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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Exports: $500 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: foodstuffs 57%, wine, tobacco; textiles and footwear, machinery (1999)

Exports - partners: Russia 41%, Romania 9%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 7%, Italy, Belarus (1999)

Imports: $761 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel 38%, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (1999)

Imports - partners: Russia 21%, Romania 16%, Ukraine 14%, Germany 12%, Italy 6%, Belarus (1999)

Debt - external: $900 million (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $100.8 million (1995); note - $547 million from the IMF and World Bank (1992-99)

Currency: Moldovan leu (MDL)

Currency code: MDL

Exchange rates: lei per US dollar - 12.3728 (January 2001), 12.4342 (2000), 10.5158 (1999), 5.3707 (1998), 4.6236 (1997), 4.6045 (1996); note - lei is the plural form of leu

Fiscal year: calendar year



Moldova Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 627,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,200 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau, some effort to modernize is under way

domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced

international: service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 3.22 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 1.26 million (1997)

Internet country code: .md

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

Internet users: 15,000 (2000)



Moldova Transportation

Railways: total: 1,328 km

broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways: total: 20,000 km

paved: 13,900 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

unpaved: 6,100 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 30 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 23

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 14 (2000 est.)



Moldova Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,164,018 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 921,210 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 42,268 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY99)



Moldova Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: separatist Transnistria region, comprising the area between the Nistru (Dniester) River and Ukraine, has its own de facto government, dominated by Moldovan Slavs

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US

======================================================================

@Monaco



Monaco Introduction

Background: Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.



Monaco Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 1.95 sq km

land: 1.95 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 4.4 km

border countries: France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: second smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban



Monaco People

Population: 31,842 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.32% (male 2,503; female 2,375)

15-64 years: 62.23% (male 9,731; female 10,083)

65 years and over: 22.45% (male 2,921; female 4,229) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.74 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.98 years

male: 75.04 years

female: 83.12 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)

adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: 99%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Monaco Government

Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Monaco

conventional short form: Monaco

local long form: Principaute de Monaco

local short form: Monaco

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419 (beginning of the rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day (Prince of Monaco Holiday), 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre, son of the monarch (born 14 March 1958)

head of government: Minister of State Patrick LECLERQUE (since 5 January 2000)

cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (18 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 1 and 8 February 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - UND 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union or UND [leader NA]; National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM [leader NA]; Rally for the Monegasque Family [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Monaco does not have an embassy in the US

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited to Monaco

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red



Monaco Economy

Economy - overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. Monaco does not publish national income figures; the estimates below are extremely rough.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $870 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $27,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 30,540 (January 1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1998)

Budget: revenues: $518 million

expenditures: $531 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

note: electricity supplied by France (1999)

Agriculture - products: none

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Monaco Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,027 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: modern automatic telephone system

domestic: NA

international: no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM NA, shortwave 8 (1998)

Radios: 34,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1998)

Televisions: 25,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .mc

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Monaco Transportation

Railways: total: 1.7 km

standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways: total: 50 km

paved: 50 km

unpaved: 0 km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Monaco

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service

Heliports: 1 (shuttle service between the international airport at Nice, France, and Monaco's heliport at Fontvieille)



Monaco Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Monaco Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Mongolia



Mongolia Introduction

Background: Long a province of China, Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1996, the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a national election. Over the next four years the Coalition implemented a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and institutionalize democratic reforms. However, the former communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional reforms and made implementation difficult. In 2000, the MPRP won 72 of the 76 seats in Parliament and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP is focusing on social welfare and public order priorities.



Mongolia Geography

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 1.565 million sq km

land: 1.565 million sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 8,161.9 km

border countries: China 4,676.9 km, Russia 3,485 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate

Land use: arable land: 5.7%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 81%

forests and woodland: 11.4%

other: 1.9% (2000 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust and snow storms, grassland and forest fires, drought and "zud", which is a combination of drought followed by harsh winter conditions

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia



Mongolia People

Population: 2,654,999 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.99% (male 445,252; female 430,758)

15-64 years: 63.13% (male 837,771; female 838,384)

65 years and over: 3.88% (male 44,436; female 58,398) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.47% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 21.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 53.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.26 years

male: 62.14 years

female: 66.5 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.39 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups: Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998)

Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily in the southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 98%

female: 97.5% (2000)



Mongolia Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

note: there may be a new province named Gobi-Sumber; further, there may now be 21 provinces and 1 capital city instead of 18 provinces and 3 municipalities

Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president

elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - NA%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 68 to 3

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party or MDNSP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]

note: the MPRP is the ruling party

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR

chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John DINGER

embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar

mailing address: United States Embassy in Mongolia, P. O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [976] (11) 329095

FAX: [976] (11) 320776

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)



Mongolia Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91, at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, which was prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade, and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden of external debt.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,780 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 36%

industry: 22%

services: 42% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 24.5% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.6% (1999)

Labor force: 1.3 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $262 million

expenditures: $328 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: construction materials, mining (particularly coal and copper); food and beverages, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.671 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.767 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 80 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 363 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

Exports: $454.3 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals

Exports - partners: China 60%, US 20%, Russia 9%, Japan 2% (2000 est.)

Imports: $510.7 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea

Imports - partners: Russia 33%, China 21%, Japan 12%, South Korea 10%, US 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $760 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $200 million (1998 est.)

Currency: togrog/tugrik (MNT)

Currency code: MNT

Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,097.00 (December 2000), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997), 548.40 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Mongolia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 104,100 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 110,000 (2001)

Telephone system: general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios: 155,900 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low powered repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 168,800 (1999)

Internet country code: .mn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)

Internet users: between 10,000 and 15,000 (2001)



Mongolia Transportation

Railways: 1,815 km

broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001)

Highways: total: 3,387 km

paved: 1,563 km

unpaved: 1,824 km

note: there are also 45,862 km of rural roads that consist of rough, unimproved, cross-country tracks (2000)

Waterways: 400 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 34 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 26

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)



Mongolia Military

Military branches: Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in peacetime

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 748,779 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 486,491 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 30,230 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $25.5 million (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.3% (FY01)



Mongolia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Montserrat



Montserrat Introduction

Background: Much of this island has been devastated and two-thirds of the population has fled abroad due to the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano that began on 18 July 1995.



Montserrat Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 100 sq km

land: 100 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Chances Peak (in the Soufriere Hills) 914 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 20%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 10%

forests and woodland: 40%

other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic eruptions (full-scale eruptions of the Soufriere Hills volcano occurred during 1996-97)

Environment - current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation



Montserrat People

Population: 7,574

note: an estimated 8,000 refugees left the island following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; some have returned (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.83% (male 907; female 898)

15-64 years: 64.66% (male 2,341; female 2,556)

65 years and over: 11.51% (male 464; female 408) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 13.39% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.43 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 123.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.14 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.03 years

male: 75.95 years

female: 80.22 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Montserratian(s)

adjective: Montserratian

Ethnic groups: black, white

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 97%

male: 97%

female: 97% (1970 est.)



Montserrat Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Montserrat

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Plymouth (abandoned in 1997 due to volcanic activity; interim government buildings have been built at Brades, in the Carr's Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat)

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter's

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)

Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989

Legal system: English common law and statutory law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Anthony John ABBOTT (since NA September 1997)

head of government: Chief Minister David BRANDT (since 22 August 1997)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary

elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister; note - as a result of the last election, a coalition party was formed between NPP, NDP, and one of the independent candidates

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 7 popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held by NA November 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPA 2, MNR 2, NPP 1, independent 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court)

Political parties and leaders: Movement for National Reconstruction or MNR [Percival Austin BRAMBLE]; National Development Party or NDP [leader NA]; National Progressive Party or NPP [Reuben T. MEADE]; People's Progressive Alliance or PPA [John A. OSBORNE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, WCL

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around a black cross



Montserrat Economy

Economy - overview: Severe volcanic activity, which began in July 1995, has put a damper on this small, open economy. A catastrophic eruption in June 1997 closed the airports and seaports, causing further economic and social dislocation. Two-thirds of the 12,000 inhabitants fled the island. Some began to return in 1998, but lack of housing limited the number. The agriculture sector continued to be affected by the lack of suitable land for farming and the destruction of crops. Prospects for the economy depend largely on developments in relation to the volcano and on public sector construction activity. The UK committed to a three year $125 million aid program in 1999 to help reconstruct the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $31 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.4%

industry: 13.6%

services: 81% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1998)

Labor force: 4,521 (1992); note - recently lowered by flight of people from volcanic activity

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $31.4 million

expenditures: $31.6 million, including capital expenditures of $8.4 million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 9.3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, peppers; livestock products

Exports: $1.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle

Exports - partners: US, Antigua and Barbuda (1993)

Imports: $26 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials

Imports - partners: US, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1993)

Debt - external: $8.9 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $9.8 million (1995); note - about $100 million (1996-98) in reconstruction aid from the UK; Country Policy Plan (1999) is a three-year program for spending $122.8 million in British budgetary assistance

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Montserrat Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 70 (1994)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 7,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 3,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ms

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 17 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Montserrat Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 269 km

paved: 203 km

unpaved: 66 km (1995)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Plymouth (abandoned), Little Bay (anchorages and ferry landing), Carr's Bay

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Montserrat Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Montserrat Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Morocco



Morocco Introduction

Background: Morocco's long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier was turned over to the new country that same year. Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara during the late 1970s, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997.



Morocco Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 446,550 sq km

land: 446,300 sq km

water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 2,017.9 km

border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m

highest point: Jbel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

Land use: arable land: 21%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 47%

forests and woodland: 20%

other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar



Morocco People

Population: 30,645,305 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.39% (male 5,368,784; female 5,170,891)

15-64 years: 60.93% (male 9,270,095; female 9,402,561)

65 years and over: 4.68% (male 646,567; female 786,407) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.71% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.43 years

male: 67.2 years

female: 71.76 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.03% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Moroccan(s)

adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 43.7%

male: 56.6%

female: 31% (1995 est.)



Morocco Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco

conventional short form: Morocco

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

local short form: Al Maghrib

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*; Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit

note: three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab), Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara; decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature in March 1997 creating many new provinces/regions; specific details and scope of the reorganization not yet available

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)

Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to create bicameral legislature) September 1996

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 23 July 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abderrahmane YOUSSOUFI (since 14 March 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Chamber of Counselors (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for nine-year terms; one-third of the members are renewed every three years) and a lower house or Chamber of Representatives (325 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held 15 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); Chamber of Representatives - last held 14 November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2002)

election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - USFP 57, UC 50, RNI 46, MP 40, MDS 32, IP 32, MNP 19, PND 10, MPCD 9, PPS 9, FFD 9, PSD 5, OADP 4, PA 2, PDI 1

note: CDT, UTM, UGTM, UNMT are all labor unions listed under Political pressure groups and leaders; see explanation in the description of Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Action Party or PA [Muhammad IDRISS]; Constitutional Union or UC [leader NA]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Thami KHIARI]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Issa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Party for Independence or PDI [Thami EL-OUAZZANI, Said BOUACHRINE]; Istiqlal Party or IP [Abbas El-FASSI]; Labor Party or UT [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or PND [Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action or OADP [Mohamed BEN SAID ait Idder]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Moulay Ismail ALAOUI]; Popular Constitutional and Democratic Movement or MPCD (has become Party of Justice and Development or PJD) [Dr. Abdelkarim KHATIB]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Abd ar-Rahman EL-YOUSSOUFI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Popular Trade Unions or ADP [leader NA]; Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; Democratic National Trade Union or USND [leader NA]; Democratic Trade Union or SD [leader NA]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Labor Union Commissions or CS [leader NA]; Moroccan National Workers Union or UNMT [leader NA]; Moroccan Union of Workers or UTM [Mahjoub BENSEDIQ]; Party of Shura and Istiqla [Abdelwaheb MAASH]

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Abdullah MAAROUFI

chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982

FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward M. GABRIEL

embassy: 2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat

mailing address: PSC 74, Box 3, APO AE 90718

telephone: [212] (37) 76 22 65

FAX: [212] (37) 76 56 61

consulate(s) general: Casablanca

Flag description: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam



Morocco Economy

Economy - overview: Morocco faces the problems typical of developing countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private activity and foreign trade, and achieving sustainable economic growth. Following structural adjustment programs supported by the IMF, World Bank, and the Paris Club, the dirham is now fully convertible for current account transactions, and reforms of the financial sector have been implemented. Drought conditions depressed activity in the key agricultural sector and contributed to a stagnant economy in 1999 and 2000. During that time, however, Morocco reported large foreign exchange inflows from the sale of a mobile telephone license and partial privatization of the state-owned telecommunications company. Favorable rainfalls have led Morocco to predict a growth of 1% for 2001. Formidable long-term challenges include: servicing the external debt; preparing the economy for freer trade with the EU; and improving education and attracting foreign investment to boost living standards and job prospects for Morocco's youthful population.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $105 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%

industry: 33%

services: 52% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 19% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 30.9% (1998-99)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 11 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 35%, industry 15% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $9.6 billion

expenditures: $8.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (2001 est.)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 13.695 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 89.19%

hydro: 10.81%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 13.441 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 705 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock

Exports: $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: phosphates and fertilizers, food and beverages, minerals

Exports - partners: France 35%, Spain 9%, UK 8%, Germany 7%, US 5% (1999)

Imports: $12.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: semiprocessed goods, machinery and equipment, food and beverages, consumer goods, fuel

Imports - partners: France 32%, Spain 12%, Italy 7%, Germany 6%, UK 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $18.4 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $565.6 million (1995)

Currency: Moroccan dirham (MAD)

Currency code: MAD

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams per US dollar - 10.590 (January 2001), 10.626 (2000), 9.804 (1999), 9.604 (1998), 9.527 (1997), 8.716 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Morocco Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.391 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 116,645 (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system with all important capabilities; however density is low with only 4.6 main lines available for each 100 persons

domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay

international: 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 6.64 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 35 (plus 66 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ma

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)

Internet users: 120,000 (1999)



Morocco Transportation

Railways: total: 1,907 km

standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1,003 km electrified; 540 km double track)

Highways: total: 57,847 km

paved: 30,254 km (including 327 km of expressways)

unpaved: 27,593 km (1998)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products 491 km (abandoned); natural gas 241 km

Ports and harbors: Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine: total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 223,052 GRT/272,786 DWT

ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, container 5, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 69 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 26

over 3,047 m: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 43

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 11 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Morocco Military

Military branches: Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,182,073 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,160,374 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 348,380 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.4 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4% (FY99/00)



Morocco Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Mozambique



Mozambique Introduction

Background: Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992.



Mozambique Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 801,590 sq km

land: 784,090 sq km

water: 17,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total: 4,571 km

border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite

Land use: arable land: 4%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 56%

forests and woodland: 18%

other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (2000 est.)

Natural hazards: severe droughts and floods occur in central and southern provinces; devastating cyclones

Environment - current issues: a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Mozambique People

Population: 19,371,057

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.72% (male 4,124,093; female 4,152,135)

15-64 years: 54.53% (male 5,222,477; female 5,339,615)

65 years and over: 2.75% (male 221,678; female 311,059) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.2 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 24.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 139.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 36.45 years

male: 37.25 years

female: 35.62 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.22% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.2 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 98,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s)

adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic groups: indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages: Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42.3%

male: 58.4%

female: 27% (1998 est.)



Mozambique Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique

conventional short form: Mozambique

local long form: Republica de Mocambique

local short form: Mocambique

former: Portuguese East Africa

Government type: republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee 4 November 1986 (reelected by the Committee 30 July 1989)

head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since NA December 1994)

cabinet: Cabinet

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO reelected president; percent of vote - Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO 52.29%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 47.71%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - Frelimo 48.54%, Renamo-UE 38.81%; seats by party - Frelimo 133, Renamo-UE 117

note: Renamo-UE ran as a multiparty coalition; none of the other opposition parties received the 5% required to win parliamentary seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts

note: although the constitution provides for the creation of a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, chairman]; Mozambique National Resistance - Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana - Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA

chancery: Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146

FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON

embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo

mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo

telephone: [258] (1) 492797

FAX: [258] (1) 490114

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book



Mozambique Economy

Economy - overview: Before the peace accord of October 1992, Mozambique's economy was devastated by a protracted civil war and socialist mismanagement. In 1994, it ranked as one of the poorest countries in the world. Since then, Mozambique has undertaken a series of economic reforms. Almost all aspects of the economy have been liberalized to some extent. More than 900 state enterprises have been privatized. A value-added tax, introduced in 1999, launched the government's comprehensive tax reform program. Pending are much needed commercial code reform and greater private sector involvement in the transportation, telecommunications, and energy sectors. Since 1996, inflation has been low and foreign exchange rates relatively stable. Albeit from a small base, Mozambique's economy grew at an annual 10% rate in 1997-99, one of the highest growth rates in the world. Growth slowed and inflation rose in 2000 due to devastating flooding in the early part of the year. Both indicators should recover in 2001. The country depends on foreign assistance to balance the budget and to pay for a trade imbalance in which imports greatly outnumber exports. The trade situation should improve in the medium term, however, as trade and transportation links to South Africa and the rest of the region have been improved and sizeable foreign investments are beginning to materialize. Among these investments are metal production (aluminum, steel), natural gas, power generation, agriculture, fishing, timber, and transportation services. Mozambique has received a formal cancellation of a large portion of its external debt through an IMF initiative and is scheduled to receive additional relief.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 44%

industry: 19%

services: 37% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 31.7% (1996-97)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 7.4 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $466.9 million

expenditures: $1.004 billion, including capital expenditures of $502.5 million (2000 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 7.2% (1999)

Electricity - production: 2.3 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 13.04%

hydro: 86.96%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 307 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1.9 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 68 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, rice, coconuts, sisal, tropical fruits; beef, poultry

Exports: $390 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: prawns 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity (2000)

Exports - partners: EU 27%, South Africa 26%, Zimbabwe 15%, India 12%, US 5%, Japan 4% (1999 est.)

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, textiles (2000)

Imports - partners: South Africa 44%, EU 16%, US 6.5%, Japan 6.5%, Pakistan 3%, India 3% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $1.4 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.04 billion (1998)

Currency: metical (MZM)

Currency code: MZM

Exchange rates: meticais per US dollar - 17,331.0 (January 2001), 5,199.8 (2000), 12,775.1 (1999), 11,874.6 (1998), 11.543.6 (1997), 11,293.8 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Mozambique Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 65,354 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 18,500 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 3.5 telephones for each 1,000 persons)

domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter

international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 16, shortwave 12 (2000)

Radios: 730,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (2000)

Televisions: 67,600 (2000)

Internet country code: .mz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)

Internet users: 6,250

note: 150 corporate accounts and 6,100 individual accounts (2000)



Mozambique Transportation

Railways: total: 3,131 km

narrow gauge: 2,988 km 1.067-m gauge; 143 km 0.762-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 30,400 km

paved: 5,685 km

unpaved: 24,715 km (1996)

Waterways: 3,750 km (navigable routes)

Pipelines: crude oil 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

note: not operating

Ports and harbors: Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba, Quelimane

Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,125 GRT/7,024 DWT

ships by type: cargo 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 168 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 22

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 146

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 37

under 914 m: 92 (2000 est.)



Mozambique Military

Military branches: Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,627,052 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,670,933 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $35.1 million (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (2000 est.)



Mozambique Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish, South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa)

======================================================================

@Namibia



Namibia Introduction

Background: South Africa occupied the German colony of Sud-West Afrika during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II when it annexed the territory. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that was soon named Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Independence came in 1990.



Namibia Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 825,418 sq km

land: 825,418 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 3,824 km

border countries: Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855 km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,572 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Konigstein 2,606 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, hydropower, fish

note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 46%

forests and woodland: 22%

other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Namibia People

Population: 1,797,677

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.74% (male 389,028; female 379,229)

15-64 years: 53.54% (male 480,075; female 482,375)

65 years and over: 3.72% (male 29,109; female 37,861) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.38% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 34.71 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 20.9 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 40.62 years

male: 42.48 years

female: 38.71 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.83 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 19.54% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 160,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 18,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Namibian(s)

adjective: Namibian

Ethnic groups: black 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5%

note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups are: Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%

Religions: Christian 80% to 90% (Lutheran 50% at least), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%

Languages: English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 38%

male: 45%

female: 31% (1960 est.)



Namibia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Namibia

conventional short form: Namibia

former: German Southwest Africa, South-West Africa

Government type: republic

Capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 13 regions; Caprivi, Erongo, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa

Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 November-1 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA elected president; percent of vote - Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA 77%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the National Council (26 seats; two members are chosen from each regional council to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: National Council - elections for regional councils, to determine members of the National Council, held 30 November-1 December 1998 (next to be held by December 2004); National Assembly - last held 30 November-1 December 1999 (next to be held by December 2004)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - SWAPO 21, DTA 4, UDF 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 76%, COD 10%, DTA 9%, UDF 3%, MAG 1%, other 1%; seats by party - SWAPO 55, COD 7, DTA 7, UDF 2, MAG 1,

note: the National Council is primarily an advisory body

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission)

Political parties and leaders: Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA, president]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Kosie PRETORIUS]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Sam NUJOMA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Leonard Nangolo IIPUMBU

chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540

FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey A. BADER

embassy: Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen Street, Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [264] (61) 221601

FAX: [264] (61) 229792

Flag description: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders



Namibia Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 20% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. Half of the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood. Namibia must import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is four times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorer countries, the majority of Namibia's people live in pronounced poverty because of large-scale unemployment, the great inequality of income distribution, and the large amount of wealth going to foreigners. The Namibian economy has close links to South Africa. GDP growth in 2000 was led by gains in the diamond and fish sectors. Agreement has been reached on the privatization of several more enterprises in coming years, which should stimulate long-run foreign investment. Growth in 2001 could be 5.5% provided the world economy remains stable.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12%

industry: 25%

services: 63% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.1% (2000)

Labor force: 500,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 47%, industry 20%, services 33% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% to 40%, including underemployment (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $883 million

expenditures: $950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998)

Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products; mining (diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Electricity - production: 1.198 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2%

hydro: 98%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.948 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 56 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 890 million kWh

note: supplied by South Africa (1999)

Agriculture - products: millet, sorghum, peanuts; livestock; fish

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, processed fish, karakul skins

Exports - partners: UK 43%, South Africa 26%, Spain 14%, France 8%, Japan (1998 est.)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports - partners: South Africa 81%, US 4%, Germany 2% (1997 est.)

Debt - external: $217 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $127 million (1998)

Currency: Namibian dollar (NAD); South African rand (ZAR)

Currency code: NAD; ZAR

Exchange rates: Namibian dollars per US dollar - 7.78307 (January 2001), 6.93983 (2000), 6.10948 (1999), 5.52828 (1998), 4.60796 (1997), 4.29935 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Namibia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 100,848 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: good system; about 6 telephones for each 100 persons

domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire; 100% digital

international: fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to Africa ONE and South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cables through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 34, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 232,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (plus about 20 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 60,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .na

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 9,000 (1999)



Namibia Transportation

Railways: total: 2,382 km

narrow gauge: 2,382 km 1.067-m gauge; single track (1995)

Highways: total: 63,258 km

paved: 5,250 km

unpaved: 58,008 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 131 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 21

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 110

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 21

914 to 1,523 m: 69

under 914 m: 18 (2000 est.)



Namibia Military

Military branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 427,067 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 255,016 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $104.4 million (2001)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY97/98)



Namibia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Nauru



Nauru Introduction

Background: Nauru's phosphate deposits began to be mined early in the 20th century by a German-British consortium; the island was occupied by Australian forces in World War I. Upon achieving independence in 1968, Nauru became the smallest independent republic in the world; it joined the UN in 1999.



Nauru Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 21 sq km

land: 21 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater, but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years - mainly by a UK, Australia, and NZ consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator



Nauru People

Population: 12,088 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.33% (male 2,510; female 2,365)

15-64 years: 57.97% (male 3,475; female 3,533)

65 years and over: 1.7% (male 103; female 102) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.22 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.2 years

male: 57.7 years

female: 64.88 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.61 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Nauruan(s)

adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%

Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Languages: Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Nauru Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Nauru

conventional short form: Nauru

former: Pleasant Island

Government type: republic

Capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 19 April 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Bernard DOWIYOGO (since 19 April 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held 8 April 2000 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: Bernard DOWIYOGO elected president by a vote in Parliament of nine to eight

note: former President Rene HARRIS was deposed in a no-confidence vote; this is the eighth change of government in Nauru since the fall of the Lagumont HARRIS government in a no-confidence motion in early November 1996; six of the last eight governments have resulted because of parliamentary no-confidence motions

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2003)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: loose multiparty system; Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal) [Bernard DOWIYOGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, ICAO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Nauru does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a UN office at 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400 D, New York, New York 10017; telephone: (212) 937-0074

consulate(s): Hagatna (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag description: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru



Nauru Economy

Economy - overview: Revenues of this tiny island have come from exports of phosphates, but reserves are expected to be exhausted within five to ten years. Phosphate production has declined since 1989, as demand has fallen in traditional markets and as the marginal cost of extracting the remaining phosphate increases, making it less internationally competitive. While phosphates have given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World, few other resources exist with most necessities being imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru's phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income have been invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru's economic future. The government has been borrowing heavily from the trusts to finance fiscal deficits. To cut costs the government has called for a freezing of wages, a reduction of over-staffed public service departments, privatization of numerous government agencies, and closure of some overseas consulates. In recent years Nauru has encouraged the registration of offshore banks and corporations. Tens of billions of dollars have been channeled through their accounts. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist, with estimates of Nauru's per capita GDP varying widely.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $59 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3.6% (1993)

Labor force - by occupation: employed in mining phosphates, public administration, education, and transportation

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $23.4 million

expenditures: $64.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 27.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coconuts

Exports: $25.3 million (f.o.b., 1991)

Exports - commodities: phosphates

Exports - partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $21.1 million (c.i.f., 1991)

Imports - commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery

Imports - partners: Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

Debt - external: $33.3 million

Economic aid - recipient: $2.25 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.)

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Nauru Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 450 (1994)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communications provided via Australian facilities

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 7,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 500 (1997)

Internet country code: .nr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Nauru Transportation

Railways: total: 5 km; note - used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways: total: 30 km

paved: 24 km

unpaved: 6 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Nauru

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Nauru Military

Military branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,018 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,661 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia



Nauru Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Navassa Island



Navassa Island Introduction

Background: This uninhabited island was claimed by the US in 1857 for its guano, and mining took place between 1865 and 1898. The lighthouse, built in 1917, was shut down in 1996 and administration of Navassa Island transferred from the Coast Guard to the Department of the Interior. A 1998 scientific expedition to the island described it as a unique preserve of Caribbean biodiversity; the following year it became a National Wildlife Refuge.



Navassa Island Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Geographic coordinates: 18 25 N, 75 02 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 5.2 sq km

land: 5.2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 m high)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on southwest side 77 m

Natural resources: guano

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 10%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 90%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus



Navassa Island People

Population: uninhabited

note: transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the island (July 2001 est.)



Navassa Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Navassa Island

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service, US Department of the Interior; in September 1996, the Coast Guard ceased operations and maintenance of Navassa Island Light, a 46-meter-tall lighthouse located on the southern side of the island; there has also been a private claim advanced against the island

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Navassa Island Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Navassa Island Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Navassa Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Navassa Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Haiti

======================================================================

@Nepal



Nepal Introduction

Background: In 1951, the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. The refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of these displaced persons are housed in seven United Nations Offices of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps.



Nepal Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 140,800 sq km

land: 136,800 sq km

water: 4,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: total: 2,926 km

border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m

highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 17%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 15%

forests and woodland: 42%

other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 8,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons

Environment - current issues: deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks



Nepal People

Population: 25,284,463 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.35% (male 5,267,234; female 4,933,910)

15-64 years: 56.16% (male 7,264,575; female 6,934,384)

65 years and over: 3.49% (male 437,813; female 446,547) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.32% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 33.4 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 74.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.22 years

male: 58.65 years

female: 57.77 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.58 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 34,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,500 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic groups: Brahman, Chetri, Newar, Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Rai, Limbu, Sherpa, Tharu, and others (1995)

Religions: Hinduism 86.2%, Buddhism 7.8%, Islam 3.8%, other 2.2%

note: only official Hindu state in the world (1995)

Languages: Nepali (official; spoken by 90% of the population), about a dozen other languages and about 30 major dialects; note - many in government and business also speak English (1995)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 27.5%

male: 40.9%

female: 14% (1995 est.)



Nepal Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal

conventional short form: Nepal

Government type: parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy

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