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides, drought

Environment - current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed



Burundi People

Population: 6,223,897

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.82% (male 1,472,618; female 1,441,548)

15-64 years: 50.37% (male 1,541,131; female 1,593,743)

65 years and over: 2.81% (male 71,984; female 102,873) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.38% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.13 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.36 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.06 years

male: 45.15 years

female: 46.99 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.16 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.32% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 360,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 39,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burundian(s)

adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 35.3%

male: 49.3%

female: 22.5% (1995 est.)



Burundi Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Burundi

conventional short form: Burundi

local long form: Republika y'u Burundi

local short form: Burundi

former: Urundi

Government type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA June 1998), Second Vice President Mathias SINAMENYE (since NA June 1998); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president

elections: NA; current president assumed power following a coup on 25 July 1996 in which former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (121 seats; note - new Transitional Constitution expanded the number of seats from 81 to 121 in 1998; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in 1998, but suspended by presidential decree in 1996)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, various other parties 40

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)

Political parties and leaders: Two national, mainstream governing parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Luc RUKINGAMA, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]

note: A multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph NZENZIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Loosely organized Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Tutsi extremist parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas NDIKUMANA

chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Carlin YATES

embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura

mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura

telephone: [257] 223454

FAX: [257] 222926

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)



Burundi Economy

Economy - overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 250,000 persons and the displacement of about 800,000 others. Only one in four children go to school, and one in nine adults has HIV/AIDS. Foods, medicines, and electricity remain in short supply.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $720 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 50%

industry: 18%

services: 32% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36.2% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 26.6% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million

Labor force - by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $125 million

expenditures: $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 141 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.71%

hydro: 99.29%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 160.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 29 million kWh

note: supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Exports: $32 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners: Germany 17%, Belgium 14%, US 8%, France 6%, Switzerland 4% (1999)

Imports: $110 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Belgium 20%, Zambia 11%, Kenya 8%, South Africa 5%, France 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.12 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.344 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: Burundi franc (BIF)

Currency code: BIF

Exchange rates: Burundi francs per US dollar - 782.36 (January 2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999), 477.77 (1998), 352.35 (1997), 302.75 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Burundi Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 16,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 619 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: primitive system

domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 440,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 25,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Burundi Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 14,480 km

paved: 1,028 km

unpaved: 13,452 km (1996)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Burundi Military

Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,394,273 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 728,326 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 79,360 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $57 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.1% (FY97)



Burundi Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Cambodia



Cambodia Introduction

Background: Following a five-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and touched off 13 years of fighting. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces.



Cambodia Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 181,040 sq km

land: 176,520 sq km

water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: total: 2,572 km

border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m

highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 13%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 11%

forests and woodland: 66%

other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues: illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December 1998

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap



Cambodia People

Population: 12,491,501

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.25% (male 2,626,821; female 2,526,510)

15-64 years: 55.28% (male 3,253,611; female 3,651,129)

65 years and over: 3.47% (male 177,577; female 255,853) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 33.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 65.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.82 years

male: 54.62 years

female: 59.12 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.74 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 220,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 14,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cambodian(s)

adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 35%

male: 48%

female: 22% (1990 est.)



Cambodia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia

conventional short form: Cambodia

local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea

local short form: Kampuchea

former: Khmer Republic, Kampuchea Republic

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pailin*, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu* (Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev

Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; prime minister appointed by the monarch after a vote of confidence by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional constituencies"; members serve five-year terms

elections: National Assembly - last held 26 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2003); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 41%, FUNCINPEC 32%, SRP 14%, other 13%; seats by party - CPP 64, FUNCINPEC 43, SRP 15; Senate - seats by party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority

Political parties and leaders: Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP [NGUON SOEUR]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP (formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) [SAM RANGSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roland ENG

chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742

FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kent M. WIEDEMANN

embassy: 16-18 Mongkol lem St. 228, Phnom Penh

mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546

telephone: [855] (23) 216-436

FAX: [855] (23) 216-437

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band



Cambodia Economy

Economy - overview: Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-98 due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 4%. GDP growth for 2000 had been projected to reach 5.5%, but the worst flooding in 70 years severely damaged agricultural crops, and high oil prices hurt industrial production, and growth for the year is estimated at only 4%. Tourism is Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid. On the brighter side, the government is addressing these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 43%

industry: 20%

services: 37% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $363 million

expenditures: $532 million, including capital expenditures of $225 million (2000 est.)

