HotFreeBooks.com
The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
Previous Part     1 ... 22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

conventional short form: Philippines

local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas

local short form: Pilipinas

Government type: republic

Capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 is the date of independence from Spain, 4 July 1946 is the date of independence from the US

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments

elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 16 May 2004)

election results: results of the last presidential election - Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA elected president; percent of vote - approximately 40%; Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected vice president; percent of vote - NA%; note - on 20 January 2001, Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was sworn in as the constitutional successor to President Joseph ESTRADA after the Supreme Court declared that President ESTRADA was unable to rule in view of the mass resignations from his government; according to the Constitution, only in cases of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the president, can the vice president serve for the unexpired term

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (204 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - additional members may be appointed by the president but the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)

elections: Senate - last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 14 May 2001); House of Representatives - elections last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 14 May 2001)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LAMP 12, Lakas 5, PRP 2, LP 1, other 3; note - the Senate now has only 22 members with one seat vacated when Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO became vice president and another seat vacated upon a senator's death; the two seats can only be filled by election and will remain open until the next regular election in May 2001; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LAMP 135, Lakas 37, LP 13, Aksyon Demokratiko 1, other 35

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices are appointed for four-year terms by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council)

Political parties and leaders: People Power Coalition or PPC includes: Aksyon Demokratiko or Democratic Action [Raul ROCO], Lakas-NUCD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, titular head, Teofisto GUINGONA, party president], Liberal Party or LP [Florencio ABAD], Probinsiya Muna Development Initiative or Promdi [Lito OSMENA], and Reporma Party [Renato DE VILLA]; Puwersa ng Masa (Force of the Masses) includes: Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Eduardo ANGARA], Laban Ng Masang Pilipino or LAMP (Struggle of the Filipino Masses) [Joseph ESTRADA], and People's Reform Party or PRP [Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO]; Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement) [Imelda MARCOS]; Nacionalista Party [Jose OLIVEROS]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUANGCO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Acting Ambassador Ariel ABADILLA

chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300

FAX: [1] (202) 467-9317

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

consulate(s): San Diego

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Michael E. MALINOWSKI

embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000 Manila

mailing address: FPO 96515

telephone: [63] (2) 523-1001

FAX: [63] (2) 522-4361

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star



Philippines Economy

Economy - overview: In 1998 the Philippine economy - a mixture of agriculture, light industry, and supporting services - deteriorated as a result of spillover from the Asian financial crisis and poor weather conditions. Growth fell to about -0.5% in 1998 from 5% in 1997, but recovered to about 3% in 1999 and 3.6% in 2000. The government has promised to continue its economic reforms to help the Philippines match the pace of development in the newly industrialized countries of East Asia. The strategy includes improving infrastructure, overhauling the tax system to bolster government revenues, moving toward further deregulation and privatization of the economy, and increasing trade integration with the region.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $310 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20%

industry: 32%

services: 48% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 41% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5%

highest 10%: 39.3% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 48.1 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 39.8%, government and social services 19.4%, services 17.7%, manufacturing 9.8%, construction 5.8%, other 7.5% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $14.5 billion

expenditures: $12.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 40.745 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 61.03%

hydro: 18.68%

nuclear: 0%

other: 20.29% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 37.893 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish

Exports: $38 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: electronic equipment, machinery and transport equipment, garments, coconut products

Exports - partners: US 34%, Japan 14%, Netherlands 8%, Singapore 6%, UK 6%, Hong Kong 4% (1998)

Imports: $35 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, consumer goods, fuels

Imports - partners: US 22%, Japan 20%, South Korea 8%, Singapore 6%, Taiwan 5%, Hong Kong 4% (1998 est.)

