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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Svalbard People

Population: 2,332 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate: -3.55% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0% (2001)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 0 (2001)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 0 (2001)

Ethnic groups: Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)

Languages: Russian, Norwegian



Svalbard Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway

Government type: NA

Capital: Longyearbyen

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

National holiday: NA

Legal system: NA

Executive branch: chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)

head of government: Governor Morten RUUD (since NA November 1998) and Assistant Governor Odd Redar HUMLEGAARD (since NA)

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice

International organization participation: none

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used



Svalbard Economy

Economy - overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Budget: revenues: $11.5 million

expenditures: $11.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Exports: $NA

Imports: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $8.2 million from Norway (1998)

Currency: Norwegian krone (NOK)

Currency code: NOK

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 8.7784 (January 2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996)



Svalbard Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: probably adequate

domestic: local telephone service

international: satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .sj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen) (2000)

Internet users: NA



Svalbard Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Svalbard Military

Military - note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)



Svalbard Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia

======================================================================

@Swaziland



Swaziland Introduction

Background: Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy.



Swaziland Geography

Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 17,363 sq km

land: 17,203 sq km

water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 535 km

border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m

highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc

Land use: arable land: 11%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 62%

forests and woodland: 7%

other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa



Swaziland People

Population: 1,104,343

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.53% (male 250,327; female 252,479)

15-64 years: 51.88% (male 276,186; female 296,728)

65 years and over: 2.59% (male 11,687; female 16,936) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.83% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 21.84 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 38.62 years

male: 37.86 years

female: 39.4 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 25.25% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Swazi(s)

adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups: African 97%, European 3%

Religions: Protestant 55%, Muslim 10%, Roman Catholic 5%, indigenous beliefs 30%

Languages: English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.7%

male: 78%

female: 75.6% (1995 est.)



Swaziland Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland

conventional short form: Swaziland

Government type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), but so far none have been accepted

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age

Executive branch: chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government: Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9 August 1996)

cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory body, consists of the Senate (30 seats - 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats - 10 appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held 16 and 24 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: Imbokodvo National Movement or INM [leader NA]; Ngwane National Libertatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]; Swaziland National Front or SWANAFRO [Elmond SHONGWE, president]; Swaziland Progressive Party or SPP [J. J. NQUKU, president]; Swaziland United Front or SUF [Matsapa SHONGWE, leader]

note: political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large public gatherings; the organizations listed are political associations

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA

chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6683

FAX: [1] (202) 244-8059

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory L. JOHNSON

embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane

mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane

telephone: [268] 404-6441 through 404-6445

FAX: [268] 404-5959

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally



Swaziland Economy

Economy - overview: In this small landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies more than 60% of the population. Manufacturing features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in importance in recent years: diamond mines have shut down because of the depletion of easily accessible reserves; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted by 1978; and health concerns have cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of soft drink concentrate, sugar, and wood pulp are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives four-fifths of its imports and to which it sends two-thirds of its exports. Remittances from the Southern African Customs Union and Swazi workers in South African mines substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. Prospects for 2001 are strengthened by government millennium projects for a new convention center, additional hotels, an amusement park, a new airport, and stepped-up roadbuilding and factory construction plans.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%

industry: 46%

services: 44% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: private sector 70%, public sector 30%

Unemployment rate: 22% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $400 million

expenditures: $450 million, including capital expenditures of $115 million (FY96/97)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (FY95/96)

Electricity - production: 375 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.33%

hydro: 46.67%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 198 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 852 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 701 million kWh

note: supplied by South Africa (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep

Exports: $881 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit

Exports - partners: South Africa 65%, EU 12%, Mozambique 11%, US 5% (1998)

Imports: $928 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

Imports - partners: South Africa 84%, EU 5%, Japan 2%, Singapore 2% (1998)

Debt - external: $281 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $55 million (1995)

Currency: lilangeni (SZL)

Currency code: SZL

Exchange rates: emalangeni per US dollar - 7.7803 (January 2001), 6.9056 (2000), 6.1087 (1999), 5.4807 (1998), 4.6032 (1997), 4.2706 (1996); note - the Swazi lilangeni is at par with the South African rand; emalangeni is the plural form of lilangeni

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Swaziland Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 33,500 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 30,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: not a modern system

domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 6 (2000)

Radios: 155,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 10 (2000)

Televisions: 21,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 4,000 (2000)



Swaziland Transportation

Railways: total: 297 km; note - includes 71 km which are not in use

narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 3,000 km

paved: 850 km

unpaved: 2,150 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 18 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)



Swaziland Military

Military branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal Swaziland Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 248,084 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 143,618 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $19.198 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.75% (FY00/01)



Swaziland Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the Swazi Kingdom

======================================================================

@Sweden



Sweden Introduction

Background: A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements has recently been undermined by high unemployment, rising maintenance costs, and a declining position in world markets. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe caused Sweden not to join the EU until 1995, and to forgo the introduction of the euro in 1999.



Sweden Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 449,964 sq km

land: 410,934 sq km

water: 39,030 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 2,205 km

border countries: Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines

territorial sea: 12 NM (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 7%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 68%

other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas



Sweden People

Population: 8,875,053 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.19% (male 828,308; female 786,353)

15-64 years: 64.53% (male 2,911,949; female 2,814,730)

65 years and over: 17.28% (male 649,296; female 884,417) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.02% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.91 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.61 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.71 years

male: 77.07 years

female: 82.5 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.08% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Swede(s)

adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups: indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

Religions: Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist

Languages: Swedish

note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1979 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Sweden Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

conventional short form: Sweden

local long form: Konungariket Sverige

local short form: Sverige

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands

Independence: 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National holiday: Flag Day, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister elected by the Parliament; election last held NA September 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 36.5%, Moderates 22.7%, Left Party 12%, Christian Democrats 11.8%, Center Party 5.1%, Liberal Party 4.7%, Greens 4.5%; seats by party - Social Democrats 131, Moderates 82, Left Party 43, Christian Democrats 42, Center Party 18, Liberal Party 17, Greens 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Center Party [Lennart DALEUS]; Christian Democratic Party [Alf SVENSSON]; Communist Workers' Party [Rolf HAGEL]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokesperson is Briger SCHLAUG]; Left Party or VP (formerly Communist) [Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Bo LUNDGREN]; New Democracy Party [Vivianne FRANZEN]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jan ELIASSON

chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702

telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600

FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lyndon Lowell OLSON, Jr.

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds VAG 31, SE-11589 Stockholm

mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch)

telephone: [46] (8) 783 53 00

FAX: [46] (8) 661 19 64

Flag description: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Sweden Economy

Economy - overview: Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole twentieth century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. In recent years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been somewhat clouded by budgetary difficulties, high unemployment, and a gradual loss of competitiveness in international markets. Sweden has harmonized its economic policies with those of the EU, which it joined at the start of 1995. GDP growth is forecast for 4% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $197 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 27.9%

services: 69.9% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.4 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $133 billion

expenditures: $125.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 146.633 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 5.53%

hydro: 47.24%

nuclear: 45.42%

other: 1.81% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 128.819 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 15.9 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 8.35 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grains, sugar beets, potatoes; meat, milk

Exports: $95.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 55% (Germany 11%, UK 10%, Denmark 6%, Finland 5%, France 5%), US 9%, Norway 8% (1999)

Imports: $80 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners: EU 67% (Germany 18%, UK 10%, Denmark 7%, France 6%), Norway 8%, US 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $66.5 billion (1994)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)

Currency: Swedish krona (SEK)

Currency code: SEK

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor per US dollar - 9.4669 (January 2001), 9.1622 (2000), 8.2624 (1999), 7.9499 (1998), 7.6349 (1997), 6.7060 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Sweden Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 6.017 million (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3.835 million (October 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system

domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels

international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 8.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 4.6 million (1997)

Internet country code: .se

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 29 (2000)

Internet users: 4.5 million (2000)



Sweden Transportation

Railways: total: 12,821 km (includes 3,594 km of privately owned railways)

standard gauge: 12,821 km 1.435-m gauge (7,918 km electrified and 1,152 km double track) (1998)

Highways: total: 210,760 km

paved: 162,707 km (including 1,428 km of expressways)

unpaved: 48,053 km (1999)

Waterways: 2,052 km

note: navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Ports and harbors: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall

Merchant marine: total: 167 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,205,370 GRT/1,663,091 DWT

ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 28, chemical tanker 31, combination ore/oil 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 29, railcar carrier 1, roll on/roll off 40, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 17 (2000 est.)

Airports: 255 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 147

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 80

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 25 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 108

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 103 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Sweden Military

Military branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,062,566 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,803,995 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 51,506 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY98)



Sweden Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Switzerland



Switzerland Introduction

Background: Switzerland's independence and neutrality have long been honored by the major European powers and Switzerland was not involved in either of the two World Wars. The political and economic integration of Europe over the past half century, as well as Switzerland's role in many UN and international organizations, may be rendering obsolete the country's concern for neutrality.



Switzerland Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of France, north of Italy

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 41,290 sq km

land: 39,770 sq km

water: 1,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 1,852 km

border countries: Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Maggiore 195 m

highest point: Dufourspitze 4,634 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 28%

forests and woodland: 32%

other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 250 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: avalanches, landslides, flash floods

Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions and open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest elevations in Europe



Switzerland People

Population: 7,283,274 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.97% (male 634,030; female 601,929)

15-64 years: 67.73% (male 2,505,450; female 2,427,408)

65 years and over: 15.3% (male 453,366; female 661,091) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.27% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.77 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.73 years

male: 76.85 years

female: 82.76 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.46% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 17,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 150 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Swiss (singular and plural)

adjective: Swiss

Ethnic groups: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic 46.1%, Protestant 40%, other 5%, none 8.9% (1990)

Languages: German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 19.2%, Italian (official) 7.6%, Romansch 0.6%, other 8.9%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1980 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Switzerland Government

Country name: conventional long form: Swiss Confederation

conventional short form: Switzerland

local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German), Confederation Suisse (French), Confederazione Svizzera (Italian)

local short form: Schweiz (German), Suisse (French), Svizzera (Italian)

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular - cantone in Italian; kantone, singular - kanton in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich

Independence: 1 August 1291 (Founding of the Swiss Confederation)

National holiday: Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291)

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Moritz LEUENBERGER (since 1 January 2001); Vice President Kaspar VILLIGER (since 1 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Moritz LEUENBERGER (since 1 January 2001); Vice President Kaspar VILLIGER (since 1 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Federal Council or Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) elected by the Federal Assembly from among its own members for a four-year term

elections: president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council for one-year terms that run concurrently; election last held 6 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2001)

election results: Moritz LEUENBERGER elected president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 76%; Kaspar VILLIGER elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 72%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung (in German), Assemblee Federale (in French), Assemblea Federale (in Italian) consists of the Council of States or Standerat (in German), Conseil des Etats (in French), Consiglio degli Stati (in Italian) (46 seats - members serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (in German), Conseil National (in French), Consiglio Nazionale (in Italian) (200 seats - members are elected by popular vote on a basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: Council of States - last held in 1999 (each canton determines when the next election will be held); National Council - last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2003)

election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FDP 18, CVP 15, SVP 7, SPS 6; National Council - percent of vote by party - SPS 22.5%, SVP 22.6%, FDP 19.9%, CVP 15.8%, other small parties all under 5%; seats by party - SPS 51, SVP 44, FDP 43, CVP 35, Greens 9, other small parties 18

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court (judges elected for six-year terms by the Federal Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic People's Party (Christichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Adalbert DURRER, president]; Green Party (Grune Partei der Schweiz or Grune, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Ruedi BAUMANN, president]; Radical Free Democratic Party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero or PLR) [Franz STEINEGGER, president]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Christiane BRUNNER, president]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Ueli MAURER, president]; and other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred DEFAGO

chancery: 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 745-7900

FAX: [1] (202) 387-2564

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador J. Richard FREDERICKS

embassy: Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3001 Bern

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [41] (31) 357 70 11

FAX: [41] (31) 357 73 44

Flag description: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag



Switzerland Economy

Economy - overview: Switzerland, a prosperous and stable modern market economy with a per capita GDP 20% above that of the big western European economies, experienced solid growth of 3% in 2000, but growth is expected to fall back to about 2% in 2001. The Swiss in recent years have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with the EU's to enhance their international competitiveness. Although the Swiss are not pursuing full EU membership in the near term, in 1999 Bern and Brussels signed agreements to further liberalize trade ties, and the agreements should come into force in 2001. Switzerland is still considered a safe haven for investors, because it has maintained a degree of bank secrecy and has kept up the franc's long-term external value.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $207 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $28,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.8%

industry: 31.1%

services: 66.1% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.9 million (964,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian) (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 69.1%, industry 26.3%, agriculture 4.6% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.9% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $32.66 billion

expenditures: $34.89 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.3 billion (1998 est.)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments

Industrial production growth rate: 8.6% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 66.768 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 3.44%

hydro: 59.16%

nuclear: 35.43%

other: 1.97% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 51.862 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 31.955 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 21.723 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grains, fruits, vegetables; meat, eggs

Exports: $91.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products

Exports - partners: EU 65.8% (Germany 22.6%, France 9.2%, Italy 8.0%, UK 5.5%, Austria 3.2%), US 12.4%, Japan 4.0% (1999)

Imports: $91.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles

Imports - partners: EU 77.7% (Germany 31.0%, France 12.0%, Italy 9.7%, Netherlands 5.1%, UK 5.7%), US 7.1%, Japan 2.9% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.1 billion (1995)

Currency: Swiss franc (CHF)

Currency code: CHF

Exchange rates: Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.6303 (January 2001), 1.6888 (2000), 1.5022 (1999), 1.4498 (1998), 1.4513 (1997), 1.2360 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Switzerland Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.82 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.967 million (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international services

domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 113 (plus many low power stations), shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 115 (plus 1,919 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ch

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 44 (Switzerland and Liechtenstein) (2000)

Internet users: 2.4 million (2000)



Switzerland Transportation

Railways: total: 4,492 km (1,564 km double track)

standard gauge: 3,317 km 1.435-m gauge (3,288 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,165 km 1.000-m gauge (1,165 km electrified); 10 km 0.800-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total: 71,059 km (including 1,638 km of expressways)

paved: 71,059 km

unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways: 65 km

note: The Rhine carries heavy traffic on the Basel-Rheinfelden and Schaffhausen-Bodensee stretches; there are also 12 navigable lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km

Ports and harbors: Basel

Merchant marine: total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 435,966 GRT/780,458 DWT

ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 6, chemical tanker 5, petroleum tanker 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: UK 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 67 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 42

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 15 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 25

under 914 m: 25 (2000 est.)



Switzerland Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Frontier Guards, Fortification Guards

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,849,034 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,570,918 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 42,597 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.1 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)



Switzerland Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: because of more stringent government regulations, used significantly less as a money-laundering center; transit country for and consumer of South American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin

======================================================================

@Syria



Syria Introduction

Background: Following the breakup of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, Syria was administered by the French until independence in 1946. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel. Since 1976, Syrian troops have been stationed in Lebanon, ostensibly in a peacekeeping capacity. In recent years, Syria and Israel have held occasional peace talks over the return of the Golan Heights.



Syria Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 185,180 sq km

land: 184,050 sq km

water: 1,130 sq km

note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory

Area - comparative: slightly larger than North Dakota

Land boundaries: total: 2,253 km

border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 41 NM

territorial sea: 35 NM

Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus

Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m

highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 28%

permanent crops: 4%

permanent pastures: 43%

forests and woodland: 3%

other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,060 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from dumping of raw sewage and wastes from petroleum refining; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note: there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 1999 est.)



Syria People

Population: 16,728,808

note: in addition, there are about 38,200 people living in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights - 18,200 Arabs (16,500 Druze and 1,700 Alawites) and about 20,000 Israeli settlers (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.92% (male 3,440,060; female 3,238,576)

15-64 years: 56.87% (male 4,868,816; female 4,644,870)

65 years and over: 3.21% (male 261,036; female 275,450) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.54% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 30.64 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.77 years

male: 67.63 years

female: 69.98 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.95 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Syrian(s)

adjective: Syrian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

Languages: Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 70.8%

male: 85.7%

female: 55.8% (1997 est.)



Syria Government

Country name: conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic

conventional short form: Syria

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah

local short form: Suriyah

former: United Arab Republic (with Egypt)

Government type: republic under military regime since March 1963

Capital: Damascus

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus

Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 April (1946)

Constitution: 13 March 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim ibn Said KHADDAM (since 11 March 1984) and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984)

head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Mustafa MIRU (since 13 March 2000), Deputy Prime Ministers Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984), Khalid RA'D (since 13 March 2000), Muhammad NAJI 'UTRI (since 13 March 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; referendum/election last held 10 July 2000 - after the death of President Hafez al-ASAD, father of Bashar al-ASAD - (next to be held NA 2007); vice presidents appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Bashar al-ASAD elected president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.29%

note: Hafiz al-ASAD died 10 June 2000; 20 June 2000 the Ba'th Party nominated Bashar al-ASAD for president and presented his name to the People's Council 25 June 2000

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council or Majlis al-shaab (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 30 November-1 December 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NPF 67%, non-NPF 33%; seats by party - NPF 167, independents 83; note - the constitution guarantees that the Ba'th Party (part of the NPF alliance) receive one-half of the seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court (justices are appointed for four-year terms by the president); High Judicial Council; Court of Cassation; State Security Courts

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Front or NPF (includes the Ba'th Party, ASU, Arab Socialist Party, Socialist Unionist Democratic Party, ASP, SCP) [President Bashar al-ASAD]; Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party (governing party) [Bashar al-ASAD, secretary general of the party, and chairman of the National Progressive Front after the death of Hafiz al-ASAD on 10 June 2000]; Arab Socialist Unionist Movement or ASU [Sami SOUFAN]; Arab Socialist Party [Abd al-Ghani KANNUT]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Ahmad al-ASAD]; Syrian Arab Socialist Party or ASP [Safwan KOUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party or SCP [Yusuf FAYSAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders: conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood (operates in exile in Jordan and Yemen); non-Ba'th parties have little effective political influence

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rustum al-ZU'BI

chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313

FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER

embassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansur Street, No. 2, Damascus

mailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascus

telephone: [963] (11) 333-2814

FAX: [963] (11) 224-7938

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black, with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band, and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band



Syria Economy

Economy - overview: Syria's predominantly statist economy is on a shaky footing because of Damascus's failure to implement extensive economic reform. The dominant agricultural sector remains underdeveloped, with roughly 80% of agricultural land still dependent on rain-fed sources. Although Syria has sufficient water supplies in the aggregate at normal levels of precipitation, the great distance between major water supplies and population centers poses serious distribution problems. The water problem is exacerbated by rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and increased water pollution. Private investment is critical to the modernization of the agricultural, energy, and export sectors. Oil production is leveling off, and the efforts of the nonoil sector to penetrate international markets have fallen short. Syria's inadequate infrastructure, outmoded technological base, and weak educational system make it vulnerable to future shocks and hamper competition with neighbors such as Jordan and Israel. The government recognizes the need to open the economy to additional domestic and foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $50.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 29%

industry: 22%

services: 49% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 15%-25%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.7 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 20%, services 40% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.25 billion

expenditures: $5.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 17.94 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 57.64%

hydro: 42.36%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 16.684 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk

Exports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum 65%, textiles 10%, manufactured goods 10%, fruits and vegetables 7%, raw cotton 5%, live sheep 2%, phosphates 1% (1998 est.)

Exports - partners: Germany 21%, Italy 12%, France 10%, Saudi Arabia 9%, Turkey 8% (1999 est.)

Imports: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 23%, foodstuffs/animals 20%, metal and metal products 15%, textiles 10%, chemicals 10% (1998 est.)

Imports - partners: France 11%, Italy 8%, Germany 7%, Turkey 5%, China 4% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $22 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $199 million (1997 est.)

Currency: Syrian pound (SYP)

Currency code: SYP

Exchange rates: Syrian pounds per US dollar - 46 (2000), 46 (1998), 41.9 (January 1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Syria Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology

domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network

international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 4.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 44 (plus 17 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 1.05 million (1997)

Internet country code: .sy

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Syria Transportation

Railways: total: 2,750 km

standard gauge: 2,423 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 327 km 1.050-m gauge

note: rail link between Syria and Iraq replaced in 2000 (2000)

Highways: total: 41,451 km

paved: 9,575 km (including 877 km of expressways)

unpaved: 31,876 km (1997)

Waterways: 870 km (minimal economic importance)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,304 km; petroleum products 515 km

Ports and harbors: Baniyas, Jablah, Latakia, Tartus

Merchant marine: total: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 425,392 GRT/612,097 DWT

ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 117, livestock carrier 4, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 100 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 24

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 76

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 63 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Syria Military

Military branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Air Defense Forces, Police and Security Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,384,528 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,448,630 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 200,859 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $921 million (FY00 est.); note - based on official budget data that may understate actual spending

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.9% (FY98)



Syria Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; dispute with upstream riparian Turkey over Turkish water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon since October 1976

Illicit drugs: a transit point for opiates and hashish bound for regional and Western markets

======================================================================

@Taiwan



Taiwan Introduction

Background: In 1895, military defeat forced China to cede Taiwan to Japan, however it reverted to Chinese control after World War II. Following the communist victory on the mainland in 1949, 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government using the 1947 constitution drawn up for all of China. Over the next five decades, the ruling authorities gradually democratized and incorporated the native population within its governing structure. Throughout this period, the island has prospered to become one of East Asia's economic "Tigers." The dominant political issue continues to be the relationship between Taiwan and China and the question of eventual reunification.



Taiwan Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China

Geographic coordinates: 23 30 N, 121 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 35,980 sq km

land: 32,260 sq km

water: 3,720 sq km

note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware combined

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,566.3 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Yu Shan 3,997 m

Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos

Land use: arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 55%

other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes and typhoons

Environment - current issues: air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal

Environment - international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Taiwan People

Population: 22,370,461 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.22% (male 2,470,270; female 2,276,108)

15-64 years: 69.97% (male 7,944,451; female 7,707,250)

65 years and over: 8.81% (male 1,034,230; female 938,152) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.8% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 14.31 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.54 years

male: 73.81 years

female: 79.51 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%

Religions: mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%

Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86% (1980 est.); note - literacy for the total population has reportedly increased to 94% (1998 est.)

male: 93% (1980 est.)

female: 79% (1980 est.)



Taiwan Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Taiwan

local long form: none

local short form: T'ai-wan

former: Formosa

Government type: multiparty democratic regime headed by popularly elected president

Capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions: since in the past the authorities claimed to be the government of all China, the central administrative divisions include the provinces of Fu-chien (some 20 offshore islands of Fujian Province including Quemoy and Matsu) and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores islands); note - the more commonly referenced administrative divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties (hsien, singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), and 2 special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the provincial capital is at Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un

note: Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization

National holiday: Republic Day (Anniversary of the Chinese Revolution), 10 October (1911)

Constitution: 1 January 1947, amended in 1992, 1994, 1997, and 1999

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President CHEN Shui-bien (20 May 2000) and Vice President Annette LU (since 20 May 2000)

head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) CHANG Chun-hsiung (since NA October 2000) and Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) LAI In-jaw (since NA October 2000)

cabinet: Executive Yuan appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 18 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier

election results: CHEN Shui-bien elected president; percent of vote - CHEN Shui-bien (DPP) 39.3%, James SOONG (independent) 36.84%, LIEN Chan (KMT) 23.1%, HSU Hsin-liang (independent) 0.63%, LEE Ao (CNP) 0.13%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan (225 seats - 168 elected by popular vote, 41 elected on the basis of the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties, eight elected from overseas Chinese constituencies on the basis of the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties, eight elected by popular vote among the aboriginal populations; members serve three-year terms) and unicameral National Assembly (300 seats, note - total number of seats has been reduced from 334 to 300 since the last election; members are elected by proportional representation based on the election of the Legislative Yuan and serve four-year terms)

elections: Legislative Yuan - last held 5 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2001); National Assembly - last held 23 March 1996 (next to be held NA June 2002)

election results: Legislative Yuan - percent of vote by party - KMT 46%, DPP 29%, CNP 7%, independents 10%, other parties 8%; seats by party - KMT 123, DPP 70, CNP 11, independents 15, other parties 6; subsequent to the election there have been some changes in the distribution of seats in the Legislative Yuan due to new party formation and party defections, the new distribution is as follows - KMT 114, DPP 66, PFP 17, NP 9, other/independent 19; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - KMT 55%, DPP 30%, CNP 14%, other 1%; seats by party - KMT 183, DPP 99, CNP 46, other 6

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan (justices appointed by the president with the consent of the National Assembly; note - beginning in 2003, justices will be appointed by the president with the consent of the Legislative Yuan)

Political parties and leaders: Chinese New Party or CNP [HAU Lang-bin]; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Frank HSIEH, chairman]; Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [LIEN Chan, chairman]; New Party or NP [LI Ching-hwa]; People First Party or PFP [James SOONG, chairman]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Taiwan independence movement, various business and environmental groups

note: debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization and the increased representation of opposition parties in Taiwan's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that Taiwan currently enjoys de facto independence and - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification or independence - that Taiwan's people must have the deciding voice; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually reunify with mainland China; goals of the Taiwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Taiwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting Taiwan independence include the World United Formosans for Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation Building

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, BCIE, ICC, ICFTU, IFRCS, IOC, WCL, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of the US are maintained through a private instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO) in the US with headquarters in Taipei and field offices in Washington and 12 other US cities

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people on Taiwan are maintained through a private corporation, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), which has its headquarters in Rosslyn, Virginia (telephone: [1] (703) 525-8474 and FAX: [1] (703) 841-1385) and offices in Taipei at #7 Lane 134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3, telephone [886] (2) 2709-2000, FAX [886] (2) 2702-7675, and in Kao-hsiung at #2 Chung Cheng 3rd Road, 5th Floor, telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, FAX [886] (7) 223-8237, and the American Trade Center at Room 3208 International Trade Building, Taipei World Trade Center, 333 Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548, telephone [886] (2) 2720-1550, FAX [886] (2) 2757-7162

Flag description: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays



Taiwan Economy

Economy - overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by government authorities. In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades. Exports have grown even faster and have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. Inflation and unemployment are low; the trade surplus is substantial; and foreign reserves are the world's fourth largest. Agriculture contributes 3% to GDP, down from 35% in 1952. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved offshore and replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries. Taiwan has become a major investor in China, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. The tightening of labor markets has led to an influx of foreign workers, both legal and illegal. Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan suffered little compared with many of its neighbors from the Asian financial crisis in 1998-99. Growth in 2001 will depend largely on conditions in Taiwan's export markets and may be about 5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $386 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 33%

services: 64% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 1% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.8 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 55%, industry 37%, agriculture 8% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $42.74 billion

expenditures: $48.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 139.676 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 67.26%

hydro: 6.32%

nuclear: 26.42%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 129.899 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, vegetables, fruit, tea; pigs, poultry, beef, milk; fish

Exports: $148.38 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 51%, metals, textiles, plastics, chemicals

Exports - partners: US 23.5%, Hong Kong 21.1%, Europe 16%, ASEAN 12.2%, Japan 11.2% (2000)

Imports: $140.01 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 51%, minerals, precision instruments

Imports - partners: Japan 27.5%, US 17.9%, Europe 13.6% (2000)

Debt - external: $40 billion (2000)

Currency: new Taiwan dollar (TWD)

Currency code: TWD

Exchange rates: new Taiwan dollars per US dollar - 33.082 (yearend 2000), 31.395 (yearend 1999), 32.216 (1998), 32.052 (1997), 27.5 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June (up to FY98/99); 1 July 1999 - 31 December 2000 for FY00; calendar year (after FY00)



Taiwan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 12.49 million (September 2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 16 million (September 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: provides telecommunications service for every business and private need

domestic: thoroughly modern; completely digitalized

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); submarine cables to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 218, FM 333, shortwave 50 (1999)

Radios: 16 million (1994)

Television broadcast stations: 29 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 8.8 million (1998)

Internet country code: .tw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)

Internet users: 6.4 million (2000)



Taiwan Transportation

Railways: total: 4,600 km (519 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 4,600 km 1.067-m

note: only 1,108 km of route length (including the electrified part) is used in common carrier service by the Taiwan Railway Administration; the remaining 3,492 km is dedicated to industrial use (1999)

Highways: total: 34,901 km

paved: 31,271 km (including 538 km of expressways)

unpaved: 3,630 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: NA

Pipelines: petroleum products 3,400 km; natural gas 1,800 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Kao-hsiung, Su-ao, T'ai-chung

Merchant marine: total: 167 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,768,145 GRT/7,508,941 DWT

ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 29, combination bulk 1, container 65, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 39 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 35

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



Taiwan Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Coastal Patrol and Defense Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Combined Service Forces

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,575,689 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,025,856 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 198,766 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.042 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.8% (FY98/99)



Taiwan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does China

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin and methamphetamine; major problem with domestic consumption of methamphetamine and heroin

======================================================================

@Tajikistan



Tajikistan Introduction

Background: Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the USSR. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, and implementation reportedly completed by late 1999. Part of the agreement required the legalization of opposition political parties prior to the 1999 elections, which occurred, but such parties have made little progress in successful participation in government. Random criminal and political violence in the country remains a complication impairing Tajikistan's ability to engage internationally.



Tajikistan Geography

Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 143,100 sq km

land: 142,700 sq km

water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total: 3,651 km

border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: Pamir and Alay mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Syrdariya 300 m

highest point: Pik Imeni Ismail Samani 7,495 m

Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 4%

other: 65% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated pollution

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked



Tajikistan People

Population: 6,578,681 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.18% (male 1,367,194; female 1,341,967)

15-64 years: 54.22% (male 1,773,605; female 1,793,345)

65 years and over: 4.6% (male 131,009; female 171,561) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.12% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 33.23 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.57 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.18 years

male: 61.09 years

female: 67.42 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.29 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s)

adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%

Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 97% (1989 est.)



Tajikistan Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan

conventional short form: Tajikistan

local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

local short form: none

former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions: 2 oblasts (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and one autonomous oblast* (viloyati mukhtori); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* (Khorugh - formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa - formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobod (Khujand - formerly Leninabad)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: 6 November 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%

Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 27 February and 12 March 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and 23 March 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Congress of People's Unity of Tajikistan [Saiffidin TURAYEV]; Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman]; Lali Badakhshan Movement [Atobek AMIRBEKOV]; National Movement Party [Hakim MUHHABATOV]; Party of Justice and Development [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Rastokhez (Rebirth) Movement [Tohiri ABDUJABBOR]; Socialist Party [Sherali KENJAEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM, ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tajikistan does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a permanent mission to the UN: address - 136 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-7645, FAX - [1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid ALIMOV

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert P. J. FINN

embassy: temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in Almaty (Kazakhstan)

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: NA

FAX: NA

Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe



Tajikistan Economy

Economy - overview: Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the 15 former Soviet republics. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The Tajikistani economy has been gravely weakened by six years of civil conflict and by the loss of subsidies from Moscow and of markets for its products. Most of its people live in abject poverty. Tajikistan depends on aid from Russia and Uzbekistan and on international humanitarian assistance for much of its basic subsistence needs. The future of Tajikistan's economy and the potential for attracting foreign investment depend upon stability and continued progress in the peace process.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,140 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19.8%

industry: 18.1%

services: 62.1% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 80% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 33% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 20%, services 30% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.7% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and unregistered unemployed people (December 1998)

Budget: revenues: $146 million

expenditures: $196 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 15.623 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 1.9%

hydro: 98.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 14.729 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 3.9 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 4.1 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $761 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles

Exports - partners: Liechtenstein 26%, Uzbekistan 20%, Russia 8% (1998)

Imports: $782 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Europe 32.3%, Uzbekistan 29%, Russia 13.6% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $64.7 million (1995)

Currency: somoni

Currency code: SM

Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.2 (January 2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998 (January 1999), 350 (January 1997), 284 (January 1996)

note: the new unit of exchange was introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old Tajikistani rubles

Fiscal year: calendar year



Tajikistan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 363,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,500 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network

domestic: cable and microwave radio relay

international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 1.291 million (1991)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (there are, however, repeaters that relay programs from Russia, Iran, and Turkey) (1997)

Televisions: 860,000 (1991)

Internet country code: .tj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Tajikistan Transportation

Railways: total: 480 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines (1990)

Highways: total: 29,900 km

paved: 21,400 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

unpaved: 8,500 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 53 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 51

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 36 (2000 est.)



Tajikistan Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,586,700 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,300,252 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 72,056 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $17 million (FY97)

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