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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 13.6%

male: 20.9%

female: 6.6% (1995 est.)



Niger Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Niger

conventional short form: Niger

local long form: Republique du Niger

local short form: Niger

Government type: republic

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular - departement), and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1958 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996 and again by referendum on 18 July 1999

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president

note: President Ibrahim BARE was assassinated on 9 April 1999; subsequent elections were held under the nine-month provisional government of Major Daouda Mallam WANKE

cabinet: 23-member cabinet appointed by President TANDJA

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Mamadou TANDJA elected president; percent of vote - Mamadou TANDJA 59.9%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 40.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (83 seats, members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNSD-Nassara 38, CDS-Rahama 17, PNDS-Tarayya 16, RDP-Jama'a 8, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 4

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Mamadou TANDJA, chairman]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA

chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles O. CECIL

embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey

mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey

telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64

FAX: [227] 73 31 67

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band



Niger Economy

Economy - overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, because of declining world demand. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'etat - for operating expenses and public investment. In 2000, the World Bank approved a structural adjustment loan of $35 million to help support fiscal reforms. However, reforms could prove difficult given the government's bleak financial situation.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40%

industry: 18%

services: 42% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 35.4% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $377 million, including $146 million from foreign sources

expenditures: $377 million, including capital expenditures of $105 million (1999 est.)

Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 200 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 401 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 215 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry

Exports: $385 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: uranium ore 65%, livestock products, cowpeas, onions (1998 est.)

Exports - partners: France 45%, Nigeria 27%, UK 11% (1999)

Imports: $317 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals

Imports - partners: France 22%, Cote d'Ivoire 15%, Nigeria 8%, US 3% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $341 million (1997)

note: the IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Niger Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 16,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 13,000 (1995)

Telephone system: general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger

domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 5, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 680,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 10 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 125,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ne

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 3,000 (2000)



Niger Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 10,100 km

paved: 798 km

unpaved: 9,302 km (1996)

Waterways: 300 km

note: the Niger River is navigable from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 27 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Niger Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,202,608 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,190,787 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 108,993 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY96)



Niger Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger; delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

======================================================================

@Nigeria



Nigeria Introduction

Background: Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999 and a peaceful transition to civilian government completed. The new president faces the daunting task of rebuilding a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability.



Nigeria Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 923,768 sq km

land: 910,768 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total: 4,047 km

border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, arable land

Land use: arable land: 33%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 44%

forests and woodland: 12%

other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,570 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Nigeria People

Population: 126,635,626

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.71% (male 27,842,225; female 27,514,197)

15-64 years: 53.47% (male 34,456,738; female 33,259,194)

65 years and over: 2.82% (male 1,780,862; female 1,782,410) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.61% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 39.69 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.91 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.07 years

male: 51.07 years

female: 51.07 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.57 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.06% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2.7 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 250,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nigerian(s)

adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups: Nigeria, which is Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 57.1%

male: 67.3%

female: 47.3% (1995 est.)



Nigeria Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria

conventional short form: Nigeria

Government type: republic transitioning from military to civilian rule

Capital: Abuja; note - on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially transferred from Lagos to Abuja; most federal government offices have now made the move to Abuja

Administrative divisions: 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Federal Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Constitution: NA 1999 new constitution adopted

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic Shariah law (only in some northern states), and traditional law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Federal Executive Council

elections: president is elected by popular vote for no more than two four-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 62.8%, Olu FALAE (APP-AD) 37.2%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (109 seats, three from each state and one from the Federal Capital Territory; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 20-24 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2003); House of Representatives - last held 20-24 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 58%, APP 23%, AD 19%; seats by party - PDP 67, APP 23, AD 19; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 58%, APP 30%, AD 12%; seats by party - PDP 221, APP 70, AD 69

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges appointed by the Provisional Ruling Council); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)

Political parties and leaders: All People's Party or APP [Alhaji Yusuf ALI]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [contested between Yusuf MAMMAN and Alhasi Adamu ABDULKADIR]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Barnabas GEMADE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jibril AMINU

chancery: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400

FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385

consulate(s) general: Atlanta and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Howard Franklin JETER

embassy: 8 Mambilla Drive, Abuja

mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos

telephone: [234] (1) 261-0050, -0078

FAX: [234] (1) 261-0257

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green



Nigeria Economy

Economy - overview: The oil-rich Nigerian economy, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic management, is undergoing substantial economic reform under the new civilian administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion loan from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Increases in foreign investment and oil production combined with high world oil prices should push growth over 4% in 2001-02.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $117 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $950 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 40%

industry: 40%

services: 20% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 45% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 40.8% (1996-97)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 66 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $3.4 billion

expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 18.7 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 52.94%

hydro: 47.06%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 17.372 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 19 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish

Exports: $22.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber

Exports - partners: US 36%, India 9%, Spain 8%, Brazil 6%, France 6%, (1999)

Imports: $10.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

Imports - partners: UK 11%, Germany 10%, US 9%, France 8%, China 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $32 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA $250 million (1998)

Currency: naira (NGN)

Currency code: NGN

Exchange rates: nairas per US dollar - 110.005 (January 2001), 101.697 (2000), 92.338 (1999), 21.886 (1998), 21.886 (1997), 21.884 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Nigeria Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 500,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 26,700 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: an inadequate system, further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made

domestic: intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); coaxial submarine cable SAFE (South African Far East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 82, FM 35, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios: 23.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 government-controlled; note - in addition, in 1993, 14 licenses to operate private television stations were granted (1999)

Televisions: 6.9 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ng

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 11 (2000)

Internet users: 100,000 (2000)



Nigeria Transportation

Railways: total: 3,557 km

narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge

standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge

note: years of neglect of both the rolling stock and the right-of-way have seriously reduced the capacity and utility of the system; a project to restore Nigeria's railways is now underway

Highways: total: 194,394 km

paved: 60,068 km (including 1,194 km of expressways)

unpaved: 134,326 km

note: many of the roads reported as paved may be graveled; because of poor maintenance and years of heavy freight traffic - in part the result of the failure of the railroad system - much of the road system is barely usable (1997)

Waterways: 8,575 km

note: consisting of the Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural gas 500 km

Ports and harbors: Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri

Merchant marine: total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 357,372 GRT/636,254 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 10, chemical tanker 4, petroleum tanker 24, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 70 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 36

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 34

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 18 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Nigeria Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 29,940,922 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 17,201,367 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,375,112 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $360 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 10% (FY00)



Nigeria Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Cameroon over land and maritime boundaries around the Bakasi Peninsula is currently before the ICJ; tripartite maritime boundary and economic zone dispute with Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon is currently before the ICJ

Illicit drugs: facilitates movement of heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a transit route for cocaine from South America intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets

======================================================================

@Niue



Niue Introduction

Background: Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, have caused it to be separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to 2,100 in 2000) with substantial emigration to New Zealand.



Niue Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Geographic coordinates: 19 02 S, 169 52 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 260 sq km

land: 260 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use: arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 8%

permanent pastures: 4%

forests and woodland: 19%

other: 50% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment - current issues: increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: one of world's largest coral islands



Niue People

Population: 2,124 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate: 0.5% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Niuean(s)

adjective: Niuean

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans)

Religions: Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 75%, Latter-Day Saints 10%, other 15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: 95%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Niue Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Niue

former: Savage Island

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages each with its own village council whose members are elected and serve three-year terms

Independence: on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John BRYAN (since NA May 2000)

head of government: Premier Sani LAKATANI (since 1 April 1999)

cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers

elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2002)

election results: Sani LAKATANI elected premier; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a common roll and 14 are village representatives)

elections: last held 19 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NPP 9, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue

Political parties and leaders: Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Sani LAKATANI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, ESCAP (associate), FAO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross



Niue Economy

Economy - overview: Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and a financial services industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1995)

Labor force: 450 (1992 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, handicrafts, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Exports: $117,500 (f.o.b., 1989)

Exports - commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts

Exports - partners: NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports: $4.1 million (c.i.f., 1989)

Imports - commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs

Imports - partners: NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Samoa, Australia, US

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $8.3 million (1995)

Currency: New Zealand dollar (NZD)

Currency code: NZD

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.2502 (January 2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8629 (1998), 1.5082 (1997), 1.4543 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Niue Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 376 (1991)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1991)

Telephone system: general assessment: primitive system

domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island

international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .nu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Niue Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 234 km

paved: 86 km

unpaved: 148 km (106 km of which is access and plantation road) (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Niue Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand



Niue Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Norfolk Island



Norfolk Island Introduction

Background: Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.



Norfolk Island Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 29 02 S, 167 57 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 34.6 sq km

land: 34.6 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Bates 319 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 75% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially May to July)

Environment - current issues: NA



Norfolk Island People

Population: 1,879 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate: -0.71% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Norfolk Islander(s)

adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander, Polynesians

Religions: Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 16.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%, other 2.4% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian



Norfolk Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island

conventional short form: Norfolk Island

Dependency status: territory of Australia; Canberra administers Commonwealth responsibilities on Norfolk Island through the Department of Environment, Sport, and Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day, 8 June (1856)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1979

Legal system: based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and Australia are represented by Administrator Anthony J. MESSNER (since 4 August 1997)

head of government: Assembly President and Chief Minister Ronald Coane NOBBS (since 23 February 2000)

cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the Administrator

elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the Legislative Assembly for a term of not more than three years; election last held 23 February 2000 (next to be held by March 2003)

election results: Ronald Coane NOBBS elected chief minister; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes can be given to any one candidate; members serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 23 February 2000 (next to be held by March 2003)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band



Norfolk Island Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the primary economic activity, has steadily increased over the years and has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific islands. The agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,395 (1991 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: tourism NA%, subsistence agriculture NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $4.6 million

expenditures: $4.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92/93)

Industries: tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry

Exports: $1.5 million (f.o.b., FY91/92)

Exports - commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados

Exports - partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports: $17.9 million (c.i.f., FY91/92)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Norfolk Island Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1,087 (1983)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1983)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate

domestic: NA

international: radiotelephone service with Sydney (Australia)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2,500 (1996)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (local programming station plus two repeaters that bring in Australian programs by satellite) (1998)

Televisions: 1,200 (1996)

Internet country code: .nf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Norfolk Island Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 80 km

paved: 53 km

unpaved: 27 km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Norfolk Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Norfolk Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Northern Mariana Islands



Northern Mariana Islands Introduction

Background: Under US administration as part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific, the people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in the 1970s not to seek independence but instead to forge closer links with the US. Negotiations for territorial status began in 1972. A covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the US was approved in 1975. A new government and constitution went into effect in 1978.



Northern Mariana Islands Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 15 12 N, 145 45 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 477 sq km

land: 477 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,482 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October

Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Agrihan 965 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: arable land: 21%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 19%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 60%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons (especially August to November)

Environment - current issues: contamination of groundwater on Saipan may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered species conflicts with development

Geography - note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean



Northern Mariana Islands People

Population: 74,612 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.55% (male 8,929; female 8,639)

15-64 years: 74.72% (male 26,242; female 29,509)

65 years and over: 1.73% (male 639; female 654) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.62% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 20.6 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 2.4 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.74 years

male: 72.65 years

female: 79.02 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: NA

adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians, Caucasian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean

Religions: Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional beliefs and taboos may still be found)

Languages: English, Chamorro, Carolinian

note: 86% of population speaks a language other than English at home

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 97%

female: 96% (1980 est.)



Northern Mariana Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

conventional short form: Northern Mariana Islands

former: Mariana Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

Dependency status: commonwealth in political union with the US; federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of the Interior, Office of Insular Affairs

Government type: commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature

Capital: Saipan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth in political union with the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four municipalities at the second order; Northern Islands, Rota, Saipan, Tinian

Independence: none (commonwealth in political union with the US)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 4 November 1986 and the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands effective 1 January 1978

Legal system: based on US system, except for customs, wages, immigration laws, and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch: chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)

head of government: Governor Pedro P. TENORIO (since NA January 1998) and Lieutenant Governor Jesus R. SABLAN (since NA January 1998)

cabinet: NA

elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held in NA November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2001)

election results: Pedro P. TENORIO elected governor in a three-way race; percent of vote - Pedro P. TENORIO (Republican Party) 47%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature consists of the Senate (9 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year staggered terms) and the House of Representatives (18 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 9 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2001); House of Representatives - last held 9 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2001)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 6, Democratic Party 2, Reform Party 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Republican Party 10, Democratic Party 8

note: the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in the US Congress; instead, it has an elected official or "resident representative" located in Washington, DC; seats by party - Republican Party 1 (Juan N. BABAUTA)

Judicial branch: Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal District Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO]; Republican Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), SPC

Flag description: blue, with a white, five-pointed star superimposed on the gray silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in building) in the center, surrounded by a wreath



Northern Mariana Islands Economy

Economy - overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance from the US. The rate of funding has declined as locally generated government revenues have grown. The key tourist industry employs about 50% of the work force and accounts for roughly one-fourth of GDP. Japanese tourists predominate. Annual tourist entries have exceeded one-half million in recent years, but financial difficulties in Japan have caused a temporary slowdown. The agricultural sector is made up of cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons. Garment production is by far the most important industry with employment of 12,000 mostly Chinese workers and sizable shipments to the US under duty and quota exemptions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $900 million (2000 est.)