Debt - external: $52 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $1.1 billion (1998)

Currency: Philippine peso (PHP)

Currency code: PHP

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos per US dollar - 50.969 (January 2001), 44.192 (2000), 39.089 (1999), 40.893 (1998), 29.471 (1997), 26.216 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Philippines Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.9 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.959 million (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate

domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations

international: 9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan

Radio broadcast stations: AM 366, FM 290, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 11.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 31 (1997)

Televisions: 3.7 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ph

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 33 (2000)

Internet users: 500,000 (2000)



Philippines Transportation

Railways: total: 492 km (an additional 405 km are not in operation)

narrow gauge: 492 km 1.067-m gauge (1996)

Highways: total: 199,950 km

paved: 39,590 km

unpaved: 160,360 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 3,219 km

note: limited to vessels with a draft of less than 1.5 m

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Ports and harbors: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga

Merchant marine: total: 459 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,653,062 GRT/8,512,326 DWT

ships by type: bulk 149, cargo 123, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 10, container 5, liquefied gas 13, livestock carrier 10, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 42, refrigerated cargo 21, roll on/roll off 17, short-sea passenger 31, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 16

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 1, Denmark 1, Hong Kong 5, Japan 14, Netherlands 1, Singapore 1, UK 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 288 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 76

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 28

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 212

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 81

under 914 m: 129 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Philippines Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 21,220,191 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 14,942,363 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 848,181 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $995 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY98)



Philippines Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claim to Malaysia's Sabah State has not been fully revoked

Illicit drugs: exports locally produced marijuana and hashish to East Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine

======================================================================

@Pitcairn Islands



Pitcairn Islands Introduction

Background: Pitcairn Island was discovered in 1767 by the British and settled in 1790 by the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions. Pitcairn was the first Pacific island to become a British colony (in 1838) and today remains the last vestige of that empire in the South Pacific. Outmigration, primarily to New Zealand, has thinned the population from a peak of 233 in 1937 to about 50 today.



Pitcairn Islands Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Peru to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 25 04 S, 130 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 47 sq km

land: 47 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical, hot, humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pawala Valley Ridge 347 m

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish

note: manganese, iron, copper, gold, silver, and zinc have been discovered offshore

Land use: arable land: NA%

permanent crops: NA%

permanent pastures: NA%

forests and woodland: NA%

other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially November to March)

Environment - current issues: deforestation (only a small portion of the original forest remains because of burning and clearing for settlement)



Pitcairn Islands People

Population: 47 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate: -2.08% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Pitcairn Islander(s)

adjective: Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian wives

Religions: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

Languages: English (official), Pitcairnese (mixture of an 18th century English dialect and a Tahitian dialect)



Pitcairn Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands

conventional short form: Pitcairn Islands

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)

Constitution: 1838; reformed 1904 with additional reforms in 1940; further refined by the Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal with three years residency

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (nonresident) of the Pitcairn Islands Martin WILLIAMS (since NA May 1998); Commissioner (nonresident) Leon SALT (since NA; is the liaison person between the governor and the Island Council)

head of government: Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island Council Jay WARREN (since NA)

cabinet: NA

elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island magistrate elected every three years in December by popular vote for a three-year term; last election held NA December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2002)

election results: Lea BROWN elected island magistrate; percent of vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council (10 seats - 6 elected by popular vote, 1 appointed by the 6 elected members, 2 appointed by the governor, and 1 seat for the Island Secretary; members serve one-year terms)

elections: take place each December; last held NA December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2001)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - all independents

Judicial branch: Island Court (island magistrate presides over the court and is elected every three years)

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield featuring a yellow anchor



Pitcairn Islands Economy

Economy - overview: The inhabitants of this tiny economy exist on fishing, subsistence farming, handicrafts, and postage stamps. The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 12 able-bodied men (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: no business community in the usual sense; some public works; subsistence farming and fishing

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $729,884

expenditures: $878,119, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: postage stamps, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh; note - electric power is provided by a small diesel-powered generator

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: wide variety of fruits and vegetables, goats, chickens

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: fruits, vegetables, curios, stamps

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar, other foodstuffs

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code: NZD

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.2502 (January 2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8629 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Pitcairn Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1 (there are 17 telephones on one party line) (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: only party line telephone service is available for this small, closely related community

domestic: party line service only

international: radiotelephone

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .pn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: NA



Pitcairn Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 6.4 km

paved: 0 km

unpaved: 6.4 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Bounty Bay

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: none



Pitcairn Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Pitcairn Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Poland



Poland Introduction

Background: Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite country following the war, but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, boosting hopes for acceptance to the EU. Poland joined the NATO alliance in 1999.



