HotFreeBooks.com
The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party or AP [Semyon SHARETSKY, chairman]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian Ecological Green Party (merger of Belarusian Ecological Party and Green Party of Belarus) [leader NA]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian Social-Democrat or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Party Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman]; Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's Party Nadezhda [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy TSEPAKLO

chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604

FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KOZAK

embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83

FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853

Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears the Belarusian national ornament in red



Belarus Economy

Economy - overview: Belarus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by extremely high inflation, businesses have been subject to pressure on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, and retroactive application of new business regulations prohibiting practices that had been legal. Further economic problems are two consecutive bad harvests, 1998-99, and persistent trade deficits. Close relations with Russia, possibly leading to reunion, color the pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Belarus remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $78.8 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13%

industry: 46%

services: 41% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.9%

highest 10%: 19.4% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 200% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.8 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: industry and construction NA%, agriculture and forestry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 2.1% officially registered unemployed (December 2000); large number of underemployed workers

Budget: revenues: $4 billion

expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1997 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earth movers, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 24.911 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.9%

hydro: 0.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 27.647 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 2.62 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 7.1 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk

Exports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Russia 66%, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Lithuania (1998)

Imports: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: mineral products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Russia 54%, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Lithuania (1998)

Debt - external: $1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $194.3 million (1995)

Currency: Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)

Currency code: BYB/BYR

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubles per US dollar - 1,180 (yearend 2000), 730,000 (15 December 1999), 139,000 (25 January 1999), 46,080 (second quarter 1998), 25,964 (1997), 15,500 (yearend 1996); note - on 1 January 2000, the national currency was redenominated at one new ruble to 2,000 old rubles

Fiscal year: calendar year



Belarus Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,167 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly

domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Belarus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational

international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 2.52 million (1997)

Internet country code: .by

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Belarus Transportation

Railways: total: 5,523 km

broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total: 63,355 km

paved: 60,567 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

unpaved: 2,788 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1998)

Waterways: NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal and river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas 1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Mazyr

Airports: 136 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 33

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 103

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 65 (2000 est.)



Belarus Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,729,956 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,138,743 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 86,396 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $156 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)



Belarus Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe

======================================================================

@Belgium



Belgium Introduction

Background: Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.



Belgium Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 30,510 sq km

land: 30,230 sq km

water: 280 sq km

Area - comparative: about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 1,385 km

border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 66 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: median line with neighbors

exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: North Sea 0 m

highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 20%

forests and woodland: 21%

other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues: the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry, intense animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now resolved) have impeded progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of both the EU and NATO



Belgium People

Population: 10,258,762 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.48% (male 916,957; female 876,029)

15-64 years: 65.57% (male 3,390,145; female 3,336,908)

65 years and over: 16.95% (male 709,212; female 1,029,511) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.16% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.74 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.96 years

male: 74.63 years

female: 81.46 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,700 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belgian(s)

adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups: Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Dutch 58%, French 32%, German 10%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Belgium Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium

conventional short form: Belgium

local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie

local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch

Capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Flemish: provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams Brabant, West-Vlaanderen; note - the Brussels Capitol Region is not included within the 10 provinces

Independence: 21 July 1831 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 July (1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch

head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved by Parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch and then approved by Parliament

note: government coalition - VLD, PRL, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 June 1999 (next to be held in NA 2003)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - VLD 15.4%, CVP 14.7%, PRL 10.6%, PS 9.7%, VB 9.4%, SP 8.9%, ECOLO 7.4%, AGALEV 7.1%, PSC 6.0%, VU 5.1%; seats by party - VLD 11, CVP 10, PS 10, PRL 9, VB 6, SP 6, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, PSC 5, VU 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD 14.3%, CVP 14.1%, PS 10.2%, PRL 10.1%, VB 9.9%, SP 9.5%, ECOLO 7.4%, AGALEV 7.0%, PSC 5.9%, VU 5.6%; seats by party - VLD 23, CVP 22, PS 19, PRL 18, VB 15, SP 14, ECOLO 11, PSC 10, AGALEV 9, VU 8, FN 1

note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms of the listed parties see Political parties and leaders

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Dos GEYSELS]; ECOLO (Francophone Greens) [no president]; Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP (Christian People's Party) [Stefaan DE CLERCK, president]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT, president]; Flemish Socialist Party or SP [Patrick JANSSENS, president]; Francophone Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian Party) [Joelle MILQUET, president]; Francophone Liberal Reformation Party or PRL [Daniel DUCARME, president]; Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO, president]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; Vlaams Blok or VB [Frank VANHECKE]; Volksunie or VU [leader vacant]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alexis REYN

chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900

FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels

mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710

telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111

FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France



Belgium Economy

Economy - overview: This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although the government is encouraging investment in the southern region of Wallonia. With few natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. About three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Belgium's public debt is expected to fall below 100% of GDP in 2002, and the government has succeeded in balancing is budget. Belgium became a charter member of the European Monetary Union (EMU) in January 1999. Economic growth in 2000 was broad based, putting the government in a good position to pursue its energy market liberalization policies and planned tax cuts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $259.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.4%

industry: 26%

services: 72.6% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 4%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 20.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.34 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture 2% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $114.8 billion

expenditures: $117 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.6 billion (1999)

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 79.829 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 40.01%

hydro: 0.42%

nuclear: 58.33%

other: 1.24% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 75.089 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 8.207 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 9.055 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports: $181.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal products

Exports - partners: EU 76% (Germany 18%, France 18%, Netherlands 12%, UK 10%) (1999)

Imports: $166 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and metal products

Imports - partners: EU 71% (Germany 18%, Netherlands 17%, France 14%, UK 9%) (1999)

Debt - external: $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $764 million (1997)

Currency: Belgian franc (BEF); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Belgium at a fixed rate of 40.3399 Belgian francs per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: BEF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Belgian francs per US dollar - 34.77 (January 1999), 36.229 (1998), 35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Belgium Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.769 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 974,494 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities

domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network

international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 4.72 million (1997)

Internet country code: .be

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 61 (2000)

Internet users: 2.7 million (2000)



Belgium Transportation

Railways: total: 3,437 km (2,446 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)

standard gauge: 3,437 km 1.435-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total: 145,774 km

paved: 116,182 km (including 1,674 km of expressways)

unpaved: 29,592 km (1999)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas 3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine: total: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 32,912 GRT/53,161 DWT

ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, petroleum tanker 6 (2000 est.)

Airports: 42 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 24

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 16 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Belgium Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Medical Service

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,517,596 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,079,624 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 63,247 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)



Belgium Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe

======================================================================

@Belize



Belize Introduction

Background: Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued by high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug trade, and increased urban crime.



Belize Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 22,966 sq km

land: 22,806 sq km

water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 516 km

border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM in the north, 3 NM in the south; note - from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial sea is 3 NM; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 2%

forests and woodland: 84%

other: 3% (2000 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean



Belize People

Population: 256,062 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.04% (male 54,876; female 52,780)

15-64 years: 54.43% (male 70,534; female 68,837)

65 years and over: 3.53% (male 4,403; female 4,632) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.7% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 31.69 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.19 years

male: 68.91 years

female: 73.57 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 170 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belizean(s)

adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 43.7%, Creole 29.8%, Maya 10%, Garifuna 6.2%, other 10.3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 70.3%

male: 70.3%

female: 70.3% (1991 est.)

note: other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%



Belize Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Belize

former: British Honduras

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister Said MUSA (since 27 August 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; governor general appoints the member of the House of Representatives who is leader of the majority party to be prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (eight members, five appointed on the advice of the prime minister, two on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and one by the governor general; members are appointed for five-year terms); and the House of Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 27 August 1998 (next to be held by NA August 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - PUP 59.2%, UDP 40.8%; seats by party - PUP 26, UDP 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean BARROW, Doug SINGH]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Diane HAYLOCK]; United Worker's Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa M. SHOMAN

chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636

FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carolyn CURIEL

embassy: 29 Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City

mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025

telephone: [501] (2) 77161

FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland



Belize Economy

Economy - overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming greater importance. Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for nearly half of exports, while the banana industry is the country's largest employer. The government's tough austerity program in 1997 resulted in an economic slowdown that continued in 1998. The trade deficit has been growing, mostly as a result of low export prices for sugar and bananas. The tourist and construction sectors strengthened in early 1999, supporting growth of 6% in 1999 and 4% in 2000. Aided by international donors, the government's key short-term objective remains the reduction of poverty.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $790 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 18%

industry: 24%

services: 58% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 33% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 71,000

note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 38%, industry 32%, services 30% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 12.8% (1999)

Budget: revenues: $157 million

expenditures: $279 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (1999)

Electricity - production: 185 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 56.76%

hydro: 43.24%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 172.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber; fish, cultured shrimp

Exports: $235.7 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners: US 42%, UK 33%, EU 12%, Caricom 4.8%, Canada 2%, Mexico 1% (1999)

Imports: $413 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, manufactured goods; food, beverages, tobacco; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 58%, Mexico 12%, UK 5% EU 5%, Central America 5%, Caricom 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $338 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Belizean dollar (BZD)

Currency code: BZD

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars per US dollar - 2.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Belize Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,023 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: above-average system

domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 41,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 12,000 (2000)



Belize Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,872 km

paved: 488 km

unpaved: 2,384 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 825 km (river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable)

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine: total: 402 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,575,851 GRT/2,241,731 DWT

ships by type: bulk 27, cargo 265, chemical tanker 6, combination ore/oil 1, container 14, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 56, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cuba 1, Singapore 1, US 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 44 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 40

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 29 (2000 est.)



Belize Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 62,698 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 37,174 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 2,847 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $17 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.4% (FY98/99)



Belize Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Guatemala periodically asserts claims to territory in southern Belize; to deter cross-border squatting, both states in 2000 agreed to a "line of adjacency" based on the de facto boundary, which is not recognized by Guatemala

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor money-laundering center

======================================================================

@Benin



Benin Introduction

Background: Dahomey gained its independence from France in 1960; the name was changed to Benin in 1975. From 1974 to 1989 the country was a socialist state; free elections were reestablished in 1991.



Benin Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 112,620 sq km

land: 110,620 sq km

water: 2,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 1,989 km

border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber

Land use: arable land: 13%

permanent crops: 4%

permanent pastures: 4%

forests and woodland: 31%

other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: no natural harbors



Benin People

Population: 6,590,782

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.32% (male 1,574,124; female 1,544,741)

15-64 years: 50.38% (male 1,607,900; female 1,712,360)

65 years and over: 2.3% (male 64,756; female 86,901) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.97% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 44.23 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.51 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 89.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.94 years

male: 49.02 years

female: 50.88 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.45% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 70,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,600 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Beninese (singular and plural)

adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 37.5%

male: 52.2%

female: 23.6% (2000)



Benin Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Benin

conventional short form: Benin

local long form: Republique du Benin

local short form: Benin

former: Dahomey

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital: Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou; note - six additional provinces have been reported but not confirmed; they are Alibori, Collines, Couffo, Donga, Littoral, and Plateau; moreover, the term "province" may have been changed to "department"

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1960)

Constitution: December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; runoff election held 22 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006)

election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%

note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first round presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%, Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of State) 8.6%; the second round balloting, originally scheduled for 18 March, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, in what was termed a "friendly match"

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 30 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RB 27, PRD 11, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 9, MADEP 6, E'toile 4, Alliance IPD 4, Car-DUNYA 3, MERCI 2, other 7

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Sylvain Adekpedjou AKINDES]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress or UNSP [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Cameleon Alliance or AC [leader NA]; Car-DUNYA [Saka SALEY]; Communist Party of Benin or PCB [Pascal FANTONDJI, first secretary]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Front for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA [Jerome Sakia KINA]; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Bertin BORNA]; Liberal Democrats' Rally for National Reconstruction-Vivoten or RDL-Vivoten [Severin ADJOVI]; Movement for Citizens' Commitment and Awakening or MERCI [Severin ADJOVI]; New Generation for the Republic or NGR [Paul DOSSOU]; Our Common Cause or NCC [Francois Odjo TANKPINON]; Party Democratique du Benin or PDB [Col. Soule DANKORO]; Rally for Democracy and Pan-Africanism or RDP [Dominique HOYMINOU, Dr. Giles Auguste MINONTIN]; Renaissance Party du Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union for National Democracy and Solidarity or UDS [Adamou N'Diaye MAMA]

note: the Coalition of Democratic Forces is an alliance of parties and organizations supporting President KEREKOU [Gatien HOUNGBEDJI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WADB, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN

chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656

FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela E. BRIDGEWATER

embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou

mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou

telephone: [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92

FAX: [229] 30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green band on the hoist side



Benin Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth in real output averaged a sound 5% in 1996-99, but a rapid population rise offset much of this growth. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. Commercial and transport activities, which make up a large part of GDP, are vulnerable to developments in Nigeria, particularly fuel shortages. The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation in recent years. While high fuel prices constrained growth in 2000, increased cotton production - enabled by a major restructuring program - and an expansion of the Cotonou port, may lead to increased growth in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,030 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 37.9%

industry: 13.5%

services: 48.6% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 37.2% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $299 million

expenditures: $445 million, including capital expenditures of $14 million (1995 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 226 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 24.78%

hydro: 75.22%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 510.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 300 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports: $396 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners: Brazil 14%, Libya 5%, Indonesia 4%, Italy 4% (1999)

Imports: $566 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, tobacco, petroleum products, capital goods

Imports - partners: France 38%, China 16%, UK 9%, Cote d'Ivoire 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $274.6 million (1997)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Benin Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 36,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,295 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: fair system of open wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 620,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one privately-owned) (1997)

Televisions: 60,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Benin Transportation

Railways: total: 578 km (single track)

narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 6,787 km

paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)

unpaved: 5,430 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: streams navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Benin Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,455,433

females age 15-49: 1,489,947

note: both sexes are liable for military service (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 743,980

females age 15-49: 755,149 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 70,088

females: 73,618 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $27 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY96)



Benin Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for Western Europe and the US

======================================================================

@Bermuda



Bermuda Introduction

Background: Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.



Bermuda Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area: total: 58.8 sq km

land: 58.8 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 94% (55% developed, 39% rural/open space) (1997 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space

Geography - note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995



Bermuda People

Population: 63,503 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.4% (male 6,091; female 6,230)

15-64 years: 69.43% (male 21,783; female 22,309)

65 years and over: 11.17% (male 3,073; female 4,017) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.74% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.12 years

male: 75.04 years

female: 79.06 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Bermudian(s)

adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions: non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 19%

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 98%

female: 99% (1970 est.)



Bermuda Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bermuda

former: Somers Islands

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968, amended 1989

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since NA June 1997)

head of government: Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; governor invites leader of largest party in Parliament to form a government as premier

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP 1%, independents 1%; seats by party - PLP 26, UBP 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela GORDON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [Betty CHRISTOPHER]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General Lawrence D. OWEN

consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton

mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520-5300

telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342

FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag



Bermuda Economy

Economy - overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing financial services for international firms and luxury tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to Bermudian fears of scaring away foreign firms. Government economic priorities are the further strengthening of the tourist and international financial sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $33,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 10%

services: 89% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 35,296 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $504.6 million

expenditures: $537 million, including capital expenditures of $75 million (FY97/98)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 550 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 511.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Exports: $56 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners: UK 29.5%, US 9.8% (1997)

Imports: $739 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners: US 34%, UK 9%, Mexico 8% (1997)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $27.9 million (1995)

Currency: Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Currency code: BMD

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Bermuda Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 52,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,980 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system

international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 66,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20 (2000)

Internet users: 25,000 (2000)



Bermuda Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 225 km

paved: 225 km

unpaved: 0 km

note: in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that are privately owned (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine: total: 105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,836,538 GRT/9,728,045 DWT

ships by type: bulk 27, cargo 4, container 15, liquefied gas 7, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 16, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Canada 10, Hong Kong 10, Japan 1, Nigeria 4, Saudi Arabia 1, Sweden 3, Switzerland 2, UK 10, US 7 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Bermuda Military

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Bermuda Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Bhutan



Bhutan Introduction

Background: Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later a treaty was signed whereby the country became a British protectorate. Independence was attained in 1949, with India subsequently guiding foreign relations and supplying aid. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of these displaced persons are housed in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. Maoist Assamese separatists from India, who have established themselves in the southeast portion of Bhutan, have drawn Indian cross-border incursions.



Bhutan Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 47,000 sq km

land: 47,000 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,075 km

border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m

highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 6%

forests and woodland: 66%

other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes



Bhutan People

Population: 2,049,412 (July 2001 est.)

note: other estimates range as low as 800,000

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.99% (male 424,832; female 394,725)

15-64 years: 56.05% (male 591,152; female 557,498)

65 years and over: 3.96% (male 41,125; female 40,080) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.17% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 35.73 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.03 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.79 years

male: 53.16 years

female: 52.41 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42.2%

male: 56.2%

female: 28.1% (1995 est.)



Bhutan Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan

conventional short form: Bhutan

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights; note - Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the National Assembly; on 7 July 1998, a Royal edict was ratified giving the National Assembly additional powers

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch: chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sangay NGEDUP (since NA 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 give the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)

elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)

election results: NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side



Bhutan Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38%

industry: 37%

services: 25% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $146 million

expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96 est.)

note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.856 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.05%

hydro: 99.95%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 191.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1.55 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 15 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

Exports: $154 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to India), precious stones, spices

Exports - partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports: $269 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice

Imports - partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt - external: $120 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $73.8 million (1995)

Currency: ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code: BTN; INR

Exchange rates: ngultrum per US dollar - 46.540 (January 2001), 44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996); note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee which is also legal tender

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Bhutan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 6,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones in use

international: international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Bhutan Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 3,285 km

paved: 1,994 km

unpaved: 1,291 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Bhutan Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, National Militia, Royal Bhutan Police, Royal Body Guards, Forest Guards (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 504,342 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 269,251 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 21,167 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Bhutan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of approximately 98,700 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps

======================================================================

@Bolivia



Bolivia Introduction

Background: Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups. Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, continuing the privatization program, and waging an anti-corruption campaign.



Bolivia Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 1,098,580 sq km

land: 1,084,390 sq km

water: 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total: 6,743 km

border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m

highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 24%

forests and woodland: 53%

other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru



Bolivia People

Population: 8,300,463 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.46% (male 1,626,698; female 1,565,748)

15-64 years: 57.07% (male 2,315,098; female 2,421,987)

65 years and over: 4.47% (male 166,986; female 203,946) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.76% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.27 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.06 years

male: 61.53 years

female: 66.72 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.51 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 380 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bolivian(s)

adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, white 15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 83.1%

male: 90.5%

female: 76% (1995 est.)



Bolivia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia

conventional short form: Bolivia

local long form: Republica de Bolivia

local short form: Bolivia

Government type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21 years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held May or June 2002)

election results: Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of vote - Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%, Juan Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA (CONDEPA) 17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Hugo BANZER Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR, and PDC

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - some members are drawn from party lists, thus not directly elected)

elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)

election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADN 32, MNR 26, MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [leader NA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Hugo BANZER Suarez]; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [leader NA]; Pachacuti Indigenous Movement [Filipe QUISPE]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]

note: the ADN, MIR, and UCS comprise the ruling coalition

Political pressure groups and leaders: Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions

International organization participation: CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene FERNANDEZ del Granado

chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410

FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador V. Manuel ROCHA

embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz

mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032

telephone: [591] (2) 432254

FAX: [591] (2) 433854

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band



Bolivia Economy

Economy - overview: Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-97) included the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and joining the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur), as well as the privatization of the state airline, telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company. His successor, Hugo BANZER Suarez has tried to further improve the country's investment climate with an anticorruption campaign. Growth slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the fallout from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000, major civil disturbances in April, and again in September and October, held down overall growth to 2.5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16%

industry: 31%

services: 53% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 31.7% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 11.4% (1997)

note: widespread underemployment

Budget: revenues: $2.7 billion

expenditures: $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.625 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 56.61%

hydro: 41.6%

nuclear: 0%

other: 1.79% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.377 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 10 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

Exports: $1.26 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood

Exports - partners: UK 16%, US 12%, Peru 11%, Argentina 10%, Colombia 7% (1998)

Imports: $1.86 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food

Imports - partners: US 32%, Japan 24%, Brazil 12%, Argentina 12%, Chile 7%, Peru 4%, Germany 3%, other 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $6.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $588 million (1997)

Currency: boliviano (BOB)

Currency code: BOB

Exchange rates: bolivianos per US dollar - 6.4071 (January 2001), 6.1835 (2000), 5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997), 5.0746 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bolivia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 327,600 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 116,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly

domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios: 5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 48 (1997)

Televisions: 900,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2000)

Internet users: 35,000 (2000)



Bolivia Transportation

Railways: total: 3,691 km (single track)

narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 49,400 km

paved: 2,500 km (including 30 km of expressways)

unpaved: 46,900 km (1996)

Waterways: 10,000 km (commercially navigable)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine: total: 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 141,017 GRT/211,058 DWT

ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 20, chemical tanker 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1,093 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 13

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1,080

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 65

914 to 1,523 m: 212

under 914 m: 800 (2000 est.)



Bolivia Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,005,660 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,306,452 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 90,120 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY99)



Bolivia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru, a distant second) with an estimated 14,600 hectares under cultivation in 2000, a 33% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1999 levels; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; eradication and alternative crop programs have slashed illicit coca cultivation during the BANZER administration beginning in 1997

======================================================================

@Bosnia and Herzegovina



Bosnia and Herzegovina Introduction

Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a referendum for independence from the former Yugoslavia in February 1992. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government is charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place at a level of approximately 21,000 troops.



Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area: total: 51,129 sq km

land: 51,129 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km

border countries: Croatia 932 km, Yugoslavia 527 km

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 14%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 20%

forests and woodland: 39%

other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority



Bosnia and Herzegovina People

Population: 3,922,205

note: all data dealing with population are subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.13% (male 405,713; female 383,850)

15-64 years: 70.78% (male 1,422,796; female 1,353,410)

65 years and over: 9.09% (male 150,802; female 205,634) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.38% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.86 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.99 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.75 years

male: 69.04 years

female: 74.65 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%, other 2.5% (1991)

note: Bosniak has replaced muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse