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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Industrial production growth rate: -8.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 110 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 102.3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus, root crops, cocoa

Exports: $68.3 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas 41%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil

Exports - partners: UK 50%, US 24%, Caricom countries 16% (1995)

Imports: $319.4 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: food 23%, manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation equipment 19%, chemicals, fuels

Imports - partners: US 36%, Caricom countries 22%, UK 11%, Japan 5%, Canada 4% (1995)

Debt - external: $131.6 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $51.8 million (1995)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Saint Lucia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 37,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,600 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate system

domestic: system is automatically switched

international: direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados; international calls beyond these countries are carried by Intelsat from Martinique

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 7 (plus 3 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 111,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (of which two are commercial stations and one is a community antenna television or CATV channel) (1997)

Televisions: 32,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .lc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 15 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



Saint Lucia Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,210 km

paved: 63 km

unpaved: 1,147 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Castries, Vieux Fort

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Saint Lucia Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Lucia Police Force (includes Special Service Unit), Coast Guard

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5 million (FY91/92)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY91/92)



Saint Lucia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transit point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Introduction

Background: First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Geography

Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates: 46 50 N, 56 20 W

Map references: North America

Area: total: 242 sq km

land: 242 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: arable land: 13%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 4%

other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: vegetation scanty



Saint Pierre and Miquelon People

Population: 6,928 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.85% (male 917; female 874)

15-64 years: 64.22% (male 2,273; female 2,176)

65 years and over: 9.93% (male 291; female 397) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.43% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.88 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.64 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.77 years

male: 75.51 years

female: 80.13 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%

Languages: French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (1982 est.)



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon

local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Dependency status: self-governing territorial collectivity of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Saint-Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions approved by the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law with special adaptations for local conditions, such as housing and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Remi THUAU (since NA)

head of government: President of the General Council Bernard LE SOAVEC (since NA 1996)

cabinet: NA

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 7 May 1995 (next to be held NA May 2002); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections: elections last held NA April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last held NA September 1995 (next to be held NA September 2004); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 seat to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDF 1

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR [leader NA]; Socialist Party or PS [leader NA]; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Flag description: a yellow sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a dark blue background with a black wave line under the ship; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the square into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one on top of the other; the flag of France is used for official occasions



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Economy

Economy - overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. The islands are heavily subsidized by France to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $74 million (1996 est.); supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1991-96 average)

Labor force: 3,000 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: fishing 18%, industry (mainly fish-processing) 41%, services 41% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.8% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $70 million

expenditures: $60 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 37.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports: $12 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts

Exports - partners: US 43%, Egypt 14%, Japan 11%, Colombia 8% (1999)

Imports: $55 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials

Imports - partners: France 44%, Canada 40% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: approximately $65 million in annual grants from France

Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.06594 (January 2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate

domestic: NA

international: radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 4,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (there are, however, two repeaters which rebroadcast programs from France, Canada, and the US) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .pm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 114 km

paved: 69 km

unpaved: 45 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Saint Pierre

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Saint Pierre and Miquelon Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Introduction

Background: Disputed between France and Great Britain in the 18th century, Saint Vincent was ceded to the latter in 1783. Autonomy was granted in 1969, and independence in 1979.



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 15 N, 61 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 389 sq km (Saint Vincent 344 sq km)

land: 389 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 84 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Soufriere 1,234 m

Natural resources: hydropower, cropland

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 18%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 36%

other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent is a constant threat

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; in some areas, pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines People

Population: 115,942 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.61% (male 17,466; female 16,865)

15-64 years: 64.04% (male 38,074; female 36,179)

65 years and over: 6.35% (male 3,162; female 4,196) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.4% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.91 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.16 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.56 years

male: 70.83 years

female: 74.34 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s)

adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian

Ethnic groups: black 66%, mixed 19%, East Indian 6%, Carib Amerindian 2%

Religions: Anglican 47%, Methodist 28%, Roman Catholic 13%, Seventh-Day Adventist, Hindu, other Protestant

Languages: English, French patois

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 96%

male: 96%

female: 96% (1970 est.)