Poland Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 312,685 sq km

land: 304,465 sq km

water: 8,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,888 km

border countries: Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Raczki Elblaskie -2 m

highest point: Rysy 2,499 m

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, arable land

Land use: arable land: 47%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 13%

forests and woodland: 29%

other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: situation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by postcommunist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain



Poland People

Population: 38,633,912 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.39% (male 3,640,451; female 3,463,604)

15-64 years: 69.17% (male 13,288,471; female 13,434,753)

65 years and over: 12.44% (male 1,836,816; female 2,969,817) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.03% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.2 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.98 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.42 years

male: 69.26 years

female: 77.82 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Pole(s)

adjective: Polish

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian 0.5% (1990 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Languages: Polish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 98% (1978 est.)



Poland Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Poland

conventional short form: Poland

local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska

local short form: Polska

Government type: republic

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie, Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Malopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Pomorskie, Slaskie, Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie, Wielkopolskie, Zachodniopomorskie

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)

Constitution: 16 October 1997; adopted by the National Assembly 2 April 1997; passed by national referendum 23 May 1997

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts although under the new constitution, the Constitutional Tribunal ruling will become final as of October 1999; court decisions can be appealed to the European Court of Justice in Strasbourg

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 December 1995)

head of government: Prime Minister Jerzy BUZEK - Solidarity Electoral Union - (since 31 October 1997), Deputy Prime Ministers Janusz STEINHOFF (since 12 June 2000), Longin KOMOLOWSKI (since 19 October 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election held 8 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm

election results: Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI reelected president; percent of popular vote - Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI 53.9%, Andrzj OLECHOWSKI 17.3%, Marian KRZAKLEWSKI 15.6%, Lech WALESA 1%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe consists of the Sejm (460 seats; members are elected under a complex system of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) and the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members are elected by a majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: Sejm elections last held 21 September 1997 (next to be held by NA September 2001); Senate - last held 21 September 1997 (next to be held by NA September 2001)

election results: Sejm - percent of vote by party - AWS 33.8%, SLD 27.1%, UW 13.4%, PSL 7.3%, ROP 5.6%, MNSO 0.4%, other 12.4%; seats by party - AWS 201, SLD 164, UW 60, PSL 27, ROP 6, MNSO 2; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AWS 51, SLD 28, UW 8, ROP 5, PSL 3, independents 5; note - seats by party in the Sejm as of February 2001: AWS 175, SLD 161, UW 49, PSL 26, PP 6, KdP 7, ROP-PC 4, independents 31, one seat vacant

note: two seats are assigned to ethnic minority parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period); Constitutional Tribunal (judges are chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Coalition for Poland or KdP [first name unknown GRABOWSKI]; Confederation for an Independent Poland-Patriotic Camp or KPN-OP (KPN-Fatherland or KPN-O is a small group within the KPN-OP) [Michal JANISZEWSKI]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD (Social Democracy of Poland) [Leszek MILLER]; Freedom Union or UW [Bronislaw GEREMEK]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Henryk KROLL]; Movement for the Reconstruction of Poland or ROP-PC [Jan OLSZEWSKI]; Polish Accord or PP [Jan LOPUSZANSKI]; Polish Peasant Party or PSL [Jaroslaw KALINOWSKI]; Polish Socialist Party or PPS [Piotr IKONOWICZ]; Solidarity Electoral Action or AWS (includes RS-AWS and Solidarity) [Marian KRZAKLEWSKI]; Social Movement-Solidarity Electoral Action or RS-AWS [Jerzy BUZEK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union); Roman Catholic Church; Solidarity (trade union)

International organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Przemyslaw GRUDZINSKI

chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802

FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher R. HILL

embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-054, Warsaw P1

mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)

telephone: [48] (22) 628-30-41

FAX: [48] (22) 628-82-98

consulate(s) general: Krakow

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white



Poland Economy

Economy - overview: Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of liberalizing the economy and today stands out as one of the most successful and open transition economies. GDP growth has been strong and steady since 1992 - the best performance in the region. The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms has allowed for the rapid development of a vibrant private sector. In contrast, Poland's large agricultural sector remains handicapped by structural problems, surplus labor, inefficient small farms, and lack of investment. Restructuring and privatization of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal, steel, railroads, and energy) has begun. Structural reforms in health care, education, the pension system, and state administration have resulted in larger than expected fiscal pressures. Further progress in public finance depends mainly on privatization of Poland's remaining state sector. The government's determination to enter the EU as soon as possible affects most aspects of its economic policies. Improving Poland's outsized current account deficit and reining in inflation are priorities. Warsaw leads the region in foreign investment and needs a continued large inflow.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $327.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.8%

industry: 36.6%

services: 59.6% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 18.4% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 26.3% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 17.2 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 22.1%, agriculture 27.5%, services 50.4% (1999)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1999)

Budget: revenues: $49.6 billion

expenditures: $52.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1999)

Electricity - production: 134.351 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 96.43%

hydro: 3.16%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.41% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 120.007 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 8.43 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 3.491 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork

Exports: $28.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 30.2%, intermediate manufactured goods 25.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 20.9%, food and live animals 8.5% (1999)

Exports - partners: Germany 36.1%, Italy 6.5%, Netherlands 5.3%, France 4.8%, UK 4.0%, Czech Republic 3.8% (1999)

Imports: $42.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 38.2%, intermediate manufactured goods 20.8%, chemicals 14.3%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)

Imports - partners: Germany 25.2%, Italy 9.4%, France 6.8%, Russia 5.8%, UK 4.6%, Netherlands 3.7% (1999)

Debt - external: $57 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: zloty (PLN)

Currency code: PLN

Exchange rates: zlotych per US dollar - 4.3126 (December 2000), 4.3461 (2000), 3.9671 (1999), 3.4754 (1998), 3.2793 (1997), 2.6961 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Poland Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8.07 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.78 million (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: underdeveloped and outmoded system; government aimed to have 10 million telephones in service by 2000; the process of partial privatization of the state-owned telephone monopoly has begun; in 1998 there were over 2 million applicants on the waiting list for telephone service

domestic: cable, open wire, and microwave radio relay; 3 cellular networks; local exchanges 56.6% digital

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, 2 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 777, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 20.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 179 (plus 256 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: 13.05 million (1997)

Internet country code: .pl

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 19 (2000)

Internet users: 2.8 million (2000)



Poland Transportation

Railways: total: 23,420 km

broad gauge: 646 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 21,639 km 1.435-m gauge (11,626 km electrified; 8,978 km double track)

narrow gauge: 1,135 km various gauges including 1.000-m, 0.785-m, 0.750-m, and 0.600-m (1998)

Highways: total: 381,046 km

paved: 249,966 km (including 268 km of expressways)

unpaved: 131,080 km (1998)

Waterways: 3,812 km (navigable rivers and canals) (1996)

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 2,280 km; natural gas 17,000 km (1996)

Ports and harbors: Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Kolobrzeg, Szczecin, Swinoujscie, Ustka, Warsaw, Wroclaw

Merchant marine: total: 46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 943,540 GRT/1,532,694 DWT

ships by type: bulk 41, cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 122 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 83

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 29

1,524 to 2,437 m: 42

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 39

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 21 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



Poland Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 10,447,931 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 8,139,245 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 344,781 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.17 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.95% (FY00)



Poland Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of amphetamine for the international market; minor transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to Western Europe

======================================================================

@Portugal



Portugal Introduction

Background: Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered the EC in 1985.



Portugal Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 92,391 sq km

land: 91,951 sq km

water: 440 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,214 km

border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble, arable land, hydro power

Land use: arable land: 26%

permanent crops: 9%

permanent pastures: 9%

forests and woodland: 36%

other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar



Portugal People

Population: 10,066,253 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.96% (male 877,379; female 830,242)

15-64 years: 67.42% (male 3,321,473; female 3,465,481)

65 years and over: 15.62% (male 637,207; female 934,471) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.18% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.51 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.94 years

male: 72.44 years

female: 79.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.74% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 36,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 280 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)

Languages: Portuguese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.4%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Portugal Government

Country name: conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Portugal Day, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 5 November 1992, and 3 September 1997

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES (since 28 October 1995)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA January 2006); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Jorge SAMPAIO re-elected president; percent of vote - Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 55.8%, Joaquim FERREIRA Do Amaral (Social Democrat) 34.5%, Antonio ABREU (Communist) 5.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 10 October 1999 (next to be held by NA October 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PS 115, PSD 81, PCP 15, PP 15, PEV 2, The Left Bloc 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)

Political parties and leaders: The Greens or PEV [leader NA]; Popular Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Party/United Democratic Coalition or PCP/CDU [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Antonio GUTERRES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [leader vacant]; The Left Bloc [no leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joao Alberto Bacelar ROCHA PARIS

chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726

consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco

consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald S. MCGOWAN

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon

mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726

telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300

FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109

consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line



Portugal Economy

Economy - overview: Portugal is an upcoming capitalist economy with a per capita GDP two-thirds that of the four big West European economies. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and joined with 10 other European countries in launching the euro on 1 January 1999. The year 2000 was marked by moderation in growth, inflation, and unemployment. The country continues to run a sizable trade deficit. The government is working to reform the tax system, to modernize capital plant, and to increase the country's competitiveness in the increasingly integrated world markets. Growth is expected to fall off slightly in 2001. Improvement in the education sector is critical to the long-run catch-up process.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $159 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 36%

services: 60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 30%, agriculture 10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $48.6 billion

expenditures: $50.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.7 billion (2000 est.)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 41.696 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 79.97%

hydro: 17.25%

nuclear: 0%

other: 2.78% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 37.915 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 4.49 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 3.628 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports: $26.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides

Exports - partners: EU 83% (Germany 20%, Spain 18%, France 14%, UK 12%, Netherlands 5%, Benelux 5%, Italy), US 5% (1999)

Imports: $41 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products

Imports - partners: EU 78% (Spain 25%, Germany 15%, France 11%, Italy 8%, UK 7%, Netherlands 5%), US 3%, Japan 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $13.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $271 million (1995)

Currency: Portuguese escudo (PTE); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Portugal at a fixed rate of 200.482 Portuguese escudos per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: PTE; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Portuguese escudos per US dollar - 180.10 (1998), 175.31 (1997), 154.24 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Portugal Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5.3 million (end 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,074,194 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: undergoing rapid development in recent years, Portugal's telephone system, by the end of 1998, achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations

international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations: AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 62 (plus 166 repeaters)

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands (1995)

Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)

Internet country code: .pt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: 700,000 (2000)



Portugal Transportation

Railways: total: 2,850 km

broad gauge: 2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km electrified; 426 km double track)

narrow gauge: 274 km 1.000-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total: 68,732 km

paved: 59,110 km (including 797 km of expressways)

unpaved: 9,622 km (1999)

Waterways: 820 km

note: relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton or less cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km; natural gas 700 km

note: the secondary lines for the natural gas pipeline that will be 300 km long have not yet been built

Ports and harbors: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine: total: 158 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,053,586 GRT/1,611,238 DWT

ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 84, chemical tanker 16, container 10, liquefied gas 7, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6, short-sea passenger 4, vehicle carrier 4

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Spain 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 66 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 40

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 17

under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 26

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 25 (2000 est.)



Portugal Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,530,466 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,030,759 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 71,404 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.458 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY97)



Portugal Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

======================================================================

@Puerto Rico



Puerto Rico Introduction

Background: Discovered by Columbus in 1493, the island was ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. A popularly elected governor has served since 1948. In plebiscites held in 1967 and 1993, voters chose to retain commonwealth status.



Puerto Rico Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 9,104 sq km

land: 8,959 sq km

water: 145 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains, with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m

Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil

Land use: arable land: 4%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 26%

forests and woodland: 16%

other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; hurricanes

Environment - current issues: erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages

Geography - note: important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north



Puerto Rico People

Population: 3,937,316 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.73% (male 478,441; female 455,800)

15-64 years: 65.72% (male 1,242,245; female 1,345,421)

65 years and over: 10.55% (male 177,083; female 238,326) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.54% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.26 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.77 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.76 years

male: 71.28 years

female: 80.48 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)

adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish origin) 80.5%, black 8%, Amerindian 0.4%, Asian 0.2%, mixed and other 10.9%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%

Languages: Spanish, English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89%

male: 90%

female: 88% (1980 est.)