note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 6,006 total indigenous labor force; 2,699 unemployed; 28,717 foreign workers (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $221 million

expenditures: $213 million, including capital expenditures of $17.7 million (1996)

Industries: tourism, construction, garments, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, fruits, vegetables; cattle

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: garments

Exports - partners: US

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: food, construction equipment and materials, petroleum products

Imports - partners: US, Japan

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: extensive funding from US

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Northern Mariana Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,200 (1995)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (on Saipan and one station planned for Rota; in addition, two cable services on Saipan provide varied programming from satellite networks) (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .mp

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Northern Mariana Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 362 km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km (1991)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Saipan, Tinian

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Northern Mariana Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Northern Mariana Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Norway



Norway Introduction

Background: Despite its neutrality, Norway was not able to avoid occupation by Germany in World War II. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.



Norway Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 324,220 sq km

land: 307,860 sq km

water: 16,360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,515 km

border countries: Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 10 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 4 NM

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers causing glaciers to grow; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 27%

other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: rockslides, avalanches

Environment - current issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway is the only NATO member having a land boundary with Russia



Norway People

Population: 4,503,440 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.99% (male 462,673; female 437,514)

15-64 years: 64.91% (male 1,482,346; female 1,440,832)

65 years and over: 15.1% (male 282,307; female 397,768) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.6 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.79 years

male: 75.87 years

female: 81.92 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,600 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8 (1999)

Nationality: noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups: Norwegian (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Sami 20,000

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 86% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, other 1%, none and unknown 10% (1997)

Languages: Norwegian (official)

note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Norway Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form: Norway

local long form: Kongeriket Norge

local short form: Norge

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence: 7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved; 26 October 1905 Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814); note - 17 May 1814 is the date of independence from Sweden, 7 June 1905 is the date Norway declared the union with Sweden was dissolved

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 March 2000)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the largest party or leader of a coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the Parliament

Legislative branch: modified unicameral Parliament or Storting which, for certain purposes, divides itself into two chambers (165 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 15 September 1997 (next to be held 10 September 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 35%, Center Party 7.9%, Conservative Party 14.3%, Christian People's Party 13.7%, Socialist Left Party 6%, Progress Party 15.3%, Liberal Party 4.4%, other parties 1.6%; seats by party - Labor Party 65, Center Party 11, Conservative Party 23, Christian People's Party 25, Socialist Left Party 9, Progress Party 25, Liberal Party 6, other parties 1

note: for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Center Party [Odd Roger ENOKSEN]; Christian People's Party [Kiell Magne BONDEVIK]; Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Knut VOLLEBAEK

chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870

consulate(s) general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robin Chandler DUKE

embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo

mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707

telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50

FAX: [47] (22) 43 07 77

Flag description: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Norway Economy

Economy - overview: The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises). The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices; in 1999, oil and gas accounted for 35% of exports. Only Saudi Arabia exports more oil than Norway. Oslo opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. Growth picked up in 2000 to 2.7%, compared to the meager 0.8% of 1999, but may fall back in 2001. The government moved ahead with privatization in 2000, even proposing the sale of up to one-third of the 100% state-owned oil company Statoil. Despite their high per capita income and generous welfare benefits, Norwegians worry about that time in the next two decades when the oil and gas begin to run out. Accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $43 billion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $124.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $27,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2%

industry: 25%

services: 73% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.4 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 74%, industry 22%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $71.7 billion

expenditures: $57.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 121.084 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.63%

hydro: 99.11%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.26% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 110.795 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 8.28 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 6.467 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: barley, other grains, potatoes; beef, milk; fish

Exports: $59.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish

Exports - partners: EU 73% (UK 17%, Germany 11%, Netherlands 10%, Sweden 9%), US 5% (1999)

Imports: $35.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: EU 66% (Sweden 15%, Germany 12%, UK 9%, Denmark 7%), US 10%, Japan (1999)

Debt - external: $0 (Norway is a net external creditor)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)

Currency: Norwegian krone (NOK)

Currency code: NOK

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 8.7784 (January 2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997), 6.4498 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Norway Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.735 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,080,408 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed wire systems

international: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 4.03 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 2.03 million (1997)

Internet country code: .no

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (2000)

Internet users: 2.36 million (October 2000)



