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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 2 June 1999 (next scheduled for sometime between May and July 2004)

election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)

note: ANC-IFP governing coalition

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consisting of the National Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has special powers to protect regional interests, including the safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities); note - following the implementation of the new constitution on 3 February 1997 the former Senate was disbanded and replaced by the National Council of Provinces with essentially no change in membership and party affiliations, although the new institution's responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new constitution

elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held 2 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 66.4%, DP 9.6%, IFP 8.6%, NP 6.9%, UDM 3.4%, ACDP 1.4%, FF 0.8%, other 2.9%; seats by party - ANC 266, DP 38, IFP 34, NP 28, UDM 14, ACDP 6, FF 3, other 11; National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ANC 61, NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE, president]; African National Congress or ANC [Thabo MBEKI, president]; Democratic Alliance (formed from the merger of the Democratic Party or DP and the New National Party or NP) [Anthony LEON, leader]; Freedom Front or FF [Constand VILJOEN, president]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president]; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Stanley MOGOBA, president]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; South African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, BIS, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, NSG, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Makate Sheila SISULU

chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400

FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Delano E. LEWIS, Sr.

embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Pretoria

mailing address: P. O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001

telephone: [27] (12) 342-1048

FAX: [27] (12) 342-2244

consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg

Flag description: two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes

note: prior to 26 April 1994, the flag was actually four flags in one - three miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band of the former flag of the Netherlands, which had three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags were a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side



South Africa Economy

Economy - overview: South Africa is a middle-income, developing country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that ranks among the 10 largest in the world, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region. However, growth has not been strong enough to cut into the 30% unemployment, and daunting economic problems remain from the apartheid era, especially the problems of poverty and lack of economic empowerment among the disadvantaged groups. Other problems are crime, corruption, and HIV/AIDS. At the start of 2000, President MBEKI vowed to promote economic growth and foreign investment, and to reduce poverty by relaxing restrictive labor laws, stepping up the pace of privatization, and cutting unneeded governmental spending.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $369 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5%

industry: 30%

services: 65% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.1%

highest 10%: 45.9% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 17 million economically active (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $31.1 billion

expenditures: $34.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA billion (FY01/02)

Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 186.903 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 92.74%

hydro: 0.39%

nuclear: 6.87%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 172.393 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 3.884 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 2.457 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products

Exports: $30.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: gold, diamonds, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment

Exports - partners: UK, Italy, Japan, US, Germany

Imports: $27.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, foodstuffs and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments

Imports - partners: Germany, US, UK, Japan

Debt - external: $25.6 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $676.3 million

Currency: rand (ZAR)

Currency code: ZAR

Exchange rates: rand per US dollar - 7.60 (March 2001), 6.93983 (2000), 6.10948 (1999), 5.52828 (1998), 4.60796 (1997), 4.29935 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



South Africa Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5.075 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: over 2,000,000 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern in Africa

domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria

international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 347 (plus 243 repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 13.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 556 (plus 144 network repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 5.2 million (1997)

Internet country code: .za

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 44 (2000)

Internet users: 1.82 million (2000)



South Africa Transportation

Railways: total: 21,431 km

narrow gauge: 20,995 km 1.067-m gauge (9,087 km electrified); 436 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 358,596 km

paved: 59,753 km (including 1927 km of expressways)

unpaved: 298,843 km (1996)

Waterways: NA

Pipelines: crude oil 931 km; petroleum products 1,748 km; natural gas 322 km

Ports and harbors: Cape Town, Durban, East London, Mosselbaai, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha

Merchant marine: total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 271,650 GRT/268,604 DWT

ships by type: container 6, petroleum tanker 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 741 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 142

over 3,047 m: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 47

914 to 1,523 m: 71

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 599

1,524 to 2,437 m: 33

914 to 1,523 m: 304

under 914 m: 262 (2000 est.)



South Africa Military

Military branches: South African National Defense Force or SANDF (includes Army, Navy, Air Force, and Medical Services), South African Police Service or SAPS

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 11,469,812 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 6,977,328 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 466,399 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2 billion (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99/00)

Military - note: the National Defense Force continues to integrate former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces



South Africa Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the Swazi Kingdom

Illicit drugs: transshipment center for heroin, hashish, marijuana, and possibly cocaine; cocaine consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries; illicit cultivation of marijuana

======================================================================

@Southern Ocean

Southern Ocean Introduction Top of Page

Background: A decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 delimited a fifth world ocean - the Southern Ocean - from the southern portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean).



Southern Ocean Geography

Location: body of water between 60 degrees south latitude and Antarctica

Geographic coordinates: 65 00 S, 0 00 E (nominally), but the Southern Ocean has the unique distinction of being a large circumpolar body of water totally encircling the continent of Antarctica; this ring of water lies between 60 degrees south latitude and the coast of Antarctica, and encompasses 360 degrees of longitude

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 20.327 million sq km

note: includes Amundsen Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, part of the Drake Passage, Ross Sea, a small part of the Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of the US

Coastline: 17,968 km

Climate: sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Celsius to -2 degrees Celsius; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter

Terrain: the Southern Ocean is deep, 4,000 to 5,000 meters over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the Antarctic continental shelf is generally narrow and unusually deep - its edge lying at depths of 400 to 800 meters (the global mean is 133 meters); the Antarctic icepack grows from an average minimum of 2.6 million square kilometers in March to about 18.8 million square kilometers in September, better than a sixfold increase in area; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (21,000 km in length) moves perpetually eastward; it is the world's largest ocean current, transporting 130 million cubic meters of water per second - 100 times the flow of all the world's rivers

Elevation extremes: lowest point: -7,235 m at the southern end of the South Sandwich Trench

highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: probable large and possible giant oil and gas fields on the continental margin, manganese nodules, possible placer deposits, sand and gravel, fresh water as icebergs, squid, whales, and seals - none exploited; krill, fishes

Natural hazards: huge icebergs with drafts up to several hundred meters; smaller bergs and iceberg fragments; sea ice (generally 0.5 to 1 meter thick) with sometimes dynamic short-term variations and with large annual and interannual variations; deep continental shelf floored by glacial deposits varying widely over short distances; high winds and large waves much of the year; ship icing, especially May-October; most of region is remote from sources of search and rescue

Environment - current issues: increased solar ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole in recent years, reducing marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% and damaging the DNA of some fish; illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing in recent years, especially the landing of an estimated five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the regulated fishery, which is likely to affect the sustainability of the stock; large amount of incidental mortality of seabirds resulting from long-line fishing for toothfish

note: the now-protected fur seal population is making a strong comeback after severe overexploitation in the 18th and 19th centuries

Environment - international agreements: the Southern Ocean is subject to all international agreements regarding the world's oceans; in addition, it is subject to these agreements specific to the Antarctic region: International Whaling Commission (prohibits commercial whaling south of 40 degrees south [south of 60 degrees south between 50 degrees and 130 degrees west]); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (limits sealing); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (regulates fishing)

note: many nations (including the US) prohibit mineral resource exploration and exploitation south of the fluctuating Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) which is in the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and serves as the dividing line between the very cold polar surface waters to the south and the warmer waters to the north

Geography - note: the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Southern Ocean; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the very cold polar surface waters to the south from the warmer waters to the north; the Front and the Current extend entirely around Antarctica, reaching south of 60 degrees south near New Zealand and near 48 degrees south in the far South Atlantic coinciding with the path of the maximum westerly winds



Southern Ocean Economy

Economy - overview: Fisheries in 1998-99 (1 July to 30 June) landed 119,898 metric tons, of which 85% was krill and 14% Patagonian toothfish. International agreements were adopted in late 1999 to reduce illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, which in the 1998-99 season landed five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the regulated fishery. In the 1999-2000 antarctic summer 13,193 tourists, most of them seaborne, visited the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, compared to 10,013 the previous year. Nearly 16,000 tourists are expected during the 2000-01 season.



Southern Ocean Transportation

Ports and harbors: McMurdo, Palmer, and offshore anchorages in Antarctica

note: few ports or harbors exist on the southern side of the Southern Ocean; ice conditions limit use of most of them to short periods in midsummer; even then some cannot be entered without icebreaker escort; most antarctic ports are operated by government research stations and, except in an emergency, are not open to commercial or private vessels; vessels in any port south of 60 degrees south are subject to inspection by Antarctic Treaty observers

Transportation - note: Drake Passage offers alternative to transit through the Panama Canal



Southern Ocean Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary in the Antarctica entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the maritime claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US and Russia have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

======================================================================

@South Georgia and the South Sandwich



South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Introduction Top of Page

Background: The islands lie approximately 1,000 km east of the Falkland Islands. Grytviken, on South Georgia, was a 19th and early 20th century whaling station. The famed explorer Ernest SHACKLETON stopped there in 1914 en route to his ill-fated attempt to cross Antarctica on foot. He returned some 20 months later with a few companions in a small boat and arranged a successful rescue for the rest of his crew, stranded off the Antarctic Peninsula. He died in 1922 on a subsequent expedition and is buried in Grytviken. Today, the station houses a small military garrison. The islands have large bird and seal populations and, recognizing the importance of preserving the marine stocks in adjacent waters, the UK, in 1993, extended the exclusive fishing zone from 12 miles to 200 miles around each island.



South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of the tip of South America

Geographic coordinates: 54 30 S, 37 00 W

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 3,903 sq km

land: 3,903 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Shag Rocks, Black Rock, Clerke Rocks, South Georgia Island, Bird Island, and the South Sandwich Islands, which consist of some nine islands

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: NA km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Paget (South Georgia) 2,934 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on South Georgia



South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: the small military garrison on South Georgia withdrew in March 2001, to be replaced by a permanent group of scientists of the British Antarctic Survey which also has a biological station on Bird Island; the South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited (July 2001 est.)

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Government Top of Page

Country name: conventional long form: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

conventional short form: none

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina; administered from the Falkland Islands by UK civil commissioner Donald A. LAMONT, representing Queen ELIZABETH II; Grytviken, formerly a whaling station on South Georgia, is the garrison town

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: adopted 3 October 1985

Legal system: the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)

Flag description: the flag of the UK is used



South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Economy

Economy - overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.

Budget: revenues: $291,777

expenditures: $451,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Communications Top of Page

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken

Radio broadcast stations: none

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Internet country code: .gs

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Transportation Top of Page

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Grytviken

Airports: none



South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Transnational Issues T op of Page

Disputes - international: claimed by Argentina

======================================================================

@Spain



Spain Introduction

Background: Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating Civil War (1936-39). In the second half of the 20th century, it has played a catch-up role in the western international community. Continuing concerns are large-scale unemployment and the Basque separatist movement.



Spain Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 504,782 sq km

land: 499,542 sq km

water: 5,240 sq km

note: includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - Ceuta, Melilla, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries: total: 1,917.8 km

border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land

Land use: arable land: 30%

permanent crops: 9%

permanent pastures: 21%

forests and woodland: 32%

other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 34,530 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification

Geography - note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar



Spain People

Population: 40,037,995 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.62% (male 3,015,851; female 2,835,763)

15-64 years: 68.2% (male 13,701,065; female 13,605,314)

65 years and over: 17.18% (male 2,881,334; female 3,998,668) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.26 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.13 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.93 years

male: 75.47 years

female: 82.62 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.15 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.58% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 120,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Spaniard(s)

adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Languages: Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Spain Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain

conventional short form: Spain

local short form: Espana

Government type: parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad Valencian, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)

note: there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco: Ceuta and Melilla are administered as autonomous communities; Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera are under direct Spanish administration

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday: Hispanic Day, 12 October

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968

head of government: President of the Government Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez (since 5 May 1996); First Vice President Juan Jose LUCAS (since 28 February 2000) and Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy) Rodrigo RATO Figaredo (since 5 May 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government

elections: the monarch is hereditary; president proposed by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly following legislative elections; election last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on proposal of the president

election results: Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez (PP) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 44%

Legislative branch: bicameral; General Courts or National Assembly or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (259 seats - 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; members are elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); Congress of Deputies - last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PP 127, PSOE 61, CiU 8, PNV 6, CC 5, PIL 1; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 44.5%, PSOE 34%, CiU 4.2%, IU 5.4%, PNV 1.5%, CC 1%, BNG 1.3%; seats by party - PP 183, PSOE 125, CiU 15, IU 8, PNV 7, CC 4, BNG 3, other 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

Political parties and leaders: Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Xabier ARZALLUS Antia]; Canarian Coalition or CC (a coalition of five parties) [Paulino RIVERO]; Convergence and Union or CiU [Jordi PUJOL i Soley, secretary general] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Jordi PUJOL i Soley] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN y LLEIDA]); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Xose Manuel BEIRAS]; Party of Independents from Lanzarote or PIL [Dimas MARTIN Martin]; Popular Party or PP [Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties) [Gaspar LLAMAZARES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; Euskal Herritarok or EH [Herri BATASUNA]; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty or ETA and the First of October Antifascist Resistance Group or GRAPO use terrorism to oppose the government; Opus Dei; Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Workers Confederation or CC.OO

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Javier RUPEREZ

chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340

FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward L. ROMERO

embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid

mailing address: APO AE 09642

telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200

FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303

consulate(s) general: Barcelona

Flag description: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar



Spain Economy

Economy - overview: Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is 80% that of the four leading West European economies. Its center-right government successfully worked to gain admission to the first group of countries launching the European single currency on 1 January 1999. The AZNAR administration has continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of the economy and has introduced some tax reforms to that end. Unemployment has been steadily falling under the AZNAR administration but remains the highest in the EU at 14%. The government intends to make further progress in changing labor laws and reforming pension schemes, which are key to the sustainability of both Spain's internal economic advances and its competitiveness in a single currency area. Adjusting to the monetary and other economic policies of an integrated Europe - and further reducing unemployment - will pose challenges to Spain in the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $720.8 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 31%

services: 65% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25.2% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 17 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 64%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 28%, agriculture 8% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $105 billion

expenditures: $109 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.8 billion (2000 est.)

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 197.694 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 57.71%

hydro: 12.1%

nuclear: 28.28%

other: 1.91% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 189.57 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 6.23 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 11.945 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish

Exports: $120.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, other consumer goods

Exports - partners: EU 71% (France 20%, Germany 12%, Italy 9%, Portugal 9%, UK 8%), Latin America 6%, US 5% (2000)

Imports: $153.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods; foodstuffs, consumer goods (1997)

Imports - partners: EU 68% (France 18%, Germany 16%, Italy 9%, UK 7%, Benelux 8%), US 8%, OPEC 5%, Latin America 4%, Japan 3% (1999)

Debt - external: $90 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.3 billion (1995)

Currency: Spanish peseta (ESP); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Spain at a fixed rate of 166.386 Spanish pesetas per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: ESP; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); pesetas per US dollar - 149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Spain Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17.336 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8.394 million (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: generally adequate, modern facilities; teledensity is 44 main lines for each 100 persons

domestic: NA

international: 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 208, FM 715, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 13.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 224 (plus 2,105 repeaters)

note: these figures include 11 television broadcast stations and 88 repeaters in the Canary Islands (1995)

Televisions: 16.2 million (1997)

Internet country code: .es

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 56 (2000)

Internet users: 4.6 million (2000)



Spain Transportation

Railways: total: 13,950 km

broad gauge: 12,781 km 1.668-m gauge (6,358 km electrified; 2,295 km double track)

standard gauge: 525 km 1.435-m gauge (525 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 644 km 1.000-m gauge (438 km electrified) (1998)

Highways: total: 346,858 km

paved: 343,389 km (including 9,063 km of expressways)

unpaved: 3,469 km (1997)

Waterways: 1,045 km (of minor economic importance)

Pipelines: crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas 1,666 km

Ports and harbors: Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo

Merchant marine: total: 135 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,208,730 GRT/1,773,378 DWT

ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 26, chemical tanker 10, container 9, liquefied gas 2, livestock carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 24, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 35, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 110 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 75

over 3,047 m: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 13 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 35

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 25 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Spain Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard, National Police, Coastal Civil Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 10,551,945 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 8,448,150 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 281,043 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY97)



Spain Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Gibraltar issue with UK; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish entering the European market; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

======================================================================

@Spratly Islands

Spratly Islands Introduction Top of Page

Background: Rich fishing grounds and the potential for gas and oil deposits have caused this archipelago to be claimed in its entirety by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam, while portions are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines. All five parties have occupied certain islands or reefs, and occasional clashes have occurred between Chinese and Vietnamese naval forces



Spratly Islands Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of reefs and islands in the South China Sea, about two-thirds of the way from southern Vietnam to the southern Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 8 38 N, 111 55 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: less than 5 sq km

land: less than 5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over an area of nearly 410,000 sq km of the central South China Sea

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 926 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Southwest Cay 4 m

Natural resources: fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas potential

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: typhoons; serious maritime hazard because of numerous reefs and shoals

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central South China Sea; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs



Spratly Islands People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: there are scattered garrisons occupied by personnel of several claimant states (July 2001 est.)



Spratly Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Spratly Islands



Spratly Islands Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing. The proximity to nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary basins suggests the potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region is largely unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of potential reserves; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.



Spratly Islands Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Spratly Islands Military

Military - note: Spratly Islands consist of more than 100 small islands or reefs, of which about 45 are claimed and occupied by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam



Spratly Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not publicly claimed the island; in 2000, China joined ASEAN discussions towards creating a South China Sea "code of conduct" - a non-legally binding confidence building measure

======================================================================

@Sri Lanka



Sri Lanka Introduction

Background: Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and the Dutch in the 17th century, the island was ceded to the British in 1802. As Ceylon it became independent in 1948; its name was changed in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted in violence in the mid-1980s. Tens of thousands have died in an ethnic war that continues to fester.



Sri Lanka Geography

Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 81 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 65,610 sq km

land: 64,740 sq km

water: 870 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 14%

permanent crops: 15%

permanent pastures: 7%

forests and woodland: 32%

other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes



Sri Lanka People

Population: 19,408,635 (July 2001 est.)

note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of mid-1999, approximately 66,000 were housed in 133 refugee camps in south India, another 40,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought refuge in the West

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.99% (male 2,578,618; female 2,464,928)

15-64 years: 67.39% (male 6,369,881; female 6,708,852)

65 years and over: 6.62% (male 615,253; female 671,103) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.87% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.58 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.43 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.09 years

male: 69.58 years

female: 74.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 490 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Sri Lankan(s)

adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1%

Religions: Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 7% (1999)

Languages: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%

note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.2%

male: 93.4%

female: 87.2% (1995 est.)



Sri Lanka Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

conventional short form: Sri Lanka

former: Serendib, Ceylon

Government type: republic

Capital: Colombo; note - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte is the legislative capital

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western; note - North Eastern province may have been divided in two - Northern and Eastern

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 February (1948)

Constitution: adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ratnasiri WICKRAMANAYAKE (since 10 August 2000) is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist

head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ratnasiri WICKRAMANAYAKE (since 10 August 2000) is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 21 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results: Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA reelected president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (PA) 51%, Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (UNP) 42%, other 7%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (225 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of a modified proportional representation system by district to serve six-year terms)

elections: last held 10 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - PA 45.11%, UNP 40.22%, JVP 6%, NUA 2.29%, SU 1.48%, TULF 1.23%, other 3.67%; seats by party - PA 107, UNP 89, JVP 10, TULF 5, EPDP 4, NUA 4, TELO 3, ACTC 1, SU 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [Nalliah GURUPAUAN]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CLDC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party [Raja COLLURE]; Democratic United National (Lalith) Front or DUNLF [Srimani ATHULATHMUDALI]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRA]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Tilvan SILVA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [leader NA]; People's Alliance or PA [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [D. SIDDATHAN]; Sihala Urumaya or SU [leader NA]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM and Ferial ASHRAFF]; Sri Lanka Progressive Front or SLPF [leader NA]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [SUBRAMANIUM]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [R. SAMPATHAN]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Upcountry People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN]; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either parliament or provincial councils

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE (insurgent group fighting for a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Warnasena RASAPUTRAM

chancery: 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 (through 4028)

FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador E. Ashley WILLS

embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3

mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo

telephone: [94] (1) 448007

FAX: [94] (1) 437345

Flag description: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two panels



Sri Lanka Economy

Economy - overview: In 1977, Colombo abandoned statist economic policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. Sri Lanka's most dynamic sectors now are food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications, and insurance and banking. By 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of exports (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments accounted for 63%. GDP grew at an annual average rate of 5.5% throughout the 1990s until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-98 with growth of 6.4% and 4.7% - but slowed to 4.3% in 1999. Growth increased to 5.6% in 2000, with growth in tourism and exports leading the way. But a resurgence of civil war between the Sinhalese and the minority Tamils and a possible slowdown in tourism dampen prospects for 2001. For the next round of reforms, the central bank of Sri Lanka recommends that Colombo expand market mechanisms in nonplantation agriculture, dismantle the government's monopoly on wheat imports, and promote more competition in the financial sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $62.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,250 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21%

industry: 19%

services: 60% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 39.7% (1995-96 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 6.6 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: services 45%, agriculture 38%, industry 17% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $3 billion

expenditures: $3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1999)

Electricity - production: 6.026 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29.9%

hydro: 70.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.604 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef

Exports: $5.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: textiles and apparel, tea, diamonds, coconut products, petroleum products

Exports - partners: US 39%, UK 13%, Middle East 8%, Germany 5%, Japan 4% (1999)

Imports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, textiles, petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Japan 10%, India 9%, Hong Kong 8%, Singapore 8%, South Korea 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $9.9 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $577 million (1998)

Currency: Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)

Currency code: LKR

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees per US dollar - 83.506 (January 2001), 77.005 (2000), 70.635 (1999), 64.450 (1998), 58.995 (1997), 55.271 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Sri Lanka Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 494,509 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 228,604 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: very inadequate domestic service, particularly in rural areas; some hope for improvement with privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service (1999)

domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems; telephone density remains low at 2.6 main lines per 100 persons (1999)

international: submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 45, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3.85 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 21 (1997)

Televisions: 1.53 million (1997)

Internet country code: .lk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2000)

Internet users: 65,000 (2000)



Sri Lanka Transportation

Railways: total: 1,463 km

broad gauge: 1,404 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (1996)

Highways: total: 11,285 km

paved: 10,721 km

unpaved: 564 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 430 km (navigable by shallow-draft craft)

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)

Ports and harbors: Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee

Merchant marine: total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 149,902 GRT/247,852 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 16, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 14 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Sri Lanka Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,304,323 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,119,511 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 193,522 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $719 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.2% (FY98)



Sri Lanka Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Sudan



Sudan Introduction

Background: Military dictatorships promulgating an Islamic government have mostly run the country since independence from the UK in 1956. Over the past two decades, a civil war pitting black Christians and animists in the south against the Arab-Muslims of the north has cost at least 1.5 million lives in war- and famine-related deaths, as well as the displacement of millions of others.



Sudan Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,505,810 sq km

land: 2.376 million sq km

water: 129,810 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 7,687 km

border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April to October)

Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m

highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m

Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 5%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 46%

forests and woodland: 19%

other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 19,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries



Sudan People

Population: 36,080,373 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.62% (male 8,227,011; female 7,870,783)

15-64 years: 53.29% (male 9,619,218; female 9,608,469)

65 years and over: 2.09% (male 425,898; female 328,994) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.79% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.89 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.04 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.29 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 68.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.94 years

male: 55.85 years

female: 58.08 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.99% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sudanese

Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)

Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English

note: program of "Arabization" in process

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 46.1%

male: 57.7%

female: 34.6% (1995 est.)



Sudan Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan

conventional short form: Sudan

local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

local short form: As-Sudan

former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Government type: transitional - ruling military junta took power in 1989; government is dominated by members of Sudan's National Islamic Front (NIF), a fundamentalist political organization, which uses the National Congress Party (NCP) as its legal front

Capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions: 26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party (front for the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates BASHIR's cabinet

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 13-23 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received less than a combined 4% of the vote

note: BASHIR assumed supreme executive power in 1989 and retained it through several transitional governments in the early and mid-90s before being popularly elected for the first time in March 1996

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (400 seats; 275 elected by popular vote, 125 elected by a supra assembly of interest groups known as the National Congress)

elections: last held 13-23 December 2000 (next to be held NA)

election results: NA; few parties participated in the 2000 elections

note: on 12 December 1999, BASHIR dismissed the National Assembly during an internal power struggle between the president and speaker of the National Assembly Hasan al-TURABI

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts

Political parties and leaders: the government allows political "associations" under a 1998 law revised in 2000; to obtain government approval parties must accept the constitution and refrain from advocating or using violence against the regime; approved parties include the National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular National Congress [Hassan al-TURABI], and a handful of minor pro-government parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Congress Party [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR] (front for the National Islamic Front or NIF); Popular National Congress [Hassan al-TURABI]; Umma [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Army [Dr. John GARANG]

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahdi Ibrahim MAHAMMAD (recalled to Khartoum in August 1998)

chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406

Diplomatic representation from the US: US officials at the US Embassy in Khartoum were moved for security reasons in February 1996 and have been relocated to the US Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Cairo, Egypt, from where they make periodic visits to Khartoum; the US Embassy in Khartoum is located on Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing address - P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829; telephone - [249] (11) 774611 or 774700; FAX - [249] (11) 774137; the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya is located in the Interim Office Building on Mombasa Road, Nairobi; mailing address - P. O. Box 30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831; telephone - [254] (2) 751613; FAX - [254] (2) 743204; the US Embassy in Cairo, Egypt is located at (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo; mailing address - Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900; telephone - [20] (2) 3557371; FAX - [20] (2) 3573200

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side



Sudan Economy

Economy - overview: Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic instability, adverse weather, weak world agricultural prices, a drop in remittances from abroad, and counterproductive economic policies. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture (which employs 80% of the work force), trading, and light industry which is mostly processing of agricultural goods. Most of the 1990s were characterized by sluggish economic growth as the IMF suspended lending, declared Sudan a non-cooperative state, and threatened to expel Sudan from the IMF. Starting in 1997, Sudan began implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms which have successfully stabilized inflation at 10% or less. Sudan continues to have limited international credit resources as over 75% of Sudan's debt of $24.9 billion is in arrears and Khartoum's continued prosecution of the civil war works to isolate Sudan. In 1999, Sudan began exporting oil and in 1999-2000 had recorded its first trade surpluses. Current oil production stands at 185,000 barrels per day, of which about 70% is exported and the rest refined for domestic consumption. Despite its many infrastructure problems, Sudan's increased oil production, the return of regular rainfall, and recent investments in irrigation schemes should allow the country to achieve economic growth of 6% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $35.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 39%

industry: 17%

services: 44% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 11 million (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government 6%, unemployed 4% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.2 billion

expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.76 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 42.05%

hydro: 57.95%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.637 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassara, mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and petroleum products, cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar

Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 16%, Italy 10%, Germany 5%, France 3%, Thailand 3% (1999)

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles

Imports - partners: China 14.7%, Libya 14.7%, Saudi Arabia 8.9%, UK 8.7%, France 6.7% (1999)

Debt - external: $24.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $187 million (1997)

Currency: Sudanese dinar (SDD)

Currency code: SDD

Exchange rates: Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 257.44 (January 2001), 257.12 (2000), 252.55 (1999), 200.80 (1998), 157.57 (1997), 125.08 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Sudan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 400,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 20,000 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 7.55 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 2.38 million (1997)

Internet country code: .sd

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Sudan Transportation

Railways: total: 5,311 km

narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 716 km 1.6096-m gauge plantation line

note: the main line linking Khartoum to Port Sudan carries over two-thirds of Sudan's rail traffic

Highways: total: 11,900 km

paved: 4,320 km

unpaved: 7,580 km (1996)

Waterways: 5,310 km

Pipelines: refined products 815 km

Ports and harbors: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin

Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,093 GRT/49,727 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 61 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 49

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 25

under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Sudan Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force Militia

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,436,732 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,194,862 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 398,294 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $550 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Sudan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with international boundary; Egypt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899

======================================================================

@Suriname



Suriname Introduction

Background: Independence from the Netherlands was granted in 1975. Five years later the civilian government was replaced by a military regime that soon declared a socialist republic. It continued to rule through a succession of nominally civilian administrations until 1987, when international pressure finally brought about a democratic election. In 1989, the military overthrew the civilian government, but a democratically elected government returned to power in 1991.



Suriname Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 56 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 163,270 sq km

land: 161,470 sq km

water: 1,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: total: 1,707 km

border countries: Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m

highest point: Juliana Top 1,230 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 96%

other: 4% (1993 est.)

note: there are 94,927 hectares of arable land, 7,195 hectares of permanent crops, and 15,000 hectares of permanent pastures

Irrigated land: 600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, most of which lives along the coast



Suriname People

Population: 433,998 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.62% (male 70,314; female 66,924)

15-64 years: 62.71% (male 138,969; female 133,193)

65 years and over: 5.67% (male 11,194; female 13,404) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.53 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.63 years

male: 68.97 years

female: 74.42 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.26% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 210 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Surinamer(s)

adjective: Surinamese

Ethnic groups: Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15%, "Maroons" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 10%, Amerindian 2%, Chinese 2%, white 1%, other 2%

Religions: Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant 25.2% (predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%

Languages: Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93%

male: 95%

female: 91% (1995 est.)



Suriname Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Suriname

conventional short form: Suriname

local long form: Republiek Suriname

local short form: Suriname

former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Paramaribo

Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987

Legal system: based on Dutch legal system incorporating French penal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 August 2000); Vice President Jules Rattankoemar AJODHIA (since 12 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 August 2000); Vice President Jules Rattankoemar AJODHIA (since 12 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly

elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate receives a constitutional majority vote in the National Assembly after two votes, by the larger People's Assembly (869 representatives from the national, local, and regional councils), for five-year terms; election last held 6 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2005)

note: widespread demonstrations during the summer of 1999 led to the calling of elections a year early

election results: Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN elected president; percent of legislative vote - 72.5; National Assembly elected the president - Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (New Front) 37 votes, Rashied DOEKHIE (NDP) 10 votes

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Nationale Assemblee (51 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NF 33, MC 10, DNP 2000 3, DA '91 2, PVF 2, PALU 1

note: widespread demonstrations during the summer of 1999 led to the calling of elections a year early

Judicial branch: Court of Justice (justices are nominated for life)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alternative '91 or DA '91 (a coalition of the Alternative Forum or AF and Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP, formed in January 1991) [S. RAMKHELAWAN]; Democratic National Platform 2000 or DNP 2000 (coalition of two parties, Democratic Party and Democrats of the 21st Century) [Jules WIJDENBOSCH]; Independent Progressive Democratic Alternative or OPDA [Joginder RAMKHILAWAN]; Millennium Combination or MC (a coalition of three parties, Democratic Alternative, Party for National Unity and Solidarity, and National Democratic Party) [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire BOUTERSE]; Naya Kadam or NK [leader NA]; Party for Renewal and Democracy or BVD [Tjan GOBARDHAN]; Party of National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA]; Pertjaja Luhur [Paul SOMOHARDJO]; Progressive Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union or PALU [Ir Iwan KROLIS]; The New Front or NF (a coalition of four parties Suriname National Party or NPS, Progressive Reform Party or VHP, Suriname Labor Party or SPA, and Pertjaja Luhur) [Ronald R. VENETIAAN]; The Progressive Development Alliance (a combination of three parties, Renewed Progressive Party or HPP, Party of the Federation of Land Workers or PVF, and Suriname Progressive People's Party or PSV) [Harry KISOENSINGH]

Political pressure groups and leaders: General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK]; Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement [Leendert ADAMS]; Tucayana Amazonica [Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO]; Union for Liberation and Democracy [Kofi AFONGPONG]

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: Suite 460, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488

FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878

consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel A. JOHNSON

embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo

mailing address: Department of State, 3390 Paramaribo Place, Washington, DC, 20521-3390

telephone: [597] 472900

FAX: [597] 420800

Flag description: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large, yellow, five-pointed star centered in the red band



Suriname Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which accounts for more than 15% of GDP and 70% of export earnings. After assuming power in the fall of 1996, the WIJDENBOSCH government ended the structural adjustment program of the previous government, claiming it was unfair to the poorer elements of society. Tax revenues fell as old taxes lapsed and the government failed to implement new tax alternatives. By the end of 1997, the allocation of new Dutch development funds was frozen as Surinamese Government relations with the Netherlands deteriorated. Economic growth slowed in 1998, with decline in the mining, construction, and utility sectors. Rampant government expenditures, poor tax collection, a bloated civil service, and reduced foreign aid in 1999 contributed to the fiscal deficit, estimated at 11% of GDP. The government sought to cover this deficit through monetary expansion, which led to a dramatic increase in inflation and exchange rate depreciation. Suriname's economic prospects for the medium term will depend on renewed commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and to the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition. The new government of Ronald VENETIAAN has begun an austerity program, raised taxes, and attempted to control spending. the exchange rate has responded by stabilizing. The Dutch Government has restarted the aid flow, which will allow Suriname to access international development financing.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.48 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13%

industry: 22%

services: 65% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 78% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 100,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $393 million

expenditures: $403 million, including capital expenditures of $34 million (1997 est.)

Industries: bauxite and gold mining, alumina production, lumbering, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.937 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 25.92%

hydro: 74.08%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.801 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts; beef, chickens; forest products; shrimp

Exports: $443 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: alumina, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas

Exports - partners: US 23%, Norway 19%, Netherlands 11%, France, Japan, UK (1999)

Imports: $525 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 35%, Netherlands 15%, Trinidad and Tobago 12%, Japan, UK, Brazil (1999)

Debt - external: $512 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: Netherlands provided $37 million for project and program assistance, European Development Fund $4 million, Belgium $2 million (1998)

Currency: Surinamese guilder (SRG)

Currency code: SRG

Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders per US dollar - 2,178.50 (December 2000), 987.50 (December 1999), 401.00 (December 1998), 401.00 (December 1997), 401.26 (December 1996)

note: beginning in July 1994, the central bank midpoint exchange rate was unified and became market determined; during 1998, the exchange rate splintered into four distinct rates; in January 1999 the government floated the guilder, but subsequently fixed it when the black-market rate plunged; the government currently allows trading within a band of SRG 500 around the official rate

Fiscal year: calendar year



Suriname Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 64,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,090 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: international facilities are good

domestic: microwave radio relay network

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 13, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 300,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus seven repeaters) (2000)

Televisions: 63,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Suriname Transportation

Railways: total: 166 km (single track)

standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 86 km 1.000-m gauge

note: Suriname railroads are not in operation (2000)

Highways: total: 4,530 km

paved: 1,178 km

unpaved: 3,352 km (1996)

Waterways: 1,200 km

note: most important means of transport; oceangoing vessels with drafts ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the principal waterways

Ports and harbors: Albina, Moengo, New Nickerie, Paramaribo, Paranam, Wageningen

Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,432 GRT/4,525 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 46 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 5

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 41

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 35 (2000 est.)



Suriname Military

Military branches: National Army (includes small Navy and Air Force elements), Civil Police

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 121,656 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 71,344 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.5 million (FY97 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY97 est.)



Suriname Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: area disputed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); area disputed by Guyana between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Koetari [Kutari] rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for Europe and Brazil; transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing

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@Svalbard



Svalbard Introduction

Background: First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century, the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.



Svalbard Geography

Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway

Geographic coordinates: 78 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total: 62,049 sq km

land: 62,049 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia

territorial sea: 4 NM

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m

Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (no trees, and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area

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