Puerto Rico Government

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

conventional short form: Puerto Rico

Dependency status: commonwealth associated with the US

Government type: commonwealth

Capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular - municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey, Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado, Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos, Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati, Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito, Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952

Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch: chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)

head of government: Governor Sila M. CALDERON (since NA January 2001)

cabinet: appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature

elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results: Sila M. CALDERON (PDP) elected governor; percent of vote - 48.8%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (28 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (54 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004); House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PNP 19, PPD 7, PIP 1, other 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PNP 30, PPD 20, PIP 1, other 3

note: Puerto Rico elects one nonvoting representative to the US House of Representatives; elections last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2004); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPD 1 (Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Superior Courts; Municipal Courts (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate)

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party [Celeste BENITEZ]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Luis FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO]; Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Hector Luis ACEVEDO]; Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN; Armed Forces of Popular Resistance; Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCL, WFTU, WHO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center; design influenced by the US flag, but based on the Cuban flag



Puerto Rico Economy

Economy - overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has surpassed agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income, with estimated arrivals of nearly 5 million tourists in 1999. Prospects for 2001 are clouded by a probable slowing down in both the construction and tourist sectors and by increasing inflation, particularly in energy and food prices; estimated growth will be 2%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 45%

services: 54% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.3 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 3%, industry 20%, services 77% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $6.7 billion

expenditures: $9.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00)

Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 16.76 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 98.45%

hydro: 1.55%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 15.587 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock products, chickens

Exports: $38.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment

Exports - partners: US 88% (2000)

Imports: $27 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities: chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products

Imports - partners: US 60% (2000)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Puerto Rico Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.322 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 169,265 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system, integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability

domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US

Radio broadcast stations: AM 72, FM 17, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2.7 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (plus three stations of the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service) (1997)

Televisions: 1.021 million (1997)

Internet country code: .pr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 76 (2000)

Internet users: 110,000 (2000)



Puerto Rico Transportation

Railways: total: 96 km

narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge, rural, narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger service

Highways: total: 14,400 km

paved: 14,400 km

unpaved: 0 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San Juan

Airports: 28 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 19

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)



Puerto Rico Military

Military branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Puerto Rico Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Qatar



Qatar Introduction

Background: Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the amir who had ruled the country since 1972. He was overthrown by his son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Oil and natural gas revenues enable Qatar to have a per capita income not far below the leading industrial countries of Western Europe.



Qatar Geography

Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 11,437 sq km

land: 11,437 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: total: 60 km

border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 94% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 80 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits



Qatar People

Population: 769,152 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.77% (male 101,155; female 97,086)

15-64 years: 71.75% (male 391,178; female 160,665)

65 years and over: 2.48% (male 13,625; female 5,443) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.18% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.91 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.26 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 20.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 2.43 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 2.5 male(s)/female

total population: 1.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.62 years

male: 70.16 years

female: 75.21 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.17 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.09% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Qatari(s)

adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

Religions: Muslim 95%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79%

male: 79%

female: 80% (1995 est.)



Qatar Government

Country name: conventional long form: State of Qatar

conventional short form: Qatar

local long form: Dawlat Qatar

local short form: Qatar

note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Salal

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972; in July 1999 Amir HAMAD issued a decree forming a committee to draft a permanent constitution

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal matters

Suffrage: suffrage is limited to municipal elections

Executive branch: chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected crown prince by the monarch 22 October 1996); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20 January 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

note: in March 1999 Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council, which has consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed)

note: the constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have their terms extended every four years since

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Badr Umar al-DAFA

chancery: 4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 237-0061

consulate(s) general: Houston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Davenport MCKUNE

embassy: 22 February Road, Doha

mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha

telephone: [974] 488 4101

FAX: [974] 488 4298

note: workweek is Saturday-Wednesday

Flag description: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side



Qatar Economy

Economy - overview: Oil accounts for more than 30% of GDP, roughly 80% of export earnings, and 66% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.7 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for 23 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to that of the leading West European industrial countries. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 7 trillion cubic meters, more than 5% of the world total, third largest in the world. Production and export of natural gas are becoming increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the development of offshore petroleum and the diversification of the economy. In 2000, Qatar posted its highest ever trade surplus of $6 billion, due mainly to high oil prices and increased natural gas exports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $15.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 49%

services: 50% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000)

Labor force: 233,000 (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $3.9 billion

expenditures: $4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 9 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 8.37 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish

Exports: $9.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products 80%, fertilizers, steel

Exports - partners: Japan 52%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 8%, US, UAE (1998)

Imports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: UK 10%, Japan 8%, Germany 6%, US 6%, Italy 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $13.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Qatari rial (QAR)

Currency code: QAR

Exchange rates: Qatari rials per US dollar - 3.6400 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Qatar Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 142,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 43,476 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system centered in Doha

domestic: NA

international: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 256,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 230,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .qa

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 45,000 (2000)



Qatar Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,230 km

paved: 1,107 km

unpaved: 123 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km

Ports and harbors: Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id (Musay'id)

Merchant marine: total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 677,992 GRT/1,049,447 DWT

ships by type: cargo 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 7, petroleum tanker 6 (2000 est.)