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Government type: parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth

Capital: Kingstown

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

Independence: 27 October 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

Constitution: 27 October 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General David JACK (since 29 September 1989)

head of government: Prime Minister Ralph GONSALVES (since 29 March 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (21 seats, 15 elected representatives and 6 appointed senators; representatives are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 28 March 2001 (next to be held by NA March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ULP 12, NDP 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

Political parties and leaders: National Reform Party or NRP [Joel MIGUEL]; New Democratic Party or NDP [Arnhim EUSTACE]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Ken BOYEA]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [leader NA]; United People's Movement or UPM [Adrian SAUNDERS]; Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES] (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement for National Unity or MNU)

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ellsworth JOHN

chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 364-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 364-6736

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; the US Ambassador in Barbados is accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Flag description: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most important sector of this lower-middle-income economy. The services sector, based mostly on a growing tourist industry, is also important. The government has been relatively unsuccessful at introducing new industries, and a high unemployment rate persists. The continuing dependence on a single crop represents the biggest obstacle to the islands' development; tropical storms wiped out substantial portions of crops in both 1994 and 1995. The tourism sector has considerable potential for development over the next decade. Recent growth has been stimulated by strong activity in the construction sector and an improvement in tourism. There is a small manufacturing sector and a small offshore financial sector whose particularly restrictive secrecy laws have caused some international concern.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $322 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.6%

industry: 17.5%

services: 71.9% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 17%, services 57% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $85.7 million

expenditures: $98.6 million, including capital expenditures of $25.7 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch

Industrial production growth rate: -0.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 82 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 73.17%

hydro: 26.83%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 76.3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices; small numbers of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats; fish

Exports: $53.7 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas 39%, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, tennis racquets

Exports - partners: Caricom countries 49%, UK 16%, US 10% (1995)

Imports: $185.6 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels

Imports - partners: US 36%, Caricom countries 28%, UK 13% (1995)

Debt - external: $99.3 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $47.5 million (1995); note - EU $34.5 million (1998)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 20,500 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate system

domestic: islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines

international: VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; new SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and to Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 77,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 18,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .vc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 15 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,040 km

paved: 320 km

unpaved: 720 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Kingstown

Merchant marine: total: 800 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,705,336 GRT/10,134,002 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 131, cargo 395, chemical tanker 29, combination bulk 12, combination ore/oil 1, container 46, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 3, multi-functional large-load carrier 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 56, refrigerated cargo 42, roll on/roll off 49, short-sea passenger 11, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: China 4, Ireland 1, France 1, Greece 3, Hong Kong 1, Croatia 10, India 1, Japan 2, Monaco 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 2, Netherlands Antilles 1, Pakistan 1, Russia 1, Slovenia 5, UAE 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force (includes Special Service Unit), Coast Guard

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Samoa



Samoa Introduction

Background: New Zealand occupied the German protectorate of Western Samoa at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It continued to administer the islands as a mandate and then as a trust territory until 1962, when the islands became the first Polynesian nation to reestablish independence in the 20th century. The country dropped the "Western" from its name in 1997.



Samoa Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 13 35 S, 172 20 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 2,860 sq km

land: 2,850 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 403 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mauga Silisili 1,857 m

Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 24%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 47%

other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons; active volcanism

Environment - current issues: soil erosion

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Samoa People

Population: 179,058 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.88% (male 29,009; female 28,069)

15-64 years: 62.44% (male 70,491; female 41,304)

65 years and over: 5.68% (male 4,739; female 5,446) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.23% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.59 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.29 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -11.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.71 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.39 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 31.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.5 years

male: 66.77 years

female: 72.37 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Samoan(s)

adjective: Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian blood), Europeans 0.4%

Religions: Christian 99.7% (about one-half of population associated with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Samoan (Polynesian), English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 97%

female: 97% (1971 est.)