Industries: garments, tourism, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 147 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 59.18%

hydro: 40.82%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 136.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports: $942 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish

Exports - partners: Vietnam 18%, Thailand 15%, US 10%, Singapore 8%, China 5% (1997)

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: cigarettes, gold, construction materials, petroleum products, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners: Thailand 16%, Vietnam 9%, Japan 7%, Hong Kong 5%, China 5% (1997)

Debt - external: $829 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $548 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2001 by international donors

Currency: riel (KHR)

Currency code: KHR

Exchange rates: riels per US dollar - 3,909.0 (January 2001), 3,840.8 (2000), 3,807.8 (1999), 3,744.4 (1998), 2,946.3 (1997), 2,624.1 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cambodia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,800 (mid-1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 80,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little telephone service

domestic: NA

international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1999)

Televisions: 94,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .kh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Cambodia Transportation

Railways: total: 603 km

narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 35,769 km

paved: 4,165 km

unpaved: 31,604 km (1997)

Waterways: 3,700 km

note: navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less; 282 km navigable to craft drawing as much as 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine: total: 295 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,305,932 GRT/1,853,487 DWT

ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 237, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 3, container 8, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 7, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea passenger 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 3, South Korea 1, Malta 1, Panama 1, Russia 1, Singapore 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 19 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



Cambodia Military

Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF), including Army, Navy, and Air Force - created in 1993 by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two noncommunist resistance armies

note: Khmer Rouge and royalist insurgent forces were integrated into the RCAF in 1999

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,877,137 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,610,761 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 162,643 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $112 million (FY01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3% (FY01 est.)



Cambodia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: portions of boundary with Vietnam are disputed; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite

Illicit drugs: possible money laundering; narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the international market

======================================================================

@Cameroon



Cameroon Introduction

Background: The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.



Cameroon Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 475,440 sq km

land: 469,440 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 4,591 km

border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 50 NM

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 13%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 4%

forests and woodland: 78%

other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases

Environment - current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa



Cameroon People

Population: 15,803,220

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.37% (male 3,385,898; female 3,310,504)

15-64 years: 54.28% (male 4,305,354; female 4,271,958)

65 years and over: 3.35% (male 244,419; female 285,087) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.41% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 36.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 11.99 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.) NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.59 years

male: 53.76 years

female: 55.44 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 7.73% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 540,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 52,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cameroonian(s)

adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 63.4%

male: 75%

female: 52.1% (1995 est.)



Cameroon Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon

conventional short form: Cameroon

former: French Cameroon

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990)

note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Republic Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally adopted; revised January 1996

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19 September 1996)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the Prime Minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares relatively meaningless

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the legislature)

elections: last held 17 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RDCP 109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note - results from 7 contested seats were cancelled by the Supreme Court, further elections on 3 August 1997 gave these seats to the RDPC

note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [leader NA]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MLJC [Marcel YONDO]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Cameroonian Populations has two sections UPC-N [Ndeh NTUMAZAH] and UPC-K [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM [Vishe FAI, secretary general]; Southern Cameroon National Council [Nfor Ngala NFOR, acting]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C, CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA

chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790

FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES

embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde

mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520

telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 22-25-89, 23-05-12, 22-17-94

FAX: [237] 23-07-53

branch office(s): Douala

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Cameroon Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however, the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget transparency and privatization. Higher oil prices in 2000 helped to offset the country's lower cocoa export revenues. A rebound in the cocoa market should increase growth to over 5% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 43.4%

industry: 20.1%

services: 36.5% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 48% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.1 billion

expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.47 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.59%

hydro: 97.41%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.227 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners: Italy 24%, France 18%, Netherlands 10% (2000 est.)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners: France 29%, Germany 7%, US 6%, Japan 6% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $10.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; total debt relief now amounts to $1.26 billion

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Cameroon Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 75,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,200 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: available only to business and government

domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1998)

Televisions: 450,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .cm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Cameroon Transportation

Railways: total: 1,104 km

narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 34,300 km

paved: 4,288 km

unpaved: 30,012 km (1995)

Waterways: 2,090 km (of decreasing importance)

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports: 49 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 38

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 21

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)



Cameroon Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,762,369 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,903,149 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 174,308 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $118.6 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY98/99)



Cameroon Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is complete and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; tripartite maritime boundary and economic zone dispute with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria is currently before the ICJ

======================================================================

@Canada



Canada Introduction

Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.



Canada Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area: total: 9,976,140 sq km

land: 9,220,970 sq km

water: 755,170 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries: total: 8,893 km

border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 5%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 3%

forests and woodland: 54%

other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US/Canada border



Canada People

Population: 31,592,805 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.95% (male 3,067,102; female 2,918,839)

15-64 years: 68.28% (male 10,846,151; female 10,725,800)

65 years and over: 12.77% (male 1,715,071; female 2,319,842) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.21 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.47 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.56 years

male: 76.16 years

female: 83.13 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 49,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 400 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%

Religions: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 40%, other 18%

Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97% (1986 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Canada Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Canada

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day/Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be held 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party as of January 2001 - Liberal Party 42%, Canadian Alliance 22%, Bloc Quebecois 13%, New Democratic Party 4%, Progressive Conservative Party 4%; seats by party as of January 2001 - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)

Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian Alliance [Stockwell DAY]; Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party [Joe CLARK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KERGIN

chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001

telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740

FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle

consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon D. GIFFIN

embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8

mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430

telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470

FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720

consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band



Canada Economy

Economy - overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Real rates of growth have averaged nearly 3.0% since 1993. Unemployment is falling and government budget surpluses are being partially devoted to reducing the large public sector debt. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) have touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas, which has been raising the possibility of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professional persons lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense high-tech infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $774.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 31%

services: 66% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2000)

Labor force: 16.1 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3% (2000)

Unemployment rate: 6.8% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $126.1 billion

expenditures: $125.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.8 billion (2000)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 567.193 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 26.38%

hydro: 60%

nuclear: 12.31%

other: 1.31% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 497.532 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 42.911 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 12.953 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports: $272.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, telecommunications equipment, electricity

Exports - partners: US 86%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China (1999)

Imports: $238.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, electricity

Imports - partners: US 76%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea (1999)

Debt - external: $1.9 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)

Currency: Canadian dollar (CAD)

Currency code: CAD

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.5032 (January 2001), 1.4851 (2000), 1.4857 (1999), 1.4835 (1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Canada Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18.5 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.207 million (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology

domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 21.5 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ca

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 760 (2000 est.)

Internet users: 13.28 million (1999)



Canada Transportation

Railways: total: 36,114 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own

standard gauge: 36,114 km 1.435-m gauge (156 km electrified) (1998)

Highways: total: 901,902 km

paved: 318,371 km (including 16,571 km of expressways)

unpaved: 583,531 km (1999)

Waterways: 3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine: total: 121 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,767,259 GRT/2,633,290 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 67, cargo 13, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 17, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1,417 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 517

over 3,047 m: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 15

1,524 to 2,437 m: 151

914 to 1,523 m: 244

under 914 m: 89 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 900

1,524 to 2,437 m: 74

914 to 1,523 m: 362

under 914 m: 464 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 18 (2000 est.)



Canada Military

Military branches: Canadian Forces (includes Land Forces Command or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,325,084 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 7,114,851 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 215,627 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7.5 billion (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY00/01)



Canada Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

======================================================================

@Cape Verde



Cape Verde Introduction

Background: The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading center for African slaves. Most Cape Verdeans descend from both groups. Independence was achieved in 1975.



Cape Verde Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total: 4,033 sq km

land: 4,033 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use: arable land: 11%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 6%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,500 to 2,000 hectares (1999)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site



Cape Verde People

Population: 405,163 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.79% (male 87,458; female 85,895)

15-64 years: 50.76% (male 97,812; female 107,834)

65 years and over: 6.45% (male 10,204; female 15,960) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.92% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.71 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.19 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 53.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.21 years

male: 65.93 years

female: 72.6 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Cape Verdean(s)

adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 71.6%

male: 81.4%

female: 63.8% (1995 est.)



Cape Verde Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde

conventional short form: Cape Verde

local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde

local short form: Cabo Verde

Government type: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal; note - there may be a new administrative structure of 16 districts (Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau, Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal)

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the powers of the president

Legal system: derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 1991)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister from among the members of the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note: the election was won by only twelve votes

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%, ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia

Political parties and leaders: African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Antonio Gualberto do ROSARIO, president]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Dr. Oresimo SILVEIRA, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]; Union for an Independent Democratic Cape Verde or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO, president]

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