Airports: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

over 3,047 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Qatar Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 312,116

note: includes non-nationals (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 163,642 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 6,797 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $723 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 10% (FY00/01)



Qatar Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: in March of 2001, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) awarded the Hawar Islands to Bahrain and adjusted its maritime boundary with Qatar; a final border resolution was agreed to with Saudi Arabia in March of 2001

======================================================================

@Reunion



Reunion Introduction

Background: The Portuguese discovered the uninhabited island in 1513. From the 17th to the 19th centuries, French immigration supplemented by influxes of Africans, Chinese, Malays, and Malabar Indians gave the island its ethnic mix. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cost the island its importance as a stopover on the East Indies trade route.



Reunion Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map references: World

Area: total: 2,512 sq km

land: 2,502 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 207 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Piton des Neiges 3,069 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 17%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 35%

other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic, devastating cyclones (December to April); Piton de la Fournaise on the southeastern coast is an active volcano

Environment - current issues: NA



Reunion People

Population: 732,570 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.07% (male 120,259; female 114,669)

15-64 years: 62.25% (male 224,347; female 231,698)

65 years and over: 5.68% (male 16,892; female 24,705) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.57% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 21.26 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.93 years

male: 69.53 years

female: 76.49 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.58 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Reunionese (singular and plural)

adjective: Reunionese

Ethnic groups: French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian

Religions: Roman Catholic 86%, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist (1995)

Languages: French (official), Creole widely used

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79%

male: 76%

female: 80% (1982 est.)



Reunion Government

Country name: conventional long form: Department of Reunion

conventional short form: Reunion

local long form: none

local short form: Ile de la Reunion

former: Bourbon Island

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 arrondissements, 24 communes, and 47 cantons

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Robert POMMIES (since NA 1996)

head of government: President of the General Council Jean-Luc POUDROUX (since NA March 1998) and President of the Regional Council Paul VERGES (since NA March 1993)

cabinet: NA

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (47 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve six-year terms) and a unicameral Regional Council (45 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections: General Council - last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA 2000); Regional Council - last held 15 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PCR 12, PS 12, UDF 11, RPR 5, others 7; Regional Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PCR 7, UDF 8, PS 6, RPR 4, various right-wing candidates 15, various left-wing candidates 5

note: Reunion elects three representatives to the French Senate; elections last held 14 April 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR 1, PCR 2; Reunion also elects five deputies to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May and 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PCR 3, PS 1, and RPR-UDF 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Reunion or PCR [Paul VERGES]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Andre Maurice PIHOUEE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jean-Claude FRUTEAU]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Gilbert GERARD]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: FZ, InOC, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Reunion Economy

Economy - overview: The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years it accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been pushing the development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment, which amounts to more than 40% of the labor force. The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is extraordinary and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The white and Indian communities are substantially better off than other segments of the population, often approaching European standards, whereas minority groups suffer the poverty and unemployment typical of the poorer nations of the African continent. The outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991 illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic tensions. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on continued financial assistance from France.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.4 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,800 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 261,000 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 8%, industry 19%, services 73% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 42.8% (1998)

Budget: revenues: NA

expenditures: NA

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, handicraft items, flower oil extraction

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.1 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 54.55%

hydro: 45.45%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.023 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco, tropical fruits, vegetables, corn

Exports: $214 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: sugar 63%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 2%, lobster 3%, (1993)

Exports - partners: France 74%, Japan 6%, Comoros 4% (1994)

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products

Imports - partners: France 64%, Bahrain 3%, Germany 3%, Italy 3% (1994)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - substantial annual subsidies from France

Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.06594 (January 2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Reunion Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 236,500 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 85,000 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis

Previous Part     1 ... 22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse