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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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GDP: purchasing power parity - $445.8 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 26%

services: 71% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.5 million (December 1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $94 billion

expenditures: $103 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 191.727 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 89.93%

hydro: 8.36%

nuclear: 0%

other: 1.71% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 178.306 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

Exports: $69 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment

Exports - partners: Japan 19%, EU 14%, ASEAN 12%, US 9%, South Korea, NZ, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (1999)

Imports: $77 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products

Imports - partners: EU 24%, US 22%, Japan 14%, ASEAN 13% (1999)

Debt - external: $220.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.43 billion (FY97/98)

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Australia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9.58 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6.4 million (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international service

domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones

international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 104 (1997)

Televisions: 10.15 million (1997)

Internet country code: .au

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 264 (2000)

Internet users: 7.77 million (2000)



Australia Transportation

Railways: total: 33,819 km (2,540 km electrified)

broad gauge: 3,719 km 1.600-m gauge

standard gauge: 15,422 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 14,506 km 1.067-m gauge

dual gauge: 172 km NA gauges (1999)

Highways: total: 913,000 km

paved: 353,331 km (including 1,363 km of expressways)

unpaved: 559,669 km (1996)

Waterways: 8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine: total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,558,371 GRT/2,038,776 DWT

ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 3, chemical tanker 5, container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 6 (2000 est.)

Airports: 411 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 271

over 3,047 m: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 118

914 to 1,523 m: 122

under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 140

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 112

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)



Australia Military

Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,990,107 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,303,966 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 138,971 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.9 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY98/99)



Australia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

======================================================================

@Austria



Austria Introduction

Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies, Austria's 1955 State Treaty declared the country "permanently neutral" as a condition of Soviet military withdrawal. Neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's increasingly prominent role in European affairs. A prosperous country, Austria joined the European Union in 1995 and the euro monetary system in 1999.



Austria Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 83,858 sq km

land: 82,738 sq km

water: 1,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total: 2,562 km

border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 17%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 23%

forests and woodland: 39%

other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 457 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere



Austria People

Population: 8,150,835 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.57% (male 691,925; female 658,375)

15-64 years: 68.05% (male 2,802,019; female 2,744,536)

65 years and over: 15.38% (male 478,498; female 775,482) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.24% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.74 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.84 years

male: 74.68 years

female: 81.15 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.23% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 98%, Croatian, Slovene, other (includes Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma)

Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%

Languages: German

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Austria Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 19 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch: chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)

head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Susanne RIESS-PASSER (FPOe) (since 4 February 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; in the case of the current coalition, the chancellor was chosen from another party after the plurality party failed to form a government; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%

note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Council - last held 3 October 1999 (next to be held in the fall of 2003)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 33.2%, OeVP 26.9%, FPOe 26.9%, Greens 7.4%; seats by party - SPOe 65, OeVP 52, FPOe 52, Greens 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Susanne RIESS-PASSER]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter MOSER

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Walt HALL

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [43] (1) 313-39-2060

FAX: [43] (1) 313-39-2057

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red



Austria Economy

Economy - overview: Austria with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. In 2000, Austria moved to further cut government spending and raise taxes to meet EMU deficit targets after facing unexpected difficulties in reducing the public deficit. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy and continue to deregulate the service sector. Growth is expected to remain at about 3% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $203 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 30.4%

services: 67.4% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.7 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 68%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 3% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $56.3 billion

expenditures: $60.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (2000)

Electricity - production: 59.283 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29.53%

hydro: 67.65%

nuclear: 0%

other: 2.82% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 53.231 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 13.507 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 11.605 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports: $63.2 billion (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: EU 64.2% (Germany 35.7%, Italy 8.7%, France 4.5%), Switzerland 5.9%, US 4.5%, Hungary 3.9% (1999)

Imports: $65.6 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports - partners: EU 70.3% (Germany 42.5%, Italy 7.9%, France 5.3%), US 5.4%, Switzerland 3.0%, Hungary 2.8% (1999)

