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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Telephone system: general assessment: effective system

domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago

international: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 42,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus 9 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



Seychelles Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 373 km

paved: 315 km

unpaved: 58 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Victoria

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,353 GRT/7,638 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 14 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 4 (2000 est.)



Seychelles Military

Military branches: Army, Coast Guard, air wing, National Guard, Presidential Protection Unit, Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 22,951 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 11,452 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13 million (FY93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.8% (FY93)



Seychelles Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)

======================================================================

@Sierra Leone



Sierra Leone Introduction

Background: Since 1991, civil war between the government and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (well over one-third of the population) many of whom are now refugees in neighboring countries. A peace agreement, signed in July 1999, collapsed in May 2000 after the RUF took over 500 UN peacekeepers hostage. The RUF stepped up attacks on Guinea in December 2000, despite a cease-fire that it signed with the Freetown government one month earlier. As of late 2000, up to 13,000 UN peacekeepers were protecting the capital and key towns in the south. A UK force of 750 was helping to reinforce security and train the Sierra Leone army.



Sierra Leone Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 71,740 sq km

land: 71,620 sq km

water: 120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 958 km

border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite

Land use: arable land: 7%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 31%

forests and woodland: 28%

other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 290 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms

Environment - current issues: rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Sierra Leone People

Population: 5,426,618 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.73% (male 1,190,207; female 1,237,326)

15-64 years: 52.12% (male 1,351,455; female 1,477,155)

65 years and over: 3.15% (male 84,364; female 86,111) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.61% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 45.11 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 19.19 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: by the end of 1999 refugees from Sierra Leone are assumed to be returning

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 146.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.6 years

male: 42.69 years

female: 48.61 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.01 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.99% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 68,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,200 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Sierra Leonean(s)

adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups: 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians

Religions: Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

Languages: English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic

total population: 31.4%

male: 45.4%

female: 18.2% (1995 est.)



Sierra Leone Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone

conventional short form: Sierra Leone

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1961)

Constitution: 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election held 26-27 February and 15 March 1996 (next to be held NA September 2001); note - president's tenure of office is limited to two five-year terms

election results: Ahmad Tejan KABBAH elected president; percent of vote - Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (SLPP) 59.5%, John KAREFA-SMART (UNPP) 40.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (80 seats - 68 elected by popular vote, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 26-27 February 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - SLPP 36.1%, UNPP 21.6%, PDP 15.3%, APC 5.7%, NUP 5.3%, DCP 4.8%, other 11.2%; seats by party - SLPP 27, UNPP 17, PDP 12, APC 5, NUP 4, DCP 3; note - first elections since the former House of Representatives was shut down by the military coup of 29 April 1992

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: All People's Congress or APC [Edward Mohammed TURAY, chairman]; Democratic Centre Party or DCP [Adu Aiah KOROMA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Amadu M. B. JALLOH]; National Republican Party or NRP [Sahr Stephen MAMBU]; National Unity Party or NUP [Dr. John KARIMU, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Thaimu BANGURA, chairman]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Abass Chernok BUNDU, chairman]; Revolutionary United Front Party or RUFP [Foday SANKOH, chairman]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH, chairman]; United National People's Party or UNPP [John KARIFA-SMART in exile, Raymond KAMARA, acting leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Trade Unions and Student Unions

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John Ernest LEIGH

chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 939-9261 through 9263

FAX: [1] (202) 483-1793

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph H. MELROSE, Jr.

embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [232] (22) 226481 through 226485

FAX: [232] (22) 225471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue



Sierra Leone Economy

Economy - overview: Sierra Leone is an extremely poor African nation with tremendous inequality in income distribution. It does have substantial mineral, agricultural, and fishery resources. However, the economic and social infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders continue to hamper economic development. About two-thirds of the working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Bauxite and rutile mines have been shut down by civil strife. The major source of hard currency is found in the mining of diamonds, the large majority of which are smuggled out of the country. The resurgence of internal warfare in 1999 brought another substantial drop in GDP, with GNP recovering part of the way in 2000. The fate of the economy depends upon the maintenance of domestic peace and the continued receipt of substantial aid from abroad.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $510 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 43%

industry: 26%

services: 31% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 68% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.5%

highest 10%: 43.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.369 million (1981 est.)

note: only about 65,000 wage earners (1985)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $96 million

expenditures: $351 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: mining (diamonds); small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 240 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 223.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports: $65 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish

Exports - partners: Belgium 38%, US 6%, Italy 4%, UK 4% (1999)

Imports: $145 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals

Imports - partners: UK 34%, US 8%, Italy 7%, Nigeria 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.28 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $203.7 million (1995)

Currency: leone (SLL)

Currency code: SLL

Exchange rates: leones per US dollar - 1,653.39 (January 2001), 2,092.13 (2000), 1,804.20 (1999), 1,563.62 (1998), 981.48 (1997), 920.73 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Sierra Leone Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 650 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: marginal telephone and telegraph service

domestic: national microwave radio relay trunk system, made unserviceable by military activities, is now operating from Freetown to Bo and Kenema (April 2001)

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 9, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 1.12 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1999)

Televisions: 53,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sl

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Sierra Leone Transportation

Railways: total: 84 km used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed

narrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 11,300 km

paved: 904 km

unpaved: 10,396 km (1997)

Waterways: 800 km (of which 600 km navigable year round)

Ports and harbors: Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,057 GRT/3,498 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 11 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Sierra Leone Military

Military branches: Army

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,161,790 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 563,631 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $46 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96/97)



Sierra Leone Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: civil war has engendered massive refugee movements into neighboring Guinea and Liberia

======================================================================

@Singapore



Singapore Introduction

Background: Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP above that of the leading nations of Western Europe.



Singapore Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N, 103 48 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 647.5 sq km

land: 637.5 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m

highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 6%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 5%

other: 87% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes



Singapore People

Population: 4,300,419 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.89% (male 397,124; female 372,058)

15-64 years: 75.16% (male 1,575,381; female 1,656,838)

65 years and over: 6.95% (male 130,815; female 168,203) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.5% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.24 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 26.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.17 years

male: 77.22 years

female: 83.35 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.22 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.19% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 210 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Singaporean(s)

adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.7%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%

Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist

Languages: Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.5%

male: 97%

female: 89.8% (1999)



Singapore Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

conventional short form: Singapore

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held NA August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 2 January 1997 (next to be held by 26 August 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 65% (in contested constituencies), other 35%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 1, SPP 1; note - subsequent to the election, there was a change in the distribution of seats, the new distribution is as follows: PAP 80, WP 1, SPP 1, vacant 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: People's Action Party or PAP [GOH Chok Tong, secretary general] - the governing party; Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong]; Workers' Party or WP [J. B. JEYARETNAM]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, Australia Group (observer), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee

chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100

FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, San Francisco

consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508

mailing address: PSC Box 470, FPO AP 96534-0001

telephone: [65] 476-9100

FAX: [65] 476-9340

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle



Singapore Economy

Economy - overview: Singapore is blessed with a highly developed and successful free-market economy, a remarkably open and corruption-free business environment, stable prices, and the fifth highest per capita GDP in the world. Exports, particularly in electronics and chemicals, and services are the main drivers of the economy. Mainly because of robust exports, especially electronic goods, the economy grew 10.1% in 2000. Forecasters, however, are projecting only 4%-6% growth in 2001 largely because of weaker global demand, especially in the US. The government promotes high levels of savings and investment through a mandatory savings scheme and spends heavily in education and technology. It also owns government-linked companies (GLCs) - particularly in manufacturing - that operate as commercial entities. As Singapore looks to a future increasingly marked by globalization, the country is positioning itself as the region's financial and high-tech hub.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $109.8 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 10.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $26,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NEGL%

industry: 30%

services: 70%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2000)

Labor force: 2.1 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: financial, business, and other services 35%, manufacturing 21%, construction 13%, transportation and communication 9%

Unemployment rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $18.1 billion

expenditures: $17.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.5 billion (FY99/00 est.)

Industries: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: 14% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 27.381 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 25.464 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish

Exports: $137 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics), chemicals, mineral fuels

Exports - partners: US 19%, Malaysia 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7%, Taiwan 5%, Thailand 4%, UK 4%, Netherlands 3.8%, China 3%, South Korea 3%, Germany 3% (1999)

Imports: $127 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: US 17%, Japan 17%, Malaysia 16%, Thailand 5%, China 5%, Taiwan 4%, Germany 3%, Saudi Arabia 3% (1999)

Debt - external: $9.7 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Singapore dollar (SGD)

Currency code: SGD

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.7365 (January 2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Singapore Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.928 million (November 2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.333 million (November 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: major consideration given to serving business interests; excellent international service

domestic: excellent domestic facilities

international: submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 16, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 2.6 million (2000)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (2000)

Televisions: 1.33 million (1997)

Internet country code: .sg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2000)

Internet users: 1.74 million (2000)



Singapore Transportation

Railways: total: 38.6 km

narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge

note: there is a 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations

Highways: total: 3,150 km

paved: 3,066 km (including 150 km of expressways)

unpaved: 84 km (2000)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Singapore

Merchant marine: total: 879 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,849,168 GRT/33,215,317 DWT

ships by type: bulk 134, cargo 111, chemical tanker 63, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 6, container 167, liquefied gas 28, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 4, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 295, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 33

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bermuda 12, Belgium 6, China 9, Denmark 29, Germany 8, Greece 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 9, Japan 32, South Korea 3, Netherlands 2, Norway 9, Russia 1, Sweden 22, Thailand 22, Taiwan 17, UK 3, US 10 (2000 est.)

Airports: 9 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Singapore Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,316,815 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 959,636 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5 billion (FY00/01 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.5% (FY00/01 est.)



Singapore Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Pedra Branca Island (Pulau Batu Putih) disputed with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, to use as a transit point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering

======================================================================

@Slovakia



Slovakia Introduction

Background: In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Historic, political, and geographic factors have caused Slovakia to experience more difficulty in developing a modern market economy than some of its Central European neighbors.



Slovakia Geography

Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 48,845 sq km

land: 48,800 sq km

water: 45 sq km

Area - comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: total: 1,355 km

border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use: arable land: 31%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 17%

forests and woodland: 41%

other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked



Slovakia People

Population: 5,414,937 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.86% (male 522,563; female 498,832)

15-64 years: 69.6% (male 1,872,496; female 1,896,249)

65 years and over: 11.54% (male 236,996; female 387,801) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.13% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.25 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.97 years

male: 69.95 years

female: 78.2 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000), Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Slovakia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska Republika

local short form: Slovensko

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999 (next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote - Rudolf SCHUSTER 57%

note: government coalition - SDK, SDL, SMK, SOP, KDH

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 25-26 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS 27%, SDK 26.3%, SDL 14.7%, SMK 9.1%, SNS 9.1%, SOP 8%; seats by party - governing coalition 93 (SDK 42, SDL 23, SMK 15, SOP 13), opposition 57 (HZDS 43, SNS 14)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Liberal Democratic Union or LDU [Jan BUDAJ]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Jozef MIGAS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; note - this is DZURINDA's new party for 2002 elections; he remains chairman of a rump and splintering SDK; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (loose parliamentary club grouping representing members of the smaller SSDS, SZS, and those committed to run under SDKU in 2002) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin BUTORA

chancery: Suite 250, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; note - new chancery opening in June 2001 at International Court NW, Washington, DC

telephone: [1] (202) 965-5161

FAX: [1] (202) 965-5166

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carl SPIELVOGEL

embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [421] (7) 5443-3338

FAX: [421] (7) 5443-0096

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue



Slovakia Economy

Economy - overview: Slovakia continues the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The economic slowdown in 1999 stemmed from large budget and current account deficits, fast-growing external debt, and persistent corruption. Even though GDP growth reached only 2.2% in 2000, the year was marked by positive developments such as foreign direct investment of $1.5 billion, strong export performance, restructuring and privatization in the banking sector, entry into the OECD, and initial efforts to stem corruption. Strong challenges face the government in 2001, especially the maintenance of fiscal balance, the further privatization of the economy, and the reduction of unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $55.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4.5%

industry: 29.3%

services: 66.2% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1%

highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 17% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $5.2 billion

expenditures: $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 22.582 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 37.56%

hydro: 18.27%

nuclear: 44.17%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 21.471 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 930 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.4 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports: $12 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 39.4%, intermediate manufactured goods 27.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 13%, chemicals 8% (1999)

Exports - partners: EU 59.7% (Germany 27.8%, Austria 8%, Italy 8.9%), Czech Republic 18.1% (1999)

Imports: $12.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 37.7%, intermediate manufactured goods 18%, fuels 13%, chemicals 11%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)

Imports - partners: EU 51.4% (Germany 26%, Italy 7.1%), Czech Republic 16.6%, Russia 11.9% (1999)

Debt - external: $10.3 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $421.9 million (1995)

Currency: Slovak koruna (SKK)

Currency code: SKK

Exchange rates: koruny per US dollar - 48.09 (March 2001), 46.395 (2000), 41.363 (1999), 35.233 (1998), 33.616 (1997), 30.654 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Slovakia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1,934,558 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 736,662 (April 1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality

domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added

international: three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services

Radio broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.12 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 2.62 million (1997)

Internet country code: .sk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)

Internet users: 700,000 (2000)



Slovakia Transportation

Railways: total: 3,660 km

broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1,505 km electrified; 1,011 km double track)

narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (1998)

Highways: total: 17,710 km

paved: 17,533 km (including 288 km of expressways)

unpaved: 177 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 172 km (all on the Danube)

Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Ports and harbors: Bratislava, Komarno

Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,041 GRT/19,517 DWT

ships by type: cargo 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 35 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 18

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 17

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)



Slovakia Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense Forces, Civil Defense Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,487,093 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,136,811 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 45,502 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $380 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.71% (FY00)



Slovakia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Gabcikovo/Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary is before the ICJ

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe

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@Slovenia



Slovenia Introduction

Background: In 1918 the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new nation, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy make Slovenia a leading candidate for future membership in the EU and NATO.



Slovenia Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 20,253 sq km

land: 20,253 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 1,165 km

border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 501 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km

Coastline: 46.6 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 24%

forests and woodland: 54%

other: 7% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding and earthquakes

Environment - current issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Slovenia People

Population: 1,930,132 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.09% (male 159,428; female 151,134)

15-64 years: 69.61% (male 681,333; female 662,170)

65 years and over: 14.3% (male 101,354; female 174,713) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.14% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.32 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.98 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.08 years

male: 71.2 years

female: 79.17 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Slovene(s)

adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups: Slovene 88%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Bosniak 1%, Yugoslav 0.6%, Hungarian 0.4%, other 5% (1991)

Religions: Roman Catholic 68.8%, Uniate Catholic 2%, Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%

Languages: Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: 99%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Slovenia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia

conventional short form: Slovenia

local long form: Republika Slovenija

local short form: Slovenija

Government type: parliamentary democratic republic

Capital: Ljubljana

Administrative divisions: 136 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Bled, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova-Tisina, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik-Trnovska Vas, Divaca, Dobrepolje, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grosuplje, Hodos Salovci, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola, Jesenice, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Koper*, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podvelka-Ribnica, Postojna, Preddvor, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne-Prevalje, Ribnica, Rogasevci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Semic, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveti Jurij, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velike Lasce, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Ziri, Zrece

note: there may be 45 more municipalities

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution: adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990)

head of government: Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 15 October 2000);

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 November 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 15 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)

election results: Milan KUCAN elected president; percent of vote - Milan KUCAN 56.3%, Janez PODOBNIK 18%; Janez DRNOVSEK elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats, 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note - the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held 15 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 36%, SDS 16%, ZLSD 12%, SLS/SKD 10%, NSI 9%, SMS 4%, SNS 4%, DeSUS 5%, other 4%; seats by party - LDS 34, SDS 14, ZLDS 11, SLS/SKD 9, NSI 8, SMS 4, SNS 4, DeSUS 4, other 2

note: the National Council or Drzavni Svet is an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws and ask to review any National Assembly decisions; in the election of NA November 1997, 40 members were elected to represent local, professional, and socioeconomic interests (next election to be held in the fall of 2002)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS [Janko KUSAR]; Liberal Democratic or LDS [Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman]; New Slovenia or NSI [Andrej BAJUK, chairman]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC, chairman]; Slovene People's Party or SLS (Slovenian People's Party or SLS and Slovenian Christian Democrats or SKD merged in April 2000) [Franc ZAGOZEN, chairman]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [leader NA]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez JANSA, chairman]; United List of Social Democrats (former Communists and allies) or ZLSD [Borut PAHOR, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (observer), BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Davorin KRACUN

chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363

FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563

consulate(s) general: New York

consulate(s): Cleveland

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy ELY-RAPHEL

embassy: Presernova 31, SI-1000 Ljubljana

mailing address: P. O. Box 254, Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana; American Embassy Ljubljana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7140

telephone: [386] (01) 200-5500

FAX: [386] (01) 200-5555

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands



Slovenia Economy

Economy - overview: Although Slovenia enjoys one of the highest GDPs per capita among the transition economies of Central Europe, it needs to speed up the privatization process and the dismantling of restrictions on foreign investment. About 45% of the economy remains in state hands, and the level of foreign direct investment inflows as a percent of GDP is the lowest in the region. Analysts are predicting between 4.0% and 4.2% growth for 2001. Export growth is expected to slow in 2001 and 2002 as EU markets soften. Inflation rose from 6.1% to 8.9% in 2000 and remains a matter of concern.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $22.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 35%

services: 61% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%

highest 10%: 20.7% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 857,400

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $8.11 billion

expenditures: $8.32 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2000)

Electricity - production: 12.451 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 34.44%

hydro: 29.58%

nuclear: 35.98%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 10.024 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 2.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 645 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

Exports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

Exports - partners: Germany 31%, Italy 14%, Croatia 8%, Austria 7%, France 6% (1999)

Imports: $9.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food

Imports - partners: Germany 21%, Italy 17%, France 11%, Austria 8%, Croatia 4%, Hungary, Russia (1999)

Debt - external: $6.2 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $5 million (1993)

Currency: tolar (SIT)

Currency code: SIT

Exchange rates: tolars per US dollar - 225.93 (January 2001), 222.66 (2000), 181.77 (1999), 166.13 (1998), 159.69 (1997), 135.36 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Slovenia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 722,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1 million (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: 100% digital (2000)

international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 160, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 805,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 48 (2001)

Televisions: 710,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .si

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 11 (2000)

Internet users: 460,000 (1999)



Slovenia Transportation

Railways: total: 1,201 km

standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (489 km electrified) (1999)

Highways: total: 19,586 km

paved: 17,745 km (including 249 km of expressways)

unpaved: 1,841 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: NA

Pipelines: crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km

Ports and harbors: Izola, Koper, Piran

Airports: 14 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 4 (2000 est.)



Slovenia Military

Military branches: Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 523,336 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 416,237 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 14,513 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $370 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY00)



Slovenia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: progress with Croatia on discussions of adjustments to land boundary, but problems remain in defining maritime boundary in Gulf of Piran; Austria has minor dispute with Slovenia over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

======================================================================

@Solomon Islands



Solomon Islands Introduction

Background: The UK established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands in the 1890s. Some of the bitterest fighting of World War II occurred on these islands. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later. Current issues include government deficits, deforestation, and malaria control.



Solomon Islands Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 159 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 28,450 sq km

land: 27,540 sq km

water: 910 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 5,313 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Makarakomburu 2,447 m

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, nickel

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 88%

other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons, but they are rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earth tremors; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; much of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Solomon Islands People

Population: 480,442 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.79% (male 107,229; female 103,162)

15-64 years: 53.15% (male 129,315; female 126,021)

65 years and over: 3.06% (male 7,190; female 7,525) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.98% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 34.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.27 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.55 years

male: 69.12 years

female: 74.1 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.65 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Solomon Islander(s)

adjective: Solomon Islander

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%, European 0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

Religions: Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United (Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other Protestant 5%, indigenous beliefs 4%

Languages: Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2% of population

note: 120 indigenous languages

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Solomon Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Solomon Islands

former: British Solomon Islands

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western; note - there may be two new provinces of Choiseul (Lauru) and Rennell/Bellona and the administrative unit of Honiara may have been abolished

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Father John LAPLI (since NA 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Mannaseh Damukana SOGAVARE (since 1 July 2000); Assistant Prime Minister Nathaniel WAENA (since 1 July 2000); Deputy Prime Minister Allan KEMAKEZA (since 1 July 2000); note - Prime Minister Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU was forced to resign his position in June 2000 following the armed takeover of the capital by elements supporting the opposition parties; Mannaseh Damukana SOGAVARE, who had been opposition leader, was then elected prime minister at a sitting of National Parliament on 30 June 2000

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of Parliament for up to five years; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (50 seats; members elected from single member constituencies by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 6 August 1997 (next to be held by August 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - GNUR 21, PAP 7, NAPSI 5, SILP 4, UP 4, independents 6, other 3

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: there are two main coalitions - Coalition for National Unity, Reconciliation, and Peace or CNURP and Alliance for Change; the CNURP took power on 30 June 2000, it comprises members of the Liberal Party, People's Alliance Party, and the United Party, as well as a number of independents; the Alliance for Change, represents the former government and now is the opposition; in general, Solomon Islands politics is characterized by fluid coalitions; Group for National Unity and Reconciliation or GNUR [leader NA]; Liberal Party [Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU]; National Action Party of Solomon Islands or NAPSI [Francis SAEMALA]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [George LEPPING]; People's Progressive Party [Mannaseh Damukana SOGAVARE]; Solomon Islands Labor Party or SILP [Joses TUHANUKU]; United Party or UP [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Jeremiah MANELE

chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400L, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 599-6192, 6193

FAX: [1] (212) 661-8925

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Solomon Islands (embassy closed July 1993); the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands

Flag description: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green



Solomon Islands Economy

Economy - overview: The bulk of the population depends on agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. However, severe ethnic violence, the closing of key business enterprises, and an empty government treasury have led to a continuing economic downslide. Deliveries of crucial fuel supplies (including those for electrical generation) by tankers have become sporadic due to the government's inability to pay and attacks against ships. Telecommunications are threatened by the lack of technical and maintenance staff many of whom have left the country.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $900 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 50%

industry: 3.5%

services: 46.5% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 26,842

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $147 million

expenditures: $168 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: fish (tuna), mining, timber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 27.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels, rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; timber; fish

Exports: $165 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: timber, fish, palm oil, cocoa, copra

Exports - partners: Japan 35.5%, other Asian countries 47.3% (1999)

Imports: $152 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: plant and equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners: Australia 38.5%, Singapore 15%, Japan 10.6%, NZ 6.2% (1999)

Debt - external: $152.4 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $47 million (1999 est.), mainly from Japan, Australia, China, and NZ

Currency: Solomon Islands dollar (SBD)

Currency code: SBD

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars per US dollar - 5.0968 (November 2000), 5.0864 (2000), 4.8381 (1999), 4.8156 (1998), 3.7169 (1997), 3.5664 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Solomon Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 658 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 3,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sb

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 3,000 (2000)



Solomon Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,360 km

paved: 34 km

unpaved: 1,326 km (includes about 800 km of private plantation roads) (1996 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Aola Bay, Honiara, Lofung, Noro, Viru Harbor, Yandina

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 31 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 29

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 18 (2000 est.)



Solomon Islands Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Solomon Islands National Reconnaissance and Surveillance Force; Royal Solomon Islands Police (RSIP)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Solomon Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Somalia



Somalia Introduction

Background: A SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in January 1991; turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy followed for nine years. In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland which now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of the ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs. The regions of Bari and Nugaal comprise a neighboring self-declared Republic of Puntland, which has also made strides towards reconstructing legitimate, representative government. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. A Transitional National Government (TNG) was created in October 2000 in Arta, Djibouti which was attended by a broad representation of Somali clans. The TNG has a three-year mandate to create a permanent national Somali government. The TNG does not recognize Somaliland or Puntland as independent republics but so far has been unable to reunite them with the unstable regions in the south; numerous warlords and factions are still fighting for control of Mogadishu and the other southern regions.



Somalia Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 637,657 sq km

land: 627,337 sq km

water: 10,320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 2,366 km

border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 69%

forests and woodland: 26%

other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season

Environment - current issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal



Somalia People

Population: 7,488,773

note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.54% (male 1,670,320; female 1,665,329)

15-64 years: 52.69% (male 1,993,750; female 1,952,437)

65 years and over: 2.77% (male 91,511; female 115,426) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.48% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 47.23 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 18.35 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 123.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.6 years

male: 44.99 years

female: 48.25 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.11 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Somali(s)

adjective: Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 24%

male: 36%

female: 14% (1990 est.)



Somalia Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Somalia

former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960)

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

note: the Transitional National Government formed in October 2000 has a mandate to create a new constitution and hold elections within three years

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan (since 26 August 2000); note - Interim President ABDIKASSIM was chosen for a three-year term by a 245-member National Assembly serving as a transitional government; the present political situation is still unstable, particularly in the south, with interclan fighting and random banditry

head of government: ALI Khalifa Galaydh, appointed by the president 8 October 2000

cabinet: appointed by the prime minister and sworn in on 20 October 2000

election results: ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan was elected president of an interim government at the Djibouti-sponsored Arta Peace Conference on 26 August 2000 by a broad representation of Somali clans that comprised a transitional National Assembly.

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Golaha Shacbiga

note: fledgling parliament; a transitional 245-member National Assembly began to meet on 13 August 2000 in the town of Arta, Djibouti and is now based in Mogadishu

Judicial branch: following the breakdown of national government, most regions have reverted to Islamic (Shari'a) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Somalia does not have an embassy in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi at Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue; mail address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (2) 334141; FAX [254] (2) 340838

Flag description: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

Government - note: An interim Transitional National Government - with a president, prime minister, and 245-member National Assembly - was formed in October 2000. However, other governing bodies continue to exist and control various cities and regions of the country, including Somaliland, Puntland, and traditional clan and faction strongholds.



Somalia Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock and bananas are the principal exports; sugar, sorghum, corn, fish, and qat are products for the domestic market. The small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of GDP; most facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife. Moreover, ongoing civil disturbances in Mogadishu and outlying areas have interfered with any substantial economic advance and with international aid arrangements. Due to the civil strife, economic data is susceptible to an exceptionally wide margin of error.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 60%

industry: 10% (largely shut down in 2000)

services: 30% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 100% (businesses print their own money) (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.7 million (very few are skilled laborers) (1993 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry and services 29%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down), wireless communication

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 260 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 241.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cattle, sheep, goats; bananas, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; fish

Exports: $186 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish (1999)

Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 53%, Yemen 19%, UAE 14%, Italy 5%, Pakistan 2% (1999)

Imports: $314 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials (1995)

Imports - partners: Djibouti 24%, Kenya 14%, Brazil 13%, Saudi Arabia 10%, India 9% (1999)

Debt - external: $2.6 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $191.5 million (1995)

Currency: Somali shilling (SOS)

Currency code: SOS

Exchange rates: Somali shillings per US dollar - 11,000 (November 2000), 2,620 (January 1999), 7,500 (November 1997 est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.), 5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616 (1 July 1993)

note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issues its own currency, the Somaliland shilling

Fiscal year: NA



Somalia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own private systems

domestic: recently, local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers

international: international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 4 (1988)

Radios: 470,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 135,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .so

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 200 (2000)



Somalia Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 22,100 km

paved: 2,608 km

unpaved: 19,492 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Ports and harbors: Bender Cassim (Boosaaso), Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 62 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 5

over 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 57

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 29

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)



Somalia Military

Military branches: A Somali National Army is being reformed under the interim government; numerous factions and clans maintain independent militias, and the Somaliland and Puntland regional governments maintain their own security and police forces

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,825,302 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,011,400 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Somalia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden

======================================================================

@South Africa



South Africa Introduction

Background: After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments, but were defeated in the Boer War (1899-1902). The resulting Union of South Africa operated under a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races. The 1990s brought an end to apartheid politically and ushered in black majority rule.



South Africa Geography

Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa

Geographic coordinates: 29 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,219,912 sq km

land: 1,219,912 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 4,750 km

border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,798 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 67%

forests and woodland: 7%

other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts

Environment - current issues: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage threatens to outpace supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland



South Africa People

Population: 43,586,097

note: South Africa took a census October 1996 which showed a population of 40,583,611 (after an official adjustment for a 6.8% underenumeration based on a postenumeration survey); estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.01% (male 7,023,639; female 6,928,559)

15-64 years: 63.11% (male 13,264,654; female 14,244,484)

65 years and over: 4.88% (male 798,914; female 1,325,847) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 21.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.77 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 48.09 years

male: 47.64 years

female: 48.56 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.43 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 19.94% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4.2 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 250,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: South African(s)

adjective: South African

Ethnic groups: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%

Religions: Christian 68% (includes most whites and Coloreds, about 60% of blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of Indians), indigenous beliefs and animist 28.5%

Languages: 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.8%

male: 81.9%

female: 81.7% (1995 est.)



South Africa Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of South Africa

conventional short form: South Africa

former: Union of South Africa

abbreviation: RSA

Government type: republic

Capital: Pretoria; note - Cape Town is the legislative center and Bloemfontein the judicial center

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape, Northern Province, Western Cape

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)

Constitution: 10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 3 February 1997; it is being implemented in phases

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

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