Norway Transportation

Railways: total: 4,012 km

standard gauge: 4,012 km 1.435-m gauge (2,530 km electrified; 96 km double track) (1998)

Highways: total: 91,180 km

paved: 67,838 km (including 109 km of expressways)

unpaved: 23,342 km (1999)

Waterways: 1,577 km (along west coast)

note: navigable by 2.4 m maximum draft vessels

Pipelines: refined petroleum products 53 km

Ports and harbors: Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad, Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger, Tromso, Trondheim

Merchant marine: total: 764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,667,370 GRT/32,100,208 DWT

ships by type: bulk 89, cargo 139, chemical tanker 114, combination bulk 9, combination ore/oil 37, container 15, liquefied gas 84, passenger 10, petroleum tanker 151, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 45, short-sea passenger 22, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 38

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Japan 1, Mexico 1, Sweden 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 103 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 67

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 28 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 36

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 31 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Norway Military

Military branches: Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (includes Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,101,384 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 913,534 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 27,341 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.113 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY98)



Norway Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia

======================================================================

@Oman



Oman Introduction

Background: In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al Said ousted his father and has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world and has preserved a long-standing political and military relationship with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.



Oman Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE

Geographic coordinates: 21 00 N, 57 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 212,460 sq km

land: 212,460 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries: total: 1,374 km

border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 95% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil



Oman People

Population: 2,622,198

note: includes 527,078 non-nationals (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.51% (male 554,727; female 533,627)

15-64 years: 56.12% (male 894,978; female 576,672)

65 years and over: 2.37% (male 32,863; female 29,331) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.43% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.96 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.1 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.55 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female

total population: 1.3 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.04 years

male: 69.9 years

female: 74.29 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.04 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.11% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Omani(s)

adjective: Omani

Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu

Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: approaching 80%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Oman Government

Country name: conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman

conventional short form: Oman

local long form: Saltanat Uman

local short form: Uman

former: Muscat and Oman

Government type: monarchy

Capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: 6 regions (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah) and 2 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*, Zufar*; note - the US Embassy in Oman reports that Masqat is a governorate, but this has not been confirmed by the US Board of Geographic Names (BGN)

Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National holiday: Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)

Constitution: none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: in Oman's most recent elections in 2000, limited to approximately 175,000 Omanis chosen by the government to vote in elections for the Majlis ash-Shura

Executive branch: chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber or Majlis al-Dawla (48 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and a lower chamber or Majlis al-Shura (83 seats; members elected by limited suffrage, however, the monarch makes final selections and can negate election results; body has some limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory powers)

elections: last held NA September 2000 (next to be held NA September 2003)

election results: NA; note - two women were elected for the first time to Majlis al-Shura, about 100,000 people voted

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has non-Islamic judges as well as traditional Islamic judges

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Aqil al-DHAHAB

chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1981, 1988

FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John B. CRAIG

embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat

mailing address: international: P. O. Box 202, Code No. 115, Medinat Al-Sultan Qaboos, Muscat

telephone: [968] 698989

FAX: [968] 699189

Flag description: three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band



Oman Economy

Economy - overview: Oman's economic performance improved significantly in 2000 due largely to the upturn in oil prices. The government is moving ahead with privatization of its utilities, the development of a body of commercial law to facilitate foreign investment, and increased budgetary outlays. Oman continues to liberalize its markets and joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in November 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 40%

services: 57% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 850,000 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $4.7 billion

expenditures: $5.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $490 million (1999)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 8.63 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 8.026 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish

Exports: $11.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles

Exports - partners: Japan 27%, China 12%, Thailand 18%, UAE 12%, South Korea 12%, US (1999)

Imports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants

Imports - partners: UAE 26% (largely reexports), Japan 16%, UK 9%, Italy 7%, Germany 6%, US (1999)

Debt - external: $4.5 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $76.4 million (1995)

Currency: Omani rial (OMR)

Currency code: OMR

Exchange rates: Omani rials per US dollar - 0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Oman Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 201,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 59,822 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system consisting of open wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable

domestic: open wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 1.4 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 1.6 million (1997)

Internet country code: .om

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 50,000 (2000)



Oman Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 32,800 km

paved: 9,840 km (including 550 km of expressways)

unpaved: 22,960 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports and harbors: Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut

Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,167 GRT/11,307 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 143 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 137

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 56

914 to 1,523 m: 37

under 914 m: 36 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Oman Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Royal Oman Police)

Military manpower - military age: 14 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 771,919 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 429,811 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 26,469 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.4 billion (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 13% (FY00)



Oman Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with the UAE has not been bilaterally defined; northern section in the Musandam Peninsula is an administrative boundary

======================================================================

@Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean Introduction Top of Page

Background: The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the world's five oceans (followed by the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean). Strategically important access waterways include the La Perouse, Tsugaru, Tsushima, Taiwan, Singapore, and Torres Straits. The decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to delimit a fifth ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion of the Pacific Ocean south of 60 degrees south.



Pacific Ocean Geography

Location: body of water between the Southern Ocean, Asia, Australia, and the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 160 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total: 155.557 million sq km

note: includes Bali Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Tonkin, Java Sea, Philippine Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: about 15 times the size of the US; covers about 28% of the global surface; larger than the total land area of the world

Coastline: 135,663 km

Climate: planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December

Terrain: surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the northern Pacific, sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in winter; in the southern Pacific, sea ice from Antarctica reaches its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the Mariana Trench, which is the world's deepest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench -10,924 m

highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

Natural hazards: surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the "Pacific Ring of Fire"; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and September); cyclical El Nino/La Nina phenomenon occurs in the equatorial Pacific, influencing weather in the Western Hemisphere and the western Pacific; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May; persistent fog in the northern Pacific can be a maritime hazard from June to December

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South China Sea

Geography - note: the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean



Pacific Ocean Economy

Economy - overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly touch. It provides low-cost sea transportation between East and West, extensive fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and gravel for the construction industry. In 1996, over 60% of the world's fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean. Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of Australia, NZ, China, US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas, combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil since 1985, has slowed but not stopped new drillings.



Pacific Ocean Transportation

Ports and harbors: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Kao-hsiung (Taiwan), Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok (Russia), Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

Transportation - note: Inside Passage offers protected waters from southeast Alaska to Puget Sound (Washington state)



Pacific Ocean Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

======================================================================

@Pakistan



Pakistan Introduction

Background: The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved. A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998.



Pakistan Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 803,940 sq km

land: 778,720 sq km

water: 25,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total: 6,774 km

border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use: arable land: 27%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 6%

forests and woodland: 5%

other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 171,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Environment - current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent



Pakistan People

Population: 144,616,639 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.47% (male 30,131,400; female 28,391,891)

15-64 years: 55.42% (male 40,977,543; female 39,164,663)

65 years and over: 4.11% (male 2,918,872; female 3,032,270) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.11% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 31.21 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.45 years

male: 60.61 years

female: 62.32 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.41 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 74,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,500 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)

Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%

Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42.7%

male: 55.3%

female: 29% (1998)



Pakistan Government

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

conventional short form: Pakistan

former: West Pakistan

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh

note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 23 March (1956)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims

Executive branch: note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; exercising the powers of the head of the government, he appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as Pakistan's supreme governing body; President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR remains the ceremonial chief of state; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date

chief of state: President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR (since 31 December 1997)

head of government: Chief Executive Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 October 1999)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the chief executive

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 31 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the National Assembly; election last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA); note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF overthrew the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF in the military takeover of 12 October 1999; in May 2000, the Supreme Court validated the October 1999 coup and set a three-year limit in office for Chief Executive MUSHARRAF

election results: Rafiq TARAR elected president; percent of Parliament and provincial vote - NA%; results are for the last election for prime minister prior to the military takeover of 12 October 1999 - Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - NA%

Legislative branch: note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dissolved Parliament following the military takeover of 12 October 1999; bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (87 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members up for election every two years) and the National Assembly (217 seats - 10 represent non-Muslims; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 12 March 1997 (next to be held NA); National Assembly - last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA); note - no timetable has yet been given for elections following the military takeover

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7, MQM/A 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/J 2, BNM/M 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1, independents 6, vacant 5; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PML/N 137, PPP 18, MQM/A 12, ANP 10, BNP 3, JWP 2, JUI/F 2, PPP/SB 1, NPP 1, independents 21, minorities 10; note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dismissed Parliament 15 October 1999

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court

Political parties and leaders: note: Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dissolved Parliament following the military takeover of 12 October 1999, however, political parties have been allowed to operate; Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. HAYEE Baluch]; Baluch National Party or BNP [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI [Abdul Sattar Khan NIAZI]; Millat Party [Farooq LEGHARI]; Milli Yakjheti Council or MYC is an umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ], Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or JUP/NO [Shah Ahmad NOORANI]; Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National People's Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed AFZAL Khan]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction or PML/J [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]

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