Debt - external: $16 billion (1999)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $472 million (1999)

Currency: Austrian schilling (ATS); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Austria at a fixed rate of 13.7603 Austrian shillings per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: ATS; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Austrian schillings per US dollar - 11.86 (January 1999), 12.91 (1999), 12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997), 10.587 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Austria Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4 million (3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000 ISDN or Integrated Services Digital Network connections) (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.5 million (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed and efficient

domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons and the system is nearly 100% digital; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 61 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 45 (plus 960 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 4.25 million (1997)

Internet country code: .at

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 37 (2000)

Internet users: 2.6 million (2000)



Austria Transportation

Railways: total: 6,095.2 km (3,643.3 km electrified)

standard gauge: 5,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (3,521.2 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 497.1 km (33.9 km 1.000-m gauge - 28.1 km electrified, 497.1 km 0.760-m gauge - 94 km electrified) (2001)

Highways: total: 133,361 km

paved: 133,361 km (including 1,613 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1998)

Waterways: 358 km (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine: total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 86,905 GRT/117,417 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 18, combination bulk 2, container 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 55 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 14 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 27 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Austria Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,091,263 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,731,383 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 50,580 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.7 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)



Austria Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Azerbaijan



Azerbaijan Introduction

Background: Azerbaijan - a nation of Turkic Muslims - has been an independent republic since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a cease-fire, in place since 1994, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost almost 20% of its territory and must support some 750,000 refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.



Azerbaijan Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 86,600 sq km

land: 86,100 sq km

water: 500 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total: 2,013 km

border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use: arable land: 18%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 11%

other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment - current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked



Azerbaijan People

Population: 7,771,092 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.95% (male 1,146,315; female 1,103,393)

15-64 years: 63.93% (male 2,415,678; female 2,552,759)

65 years and over: 7.12% (male 219,549; female 333,398) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.32% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.44 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.55 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 83.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.96 years

male: 58.65 years

female: 67.49 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.24 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s)

adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.)

note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)

note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 99%

female: 96% (1989 est.)



Azerbaijan Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan

conventional short form: Azerbaijan

local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

local short form: none

former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

election results: Heydar ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Heydar ALIYEV 77.6%, Etibar MAMEDOV 11.8%, Nizami SULEYMANOV 8.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "traditionalist" 1, Compatriot Party 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Azerbaijan Party [Abutalyb SAMADOV]; Azerbaijani Democratic Party or ADP [Sardar JALAL]; Azerbaijani Independent Democratic Party or AMDP [Leyla YUNUSOVA]; Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KERIMOV, leader of "reform faction"; Mirmahmud FATTAYEV, leader of "traditionalist" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA-2 [Firudin HASANOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Enlightenment Party [Mammadhanifu MUSAYEV]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Ilyus ISMAILOV and Rasul QULIYEV, co-chairman]; Democratic World Party of Azerbaijan [Mamnad ALIZADE]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HAJIYEVA]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; National Congress Party of Azerbaijan [Ihtiyar SHIRIN]; National Movement Party [Samir JAFAROV]; National Statehood Party [Sabir TARIVERDIYEV]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or PDPA [Rafig TURABKHANOGLU]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardusht ALIZADE, chairman]

note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

International organization participation: AsDB, BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV

chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790

telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001

FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ross WILSON

embassy: Azadliq Prospekt 83, Baku 370007

mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7050

telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37

FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band



Azerbaijan Economy

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and natural gas. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of 19 production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to oil field development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building up with Turkey, Iran, UAE, and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $23.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 11.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 22%

industry: 33%

services: 45% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 60% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.9 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry 15%, services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $777 million

expenditures: $995 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 16.378 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 86.46%

hydro: 13.54%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 15.432 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 600 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 800 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas 75%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Italy, Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Iran

Imports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, Iran

Debt - external: $1 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency: Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code: AZM

Exchange rates: Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,579 (1 February 2001), 4,342 (October 1999), 4,373 (1999), 3,869 (1998), 3,985.38 (1997), 4,301.26 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Azerbaijan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 663,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 8.6 main lines per 100 persons is very low

domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still do not have public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan

international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 170,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .az

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 8,000 (2000)



Azerbaijan Transportation

Railways: total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines

broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways: total: 24,981 km

paved: 23,057 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

unpaved: 1,924 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1998)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine: total: 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,882 GRT/313,252 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 52 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 43

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 28 (2000 est.)



Azerbaijan Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,102,780 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,684,673 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 77,099 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY99)



Azerbaijan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and Russia to Western Europe

======================================================================

@Bahamas, The



Bahamas, The Introduction

Background: Since attaining independence from the UK in 1973, The Bahamas have prospered through tourism and international banking and investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments to the US, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants into the US.



Bahamas, The Geography

Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 13,940 sq km

land: 10,070 sq km

water: 3,870 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Alvernia, on Cat Island 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 32%

other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood and wind damage

Environment - current issues: coral reef decay; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain



Bahamas, The People

Population: 297,852

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.43% (male 44,179; female 43,486)

15-64 years: 64.46% (male 94,329; female 97,674)

65 years and over: 6.11% (male 7,618; female 10,566) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.1 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.14 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.46 years

male: 67.27 years

female: 73.71 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.13% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,900 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 500 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bahamian(s)

adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups: black 85%, white 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.2%

male: 98.5%

female: 98% (1995 est.)



Bahamas, The Government

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas

conventional short form: The Bahamas

Government type: constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour, Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls Town and Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Orville TURNQUEST (since 2 January 1995)

head of government: Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since 19 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since December 1994)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of the prime minister and the opposition leader for five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 14 March 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FNM 35, PLP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts

Political parties and leaders: Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joshua SEARS

chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660

FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate J. Richard BLANKENSHIP

embassy: Queen Street, Nassau

mailing address: local or express mail address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; stateside address: American Embassy Nassau, P. O. Box 599009, Miami, FL 33159-9009; pouch address: Nassau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-3370

telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206

FAX: [1] (242) 356-0222

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine, with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side



Bahamas, The Economy

Economy - overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts for more than 60% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs 40% of the archipelago's labor force. Moderate growth in tourism receipts and a boom in construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences led to an increase of the country's GDP by an estimated 3% in 1998, 6% in 1999, and 4.5% in 2000. Manufacturing and agriculture together contribute only 10% of GDP and show little growth, despite government incentives aimed at those sectors. Overall growth prospects in the short run will depend heavily on the fortunes of the tourism sector and continued sturdy growth in the US, which accounts for the majority of tourist visitors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 7%

services: 90% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 156,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: tourism 40%, other services 50%, industry 5%, agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $766 million

expenditures: $845 million, including capital expenditures of $97 million (FY97/98)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel pipe

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.465 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.362 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports: $376.8 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish, refined petroleum products

Exports - partners: US 22.3%, Switzerland 15.6%, UK 15%, Denmark 7.4% (1998)

Imports: $1.73 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil, vehicles, electronics

Imports - partners: US 27.3%, Italy 26.5%, Japan 10%, Denmark 4.2% (1998)

Debt - external: $385.8 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $9.8 million (1995)

Currency: Bahamian dollar (BSD)

Currency code: BSD

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollars per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate pegged to the dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Bahamas, The Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 96,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,152 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern facilities

domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed

international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 215,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 67,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bs

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 19 (2000)

Internet users: 15,000 (2000)



Bahamas, The Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,693 km

paved: 1,546 km

unpaved: 1,147 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine: total: 1,049 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 30,000,221 GRT/44,601,471 DWT

ships by type: bulk 185, cargo 214, chemical tanker 36, combination bulk 15, combination ore/oil 22, container 66, liquefied gas 33, livestock carrier 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 4, passenger 79, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 182, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 118, roll on/roll off 50, short-sea passenger 15, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 24

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Algeria 2, Australia 1, Austria 1, Bermuda 6, Belgium 14, Canada 1, Cuba 1, Cyprus 2, Denmark 17, Finland 7, France 9, Germany 9, Greece 89, Hong Kong 7, Indonesia 2, India 1, Israel 4, Italy 8, Japan 23, Jamaica 1, Kenya 1, Lebanon 2, Luxembourg 2, Monaco 15, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 16, Norway 139, Poland 3, Portugal 2, Russia 2, Saudi Arabia 5, Singapore 12, Spain 7, Sweden 14, Syria 1, Switzerland 7, UAE 1, Trinidad and Tobago 2, UK 67, Ukraine 3, US 50, British Virgin Islands 1, British Virgin Islands 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 65 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 36

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 29

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 23 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Bahamas, The Military

Military branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Bahamas, The Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money laundering

======================================================================

@Bahrain



Bahrain Introduction

Background: Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining, and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir is pushing economic and political reforms, and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In 2001, the International Court of Justice awarded the Hawar Islands, long disputed with Qatar, to Bahrain.



Bahrain Geography

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 620 sq km

land: 620 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 6%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean



Bahrain People

Population: 645,361

note: includes 228,424 non-nationals (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.6% (male 96,697; female 94,330)

15-64 years: 67.43% (male 257,360; female 177,839)

65 years and over: 2.97% (male 9,721; female 9,414) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.73% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.07 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.92 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.45 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.29 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.2 years

male: 70.81 years

female: 75.67 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.79 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 85.2%

male: 89.1%

female: 79.4% (1995 est.)



Bahrain Government

Country name: conventional long form: State of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection

Constitution: adopted late December 2000 (new constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992; the National Action Charter created a bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum of 14 February 2001

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Political pressure groups and leaders: Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741

FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG

embassy: #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama

mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

telephone: [973] 273-300

FAX: [973] 272-594

Flag description: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side



Bahrain Economy

Economy - overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil revenue granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 46%

services: 53% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 295,000 (1998 est.)

note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.8 billion

expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.185 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.752 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 61%, aluminum 7%

Exports - partners: India 14%, Saudi Arabia 5%, US 5%, UAE 5%, Japan 4%, South Korea 4% (1999)

Imports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%

Imports - partners: France 20%, US 14%, UK 8%, Saudi Arabia 7%, Japan 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $2.7 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $48.4 million (1995)

Currency: Bahraini dinar (BHD)

Currency code: BHD

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.3760 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Bahrain Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 152,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 58,543 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system

domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones

international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1997)

Televisions: 275,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 37,500 (2000)



Bahrain Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 3,164 km

paved: 2,433 km

unpaved: 731 km

note: there is a paved causeway connecting Bahrain to Saudi Arabia (1997)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km

Ports and harbors: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 175,609 GRT/207,652 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, container 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

over 3,047 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Bahrain Military

Military branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 15 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 222,141 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 121,833 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 5,926 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $318 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY99)



Bahrain Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: in March of 2001, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) awarded the Hawar Islands to Bahrain and also adjusted Bahrain's maritime boundary with Qatar

======================================================================

@Baker Island



Baker Island Introduction

Background: The US took possession of the island in 1857, and its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization was begun on this island - as well as on nearby Howland Island - but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. Presently the island is a National Wildlife Refuge run by the US Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle of the west coast.



Baker Island Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 1.4 sq km

land: 1.4 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife



Baker Island People

Population: uninhabited

note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2001 est.)



Baker Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Baker Island

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Baker Island Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Baker Island Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely covered with vegetation and unusable (2000 est.)

Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast



Baker Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard



Baker Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Bangladesh



Bangladesh Introduction

Background: Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. About a third of this extremely poor country annually floods during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.



Bangladesh Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 144,000 sq km

land: 133,910 sq km

water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total: 4,246 km

border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 NM

continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal

Land use: arable land: 73%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 15%

other: 5% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally-occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea



Bangladesh People

Population: 131,269,860 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.04% (male 23,550,607; female 22,451,006)

15-64 years: 61.6% (male 41,432,123; female 39,434,633)

65 years and over: 3.36% (male 2,389,639; female 2,011,852) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.59% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 25.3 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.54 years

male: 60.74 years

female: 60.33 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 13,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bangladeshi(s)

adjective: Bangladeshi

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims (1998)

Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 56%

male: 63%

female: 49% (2000 est.)



Bangladesh Government

Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh

conventional short form: Bangladesh

former: East Pakistan

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi; note - there may be one additional division named Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections

head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 13 July 1996)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president

elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October 2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without opposition; percent of National Parliament vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad (330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held before 13 October 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%; seats by party - AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 3; note - the elections of 12 June 1996 brought to power an Awami League government for the first time in twenty-one years; held under a neutral, caretaker administration, the elections were characterized by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter turnout, ending a bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and opposition parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to widespread street violence

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIAur Rahman]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Azizol HAQ]; Jamaat-E-Islami or JI [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate A. Tariq KARIM

chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS

embassy: Road 27, House 110, Banani, Dhaka

mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000

telephone: [880] (2) 8824700 through 8824722

FAX: [880] (2) 8823744

Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside, and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam



Bangladesh Economy

Economy - overview: Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed nations. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single most important product. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, inadequate port facilities, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Reform is stalled in many instances by political infighting and corruption at all levels of government. Even so, Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA's Awami League government has made some headway improving the climate for foreign investors and liberalizing the capital markets. Progress on other economic reforms has been halting because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $203 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,570 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 30%

industry: 18%

services: 52% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35.6% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 28.6% (1995-96 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 64.1 million (1998)

note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry 11% (FY95/96)

Unemployment rate: 35.2% (1996)

Budget: revenues: $4.9 billion

expenditures: $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate: 6.1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 12.06 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 93.7%

hydro: 6.3%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 11.216 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Exports: $5.9 billion (2000)

Exports - commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood

Exports - partners: US 31.2%, Germany 9.95%, UK 8.06%, France 5.82%, Italy 4.42% (1999)

Imports: $8.1 billion (2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products, cement

Imports - partners: India 12.2%, Singapore 7.8%, Japan 6.7%, China 6.4%, US 5.3% (1999)

Debt - external: $17 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.575 billion (2000 est.)

Currency: taka (BDT)

Currency code: BDT

Exchange rates: taka per US dollar - 54.000 (January 2001), 52.142 (2000), 49.085 (1999), 46.906 (1998), 43.892 (1997), 41.794 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Bangladesh Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 500,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 283,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country

domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (1999)

Televisions: 770,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2000)

Internet users: 30,000 (2000)



Bangladesh Transportation

Railways: total: 2,745 km

broad gauge: 923 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 201,182 km

paved: 19,112 km

unpaved: 182,070 km (1997)

Waterways: up to 8,046 km depending on season

note: includes 3,058 km main cargo routes

Pipelines: natural gas 1,250 km

Ports and harbors: Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port, Narayanganj (2001)

Merchant marine: total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 268,566 GRT/375,110 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 25, container 3, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 18 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 15

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Bangladesh Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, paramilitary forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps), Armed Police battalions

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 36,005,553 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 21,362,279 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $559 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY96/97)



Bangladesh Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a portion of the boundary with India is indefinite; exchange of 151 enclaves along border with India subject to ratification by Indian parliament; dispute with India over South Talpatty/New Moore Island

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries

======================================================================

@Barbados



Barbados Introduction

Background: The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in 1627. Its economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.



Barbados Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 430 sq km

land: 430 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 37%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 12%

other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements: party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: easternmost Caribbean island



Barbados People

Population: 275,330 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.68% (male 30,122; female 29,572)

15-64 years: 69.44% (male 93,283; female 97,915)

65 years and over: 8.88% (male 9,432; female 15,006) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.47 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.25 years

male: 70.66 years

female: 75.86 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.17% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,800 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 130 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)

adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 97.4%

male: 98%

female: 96.8% (1995 est.)



Barbados Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Barbados

Government type: parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth

Capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note - the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996)

head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6 September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6 September 1994)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held 20 January 1999 (next to be held by January 2004)

election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - BLP 26, DLP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)

Political parties and leaders: Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David THOMPSON]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Richard HAYNES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KING

chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200

FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James A. DALEY

embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown

mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055

telephone: [1] (246) 436-4950

FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)



Barbados Economy

Economy - overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy had been dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The start of the Port Charles Marina project in Speightstown helped the tourism industry continue to expand in 1996-2000. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners, and there is also a light manufacturing sector. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, encourage direct foreign investment, and privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. Growth should remain steady in 2001, with new tourist facilities a plus factor.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $14,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 16%

services: 80% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 136,000 (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $725.5 million

expenditures: $750.6 million, including capital expenditures of $126.3 million (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity - production: 718 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 667.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports: $260 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components, clothing

Exports - partners: UK 14.8%, US 11.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.6%, Venezuela 6.1%, Jamaica 5.8% (1998)

Imports: $800.3 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners: US 30.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 10.2%, Japan 8.3%, UK 7.7%, Canada 2.2% (1998)

Debt - external: $425 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $9.1 million (1995)

Currency: Barbadian dollar (BBD)

Currency code: BBD

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars per US dollar - 2.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Barbados Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 108,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,013 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system

international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)

Televisions: 76,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .bb

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 19 (2000)

Internet users: 6,000 (2000)



Barbados Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,600 km

paved: 1,578 km

unpaved: 22 km (1998)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine: total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 671,545 GRT/1,125,635 DWT

ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 28, combination bulk 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Canada 2, Hong Kong 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Barbados Military

Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 78,069 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 53,576 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Barbados Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for Europe and the US

======================================================================

@Bassas da India



Bassas da India Introduction

Background: This atoll is a volcanic rock surrounded by reefs and is awash at high tide. A French possession since 1897, it was placed under the administration of a commissioner residing in Reunion in 1968.



Bassas da India Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 0.2 sq km

land: 0.2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: volcanic rock

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA



Bassas da India People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Bassas da India Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bassas da India

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Bassas da India Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Bassas da India Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Bassas da India Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Bassas da India Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

======================================================================

@Belarus



Belarus Introduction

Background: After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration but, to date, neither side has actively sought to implement the accord.



Belarus Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 207,600 sq km

land: 207,600 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries: total: 3,098 km

border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m

highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas

Land use: arable land: 29%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 15%

forests and woodland: 34%

other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked



Belarus People

Population: 10,350,194 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.93% (male 947,820; female 908,210)

15-64 years: 68.21% (male 3,428,920; female 3,631,290)

65 years and over: 13.86% (male 473,992; female 959,962) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.15% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.57 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.97 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female

total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.14 years

male: 62.06 years

female: 74.52 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.28% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 14,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 400 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Belarusian(s)

adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups: Byelorussian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 97% (1989 est.)



Belarus Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Belarus

conventional short form: Belarus

local long form: Respublika Byelarus'

local short form: none

former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name with the adjectival ending 'skaya' the word voblasts' should be added to the place name

note: voblasti have the administrative center name following in parentheses

Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: 30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Vladimir YERMOSHIN (since 18 February 2000); First Deputy Prime Minister Andrey KOBYAKOV (since 13 March 2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Mikhail DEMCHUK (since 14 July 2000), Mikhail KHORSTOV (since 27 November 2000), Valeriy KOKOREV (since 23 August 1994), Leonid KOZIK (since 4 February 1997), Gennadiy NOVITSKIY (since 11 February 1997), Aleksandr POPKOV (since 10 November 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via the November 1996 referendum); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats)

elections: last held October 2000 (next to be held NA)

election results: party affiliation data unavailable; under present political conditions party designations are meaningless

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)

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