Samoa Government

Country name: conventional long form: Independent State of Samoa

conventional short form: Samoa

former: Western Samoa

Government type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

Capital: Apia

Administrative divisions: 11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

Independence: 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day Celebration, 1 June (1962); note - 1 January 1962 is the date of independence from the New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship, 1 June 1962 is the date that independence is celebrated

Constitution: 1 January 1962

Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II (cochief of state from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 April 1963)

head of government: Prime Minister TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi (since 24 November 1998); note - TUILA'EPA served as deputy prime minister since 1992; he assumed the prime ministership in November 1998 when former Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana resigned in poor health; the post of deputy prime minister is currently vacant

cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members, appointed by the chief of state with the prime minister's advice

elections: upon the death of Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II, a new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49 seats - 47 elected by Samoans, 2 elected by non-Samoans; only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Fono; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held by March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - HRPP 23, SNDP 13, independents 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi, chairman]; Samoa All People's Party or SAPP [Matatumua NAIMOAGA]; Samoan National Development Party or SNDP [TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman] (opposition); Samoa National Party [FETU Tiatia, party secretary]; Samoan Progressive Conservative Party [LEOTA Ituau Ale]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tuiloma Neroni SLADE

chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400D, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196, 6197

FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carol MOSELEY BRAUN (Ambassador to New Zealand and Samoa, resides in Wellington, New Zealand)

embassy: 5th floor, Beach Road, Apia

mailing address: P. O. Box 3430, Apia

telephone: [685] 21631

FAX: [685] 22030

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation



Samoa Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, and agricultural exports. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, and copra. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. Tourism is an expanding sector, accounting for 15% of GDP; about 85,000 tourists visited the islands in 2000. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength for future economic advances. Foreign reserves are in a relatively healthy state, the external debt is stable, and inflation is low.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $571 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%

industry: 24%

services: 61% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 90,000 (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 30%, industry 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%; note - substantial underemployment

Budget: revenues: $74.8 million

expenditures: $81.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: food processing, building materials, auto parts

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 60%

hydro: 40%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 93 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, bananas, taro, yams

Exports: $17 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: coconut oil and cream, copra, fish, beer

Exports - partners: American Samoa 59%, US 18%, Germany 9%, New Zealand 8% (2000 est.)

Imports: $90 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, industrial supplies, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: New Zealand 37%, Australia 24%, Fiji 14%, US 14% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $180 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $42.9 million (1995)

Currency: tala (WST)

Currency code: WST

Exchange rates: tala per US dollar - 3.3400 (January 2001), 3.2712 (2000), 3.0120 (1999), 2.9429 (1998), 2.5562 (1997), 2.4618 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Samoa Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,545 (February 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 178,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ws

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Samoa Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 835 km

paved: 267 km

unpaved: 569 km (1983)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Samoa Military

Military branches: no regular armed services; Samoa Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship



Samoa Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@San Marino



San Marino Introduction

Background: The third smallest state in Europe (after The Holy See and Monaco) also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in 301 A.D. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy. Social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.



San Marino Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 61.2 sq km

land: 61.2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 39 km

border countries: Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m

highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

Natural resources: building stone

Land use: arable land: 17%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines



San Marino People

Population: 27,336 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.88% (male 2,241; female 2,100)

15-64 years: 67.94% (male 9,048; female 9,525)

65 years and over: 16.18% (male 1,902; female 2,520) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.45% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.76 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.23 years

male: 77.68 years

female: 85.1 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 96%

male: 97%

female: 95% (1976 est.)



San Marino Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of San Marino

conventional short form: San Marino

local long form: Repubblica di San Marino

local short form: San Marino

Government type: independent republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 3 September 301

National holiday: Founding of the Republic, 3 September (301)

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: cochiefs of state Captain Regent Luigi LONFERNINI and Captain Regent Fabio BERARDI (for the period 1 April 2001-30 September 2001)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term

elections: cochiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA March 2001 (next to be held NA September 2001); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held NA June 1998 (next to be held NA June 2003)

election results: Luigi LONFERNINI and Fabio BERARDI elected captain regents; percent of legislative vote - NA; Gabriele GATTI reelected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA

note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (cochiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has ten other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are three secretaries of state - Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance - and several additional secretaries; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next likely to be held by NA June 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 40.8%, PSS 23.3%, PPDS 18.6%, APDS 9.8%, RC 3.3%, SR 4.2%; seats by party - PDCS 25, PSS 14, PPDS 11, APDS 6, RC 2, SR 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders: Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Pier Marino MENICUCCI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or APDS [Mario VENTURINI]; San Marino Progressive Democratic Party or PPDS [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Augusto CASALI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an embassy in the US

honorary consulate(s) general: Washington, DC, and New York

honorary consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)



San Marino Economy

Economy - overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1999 more than 3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $860 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $32,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2000)

Labor force: 18,500 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 38%, agriculture 2% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1999)

Budget: revenues: $400 million

expenditures: $400 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh

note: electric power supplied by Italy (1999)

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

note: electricity supplied by Italy

Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Italian lira (ITL); euro (EUR)

Currency code: ITL; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.06594 (January 2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



San Marino Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,010 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate connections

domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system

international: connected to Italian international network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)

Televisions: 9,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



San Marino Transportation

Railways: 0 km; note - there is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore

Highways: total: 220 km

paved: 220 km

unpaved: 0 km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none



San Marino Military

Military branches: Voluntary Military Force, Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $700,000 (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



San Marino Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Sao Tome and Principe



Sao Tome and Principe Introduction

Background: Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The first free elections were held in 1991.



Sao Tome and Principe Geography

Location: Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 7 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,001 sq km

land: 1,001 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m

Natural resources: fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 36%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Sao Tome and Principe People

Population: 165,034 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.7% (male 39,857; female 38,859)

15-64 years: 48.28% (male 38,430; female 41,246)

65 years and over: 4.02% (male 3,034; female 3,608) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.18% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 42.74 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.59 years

male: 64.15 years

female: 67.07 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.02 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Sao Tomean(s)

adjective: Sao Tomean

Ethnic groups: mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religions: Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Portuguese (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 73%

male: 85%

female: 62% (1991 est.)



Sao Tome and Principe Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe

local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe

local short form: Sao Tome e Principe

Government type: republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome

note: Principe has had self-government since 29 April 1995

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Constitution: approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister Guilherma Posser da COSTA (since 30 December 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 June and 21 July 1996 (next to be held NA July 2001); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

election results: Miguel TROVOADA reelected president in Sao Tome's second multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - Miguel TROVOADA 52.74%, Manuel Pinto da COSTA 47.26%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 8 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP-PSD 56%, PCD 14.5%, ADI 29%; seats by party - MLSTP-PSD 31, ADI 16, PCD 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA]; Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo GRACA]; other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Sao Tome and Principe does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at 122 East 42nd Street, Suite 1604, New York, NY 10168, telephone [1] (212) 317-0533

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands

Flag description: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Sao Tome and Principe Economy

Economy - overview: This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 25 years ago. However, cocoa production has substantially declined because of drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a significant amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies, but economic growth has remained sluggish. Sao Tome is also optimistic that significant petroleum discoveries are forthcoming in its territorial waters in the oil-rich waters of the Gulf of Guinea. Corruption scandals continue to weaken the economy. At the same time, progress in the economic reform program has attracted international financial institutions' support, and GDP growth will likely rise to at least 4% in 2001-02.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $178 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23%

industry: 19%

services: 58% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing

note: shortages of skilled workers

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $58 million

expenditures: $114 million, including capital expenditures of $54 million (1993 est.)

Industries: light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 17 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 41.18%

hydro: 58.82%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 15.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish

Exports: $3.2 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cocoa 90%, copra, coffee, palm oil

Exports - partners: Netherlands 18%, Germany 9%, Portugal 9% (1998)

Imports: $40 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Portugal 42%, US 20%, South Africa 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $268 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $200 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program

Currency: dobra (STD)

Currency code: STD

Exchange rates: dobras per US dollar - 2390.04 (December 2000), 7,119.0 (1999), 6,883.2 (1998), 4,552.5 (1997), 2,203.2 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Sao Tome and Principe Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,942 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate facilities

domestic: minimal system

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 38,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 23,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .st

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Sao Tome and Principe Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 320 km

paved: 218 km

unpaved: 102 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Santo Antonio, Sao Tome

Merchant marine: total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 130,843 GRT/149,048 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 21, chemical tanker 1, container 3, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Sao Tome and Principe Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Security Police

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 34,205 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 18,043 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 million (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY94)



Sao Tome and Principe Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Saudi Arabia



Saudi Arabia Introduction

Background: In 1902 Abdul al-Aziz Ibn SAUD captured Riyadh and set out on a 30-year campaign to unify the Arabian peninsula. In the 1930s, the discovery of oil transformed the country. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. A burgeoning population, aquifer depletion, and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all major governmental concerns.



Saudi Arabia Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 1,960,582 sq km

land: 1,960,582 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 4,415 km

border countries: Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline: 2,640 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 NM

continental shelf: not specified

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 56%

forests and woodland: 1%

other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Environment - current issues: desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills

Environment - international agreements: party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal



Saudi Arabia People

Population: 22,757,092

note: includes 5,360,526 non-nationals (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.52% (male 4,932,465; female 4,743,908)

15-64 years: 54.8% (male 7,290,840; female 5,179,393)

65 years and over: 2.68% (male 334,981; female 275,505) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.27% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.34 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.41 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.22 male(s)/female

total population: 1.23 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 51.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.09 years

male: 66.4 years

female: 69.85 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Saudi(s)

adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Arabic

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 62.8%

male: 71.5%

female: 50.2% (1995 est.)



Saudi Arabia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

conventional short form: Saudi Arabia

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

Government type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk

Independence: 23 September 1932 (Unification of the Kingdom)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Constitution: governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law); the Basic Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was introduced in 1993

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch and includes many royal family members

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: a consultative council (90 members and a chairman appointed by the monarch for four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders: none allowed

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BIS, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud

chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800

consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wyche FOWLER, Jr.

embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh

mailing address: American Embassy Riyadh, Unit 61307, APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693

telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800

FAX: [966] (1) 488-7360

consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag description: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the traditional color of Islam



Saudi Arabia Economy

Economy - overview: This is an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the world (26% of the proved reserves), ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 40% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. About 35% of GDP comes from the private sector. Roughly 5 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and service sectors. Saudi Arabia was a key player in the successful efforts of OPEC and other oil producing countries to raise the price of oil in 1999-2000 to its highest level since the Gulf war by reducing production. Riyadh expects to have a moderate budget deficit in 2001, in part because of increased spending for education and other social programs. The government in 1999 announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies, which follows the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications company. The government is expected to continue calling for private sector growth to lessen the kingdom's dependence on oil and increase employment opportunities for the swelling Saudi population. Shortages of water and rapid population growth will constrain government efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $232 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6%

industry: 47%

services: 47% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (2000)

Labor force: 7 million

note: 35% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 25%, services 63% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $66 billion

expenditures: $66 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 120 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 111.6 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk

Exports: $81.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90%

Exports - partners: Japan 18%, US 18%, France 4%, South Korea, Singapore, India (1999)

Imports: $30.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles

Imports - partners: US 25%, Japan 10%, Germany 7%, Italy 5%, France, UK (1999)

Debt - external: $26.3 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - donor: pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon; since 1993, Saudi Arabia has committed $208 million for assistance to the Palestinians

Currency: Saudi riyal (SAR)

Currency code: SAR

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals per US dollar - 3.7450 (fixed rate since June 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Saudi Arabia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.1 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1 million

note: in 1998, the government contracted for the installation of 575,000 additional Group Speciale Mobile (GSM) cellular telephone lines over 15 months to raise the total number of subscribers to more than one million; Riyadh planned to further expand the GSM system in 1999 by adding an additional one million lines (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system

domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems

international: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 6.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 117 (1997)

Televisions: 5.1 million (1997)

Internet country code: .sa

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 42 (2001)

Internet users: 400,000 (2001)



Saudi Arabia Transportation

Railways: total: 1,390 km

standard gauge: 1,390 km 1.435-m gauge (448 km double track) (1992)

Highways: total: 146,524 km

paved: 44,104 km

unpaved: 102,420 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas 2,200 km (includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)

Ports and harbors: Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Duba, Jiddah, Jizan, Rabigh, Ra's al Khafji, Mishab, Ras Tanura, Yanbu' al Bahr, Madinat Yanbu' al Sinaiyah

Merchant marine: total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,154,619 GRT/1,533,732 DWT

ships by type: cargo 11, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 13, short-sea passenger 8 (2000 est.)

Airports: 206 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 70

over 3,047 m: 31

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 136

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 77

914 to 1,523 m: 39

under 914 m: 15 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 5 (2000 est.)



Saudi Arabia Military

Military branches: Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Ministry of Interior Forces (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,894,691 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,291,185 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 233,402 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $18.3 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 13% (FY00)



Saudi Arabia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a final border resolution was agreed to with Qatar in March of 2001; location and status of boundary with UAE is not final, de facto boundary reflects a 1974 agreement; a June 2000 treaty delimited the boundary with Yemen, but final demarcation requires adjustments based on tribal considerations

Illicit drugs: death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin and cocaine

======================================================================

@Senegal



Senegal Introduction

Background: Independent from France in 1960, Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group sporadically has clashed with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.



Senegal Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 196,190 sq km

land: 192,000 sq km

water: 4,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: total: 2,640 km

border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 16%

forests and woodland: 54%

other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 710 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping

Geography - note: The Gambia is almost an enclave of Senegal



Senegal People

Population: 10,284,929 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.07% (male 2,279,996; female 2,252,255)

15-64 years: 52.88% (male 2,603,829; female 2,834,328)

65 years and over: 3.05% (male 155,877; female 158,644) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.46 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.35 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 56.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.56 years

male: 60.94 years

female: 64.22 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.77% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 79,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,800 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%

Religions: Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly Roman Catholic)

Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 33.1%

male: 43%

female: 23.2% (1995 est.)



Senegal Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal

conventional short form: Senegal

local long form: Republique du Senegal

local short form: Senegal

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); complete independence was achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Constitution: 3 March 1963, revised 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Madior BOYE (since 3 March 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 27 February and 19 March 2000 (next to be held 27 February 2007); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Abdoulaye WADE elected president; percent of vote in the second round of voting - Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 58.49%, Abdou DIOUF (PS) 41.51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

note: the former National Assembly, dissolved in the spring of 2001, had 140 seats

elections: last held 29 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 89, AFP 11, PS 10, other 10

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals; note-the judicial system was reformed in 1992

Political parties and leaders: African Party for Democracy and Socialism or And Jef (also known as PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Senegalese Democratic Party-Renewal or PDS-R [Serigne Lamine DIOP, secretary general]; Senegalese Democratic Union-Renewal or UDS-R [Mamadou Puritain FALL]; Socialist Party or PS [President Abdou DIOUF]; SOPI Coalition (a 40-party coalition led by the PDS) [Abdoulaye WADE]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]; other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK

chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Harriet L. ELAM-THOMAS

embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar

mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar

telephone: [221] 823-4296, 823-7384

FAX: [221] 822-2991

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Senegal Economy

Economy - overview: In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which is linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging 5% annually in 1995-99. Annual inflation has been pushed down to 2%, and the fiscal deficit has been cut to less than 1.5% of GDP. Investment rose steadily from 13.8% of GDP in 1993 to 16.5% in 1997. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal also realized full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a miniboom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82% of GDP. On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic unemployment, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction. Real GDP growth is expected to rise above 6%, while inflation is likely to hold at 2% in 2001-02.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%

industry: 20%

services: 61% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%

highest 10%: 42.8% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 60%

Unemployment rate: NA%; urban youth 40%

Budget: revenues: $885 million

expenditures: $885 million, including capital expenditures of $125 million (1996 est.)

Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.27 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.181 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish

Exports: $959 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: fish, ground nuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton

Exports - partners: France 17%, India 17%, Italy 12%, Spain 6%, Mali 6%, Cote d'Ivoire 4% (1999)

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners: France 30%, Nigeria 7%, Italy 6%, Thailand 5%, Germany 4%, US 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $647.5 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1966); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Senegal Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 116,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,149 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: good system

domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system

international: 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 14, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1.24 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 361,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .sn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 30,000 (2000)



Senegal Transportation

Railways: total: 906 km

narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-meter gauge (70 km double track)

Highways: total: 14,576 km

paved: 4,271 km

unpaved: 10,305 km (1996)

Waterways: 897 km

note: 785 km on the Senegal river, and 112 km on the Saloum river

Ports and harbors: Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard Toll, Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor

Airports: 20 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 10

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Senegal Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,311,063 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,207,360 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 114,189 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $68 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY97)



Senegal Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis

======================================================================

@Seychelles



Seychelles Introduction

Background: A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993.



Seychelles Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 455 sq km

land: 455 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 13%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 11%

other: 74% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible

Environment - current issues: water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands



Seychelles People

Population: 79,715 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.27% (male 11,367; female 11,167)

15-64 years: 65.47% (male 25,453; female 26,737)

65 years and over: 6.26% (male 1,673; female 3,318) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.66 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.69 years

male: 65.17 years

female: 76.37 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)

adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), French (official), Creole

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 58%

male: 56%

female: 60% (1971 est.)



Seychelles Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles

conventional short form: Seychelles

Government type: republic

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe), Grand' Anse (on Praslin), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 18 June (1993)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)

election results: France Albert RENE reelected president; percent of vote - France Albert RENE (SPPF) 66.7%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 19.5%, Sir James MANCHAM (DP) 13.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats - 25 elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least ten percent of the vote; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - SPPF 61.7%, UO 26.1%, DP 12.1%; seats by party - SPPF 30, UO 3, DP 1

note: the 9 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM]; Seychelles National Party or SNP (formerly the United Opposition or UO) [Wavel RAMKALAWAN]; Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE] - the governing party

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church; trade unions

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Claude Sylvestre MOREL

chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785

FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles

Flag description: five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side



Seychelles Economy

Economy - overview: Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war. Although the industry has rebounded, the government recognizes the continuing need for upgrading the sector in the face of stiff international competition. Other issues facing the government are the curbing of the budget deficit and further privatization of public enterprises. Growth slowed in 1998-2000, due to sluggish tourist and tuna sectors. Tight controls on exchange rates and the scarcity of foreign exchange have hindered short-term economic prospects. The black market value of the Seychelles ruppee is half the official exchange rate; without a devaluation of the currency the tourist sector should remain sluggish as vacationers seek cheaper destinations such as Comoros, Mauritius, and Madagascar.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $610 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.1%

industry: 26.3%

services: 70.6% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 30,900 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 19%, services 71%, agriculture 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $249 million

expenditures: $262 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 160 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 148.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fish

Exports: $111 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)

Exports - partners: France, UK, Netherlands, Italy, China, Germany, Japan

Imports: $440 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals

Imports - partners: South Africa, UK, China, Singapore, France, Italy

Debt - external: $240 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $16.4 million (1995)

Currency: Seychelles rupee (SCR)

Currency code: SCR

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees per US dollar - 6.0397 (November 2000), 5.6009 (2000), 5,3426 (1999), 5.2622 (1998), 5.0263 (1997), 4.9700 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Seychelles Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,635 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 16,316 (1999)

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