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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Banny DE BRUM

chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236

consulate(s) general: Honolulu

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joan M. PLAISTED

embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro

mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379

telephone: [692] 247-4011

FAX: [692] 247-4012

Flag description: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes



Marshall Islands Economy

Economy - overview: US Government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy. Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry, now a small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor force, remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US provides roughly $65 million in annual aid. Negotiations were underway in 1999 for an extended agreement. Government downsizing, drought, a drop in construction, and the decline in tourism and foreign investment due to the Asian financial difficulties caused GDP to fall in 1996-98.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $105 million (1998 est.), supplemented by approximately $65 million annual US aid

GDP - real growth rate: -5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,670 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%

industry: 13%

services: 72% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1997)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 16% (1991 est.)

Budget: revenues: $80.1 million

expenditures: $77.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.5 million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls, offshore banking (embryonic)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Agriculture - products: coconuts, tomatoes, melons, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs, chickens

Exports: $28 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Exports - commodities: fish, coconut oil, trochus shells

Exports - partners: US, Japan, Australia

Imports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and tobacco

Imports - partners: US, Japan, Australia, NZ, Guam, Singapore

Debt - external: $125 million (FY96/97 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: approximately $65 million annually from the US

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Marshall Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 365 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: telex services

domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3 (of which two are US military stations) (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .mh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Marshall Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Majuro

Merchant marine: total: 212 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,768,406 GRT/16,242,699 DWT

ships by type: bulk 63, cargo 9, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 29, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 87, vehicle carrier 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 1, Germany 1, Japan 1, US 6 (2000 est.)

Airports: 16 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Marshall Islands Military

Military branches: no regular military forces (a coast guard may be established); Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Marshall Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims US territory of Wake Island

======================================================================

@Martinique



Martinique Introduction

Background: Colonized by France in 1635, the island has subsequently remained a French possession except for three brief periods of foreign occupation.



Martinique Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 1,100 sq km

land: 1,060 sq km

water: 40 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Montagne Pelee 1,397 m

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use: arable land: 8%

permanent crops: 8%

permanent pastures: 17%

forests and woodland: 44%

other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity (an average of one major natural disaster every five years)

Environment - current issues: NA



Martinique People

Population: 418,454 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.1% (male 49,016; female 47,653)

15-64 years: 66.77% (male 139,106; female 140,291)

65 years and over: 10.13% (male 18,893; female 23,495) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 15.76 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.39 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.41 years

male: 79.11 years

female: 77.69 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Martiniquais (singular and plural)

adjective: Martiniquais

Ethnic groups: African and African-white-Indian mixture 90%, white 5%, East Indian, Chinese less than 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

Languages: French, Creole patois

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93%

male: 92%

female: 93% (1982 est.)



Martinique Government

Country name: conventional long form: Department of Martinique

conventional short form: Martinique

local long form: Departement de la Martinique

local short form: Martinique

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995); Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA)

head of government: President of the General Council Claude LISE (since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council Alfred MARIE-JEANNE (since NA March 1998)

cabinet: NA

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and a unicameral Regional Assembly or Conseil Regional (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections: General Council - last held NA March 2000 (next to be held NA 2006); Regional Assembly - last held on 15 March 1998 (next to be held by March 2004)

election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - the PPM won a plurality; Regional Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR-UDF 14, MIM 13, PPM 7, left parties 4, PMS 3

note: Martinique elects 2 seats to the French Senate; elections last held NA September 1998 (next to be held September 2001); results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPM 2; Martinique also elects 4 seats to the French National Assembly; elections last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR 2, PS 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Martinique Independence Movement or MIM [Alfred MARIE-JEANNE]; Martinique Progressive Party or PPM [Camille DARSIERES]; Martinique Socialist Party or PMS [Ernest WAN-AJOUHU]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Michel CHARLONE]; Union for French Democracy or UDF (replaced by Martinique Forces of Progress) [Jean MAREN]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association for the Protection of Martinique's Heritage (ecologist) [Garcin MALSA]; Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM [Marc PULVAR]; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP; Socialist Revolution Group or GRS [Philippe PIERRE-CHARLES]

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of France)

Flag description: a light blue background is divided into four quadrants by a white cross; in the center of each rectangle is a white snake; the flag of France is used for official occasions



Martinique Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 6% of GDP and the small industrial sector for 11%. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is employed in the service sector and in administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.39 billion (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,000 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6%

industry: 11%

services: 83% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1990)

Labor force: 170,000 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 17%, services 73% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 27.2% (1998)

Budget: revenues: $900 million

expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $140 million (1996)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.1 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.023 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables, sugarcane

Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples

Exports - partners: France 45%, Guadeloupe 28% (1997)

Imports: $2 billion (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods

Imports - partners: France 62%, Venezuela 6%, Germany 4%, Italy 4%, US 3% (1997)

Debt - external: $180 million (1994)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - substantial annual aid from France

Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Martinique Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 170,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 15,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: domestic facilities are adequate

domestic: NA

international: microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 14, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (plus nine repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 66,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .mq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



Martinique Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,105 km (2000)

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Fort-de-France, La Trinite

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Martinique Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Martinique Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

======================================================================

@Mauritania



Mauritania Introduction

Background: Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976, but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Opposition parties were legalized and a new constitution approved in 1991. Two multiparty presidential elections since then were widely seen as being flawed; Mauritania remains, in reality, a one-party state. The country continues to experience ethnic tensions between its black minority population and the dominant Maur (Arab-Berber) populace.



Mauritania Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 12 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,030,700 sq km

land: 1,030,400 sq km

water: 300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 5,074 km

border countries: Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sebkha de Ndrhamcha -3 m

highest point: Kediet Ijill 910 m

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate, diamonds, gold

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 38%

forests and woodland: 4%

other: 58% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 490 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal which is the only perennial river

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: most of the population concentrated in the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern part of the country



Mauritania People

Population: 2,747,312 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.14% (male 634,940; female 632,654)

15-64 years: 51.59% (male 698,433; female 718,883)

65 years and over: 2.27% (male 25,840; female 36,562) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 42.95 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.14 years

male: 49.06 years

female: 53.29 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.22 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.8% (2000 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,600 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 610 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mauritanian(s)

adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic groups: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (official), French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 46.7%

male: 53.4%

female: 40% (1998 est.)



Mauritania Government

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania

conventional short form: Mauritania

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah

local short form: Muritaniyah

Government type: republic

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district*; Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh Ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Nouakchott*, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution: 12 July 1991

Legal system: a combination of Shari'a (Islamic law) and French civil law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)

head of government: Prime Minister Cheik El Avia Ould Mohamed KHOUNA (since 17 November 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA reelected with 90.9% of the vote

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Majlis al-Shuyukh (56 seats; 17 up for election every two years; members elected by municipal leaders to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani (79 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 17 April 1998 (next to be held NA 2001); National Assembly - last held 11 and 18 October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRDS 71, AC 1, independents and other 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Court of Appeals; lower courts

Political parties and leaders: Action for Change or AC [Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR]; Assembly for Democracy and Unity or RDU [Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA]; Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS (ruling party) [President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA]; Mauritanian Party for Renewal and Concorde or PMRC [Molaye El Hassen Ould JIYID]; National Union for Democracy and Development or UNDD [Tidjane KOITA]; Party for Liberty, Equality and Justice or PLEJ [Daouda M'BAGNIGA]; Popular Front or FP [Ch'bih Ould CHEIKH MALAININE]; Popular Progress Alliance or APP [Mohamed El Hafed Ould ISMAEL]; Popular Social and Democratic Union or UPSD [Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH]; Progress Force Union or UFP [Mohamed Ould MOLOUD]; Union for Progress and Democracy or UNDD [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]

note: parties legalized by constitution ratified 12 July 1991; however, politics continue to be tribally based

Political pressure groups and leaders: Arab nationalists; Ba'athists; General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Islamists; Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Ben Khalifa BEN JIDOU

chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 232-5700

FAX: [1] (202) 319-2623

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John W. LIMBERT

embassy: Rue Abdallaye, Nouakchott

mailing address: B. P. 222, Nouakchott

telephone: [222] 25-26-60, 25-26-63

FAX: [222] 25-15-92

Flag description: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam



Mauritania Economy

Economy - overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for half of total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In the past, drought and economic mismanagement have resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In March 1999, the government signed an agreement with a joint World Bank-IMF mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF). Mauritania withdrew its membership in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in 2000. Privatization and debt relief are in full swing, and the rate of economic growth appears to be accelerating, especially in the construction, telecommunication, and information sectors. Diamonds and petroleum are beginning to be explored and exploited.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25%

industry: 31%

services: 44% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 29.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 750,000 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 47%, services 39%, industry 14%

Unemployment rate: 23% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $329 million

expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $75 million (1996 est.)

Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (1999)

Electricity - production: 151 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 82.78%

hydro: 17.22%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 140.4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: dates, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, dates; cattle, sheep

Exports: $333 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: iron ore, fish and fish products, gold

Exports - partners: Japan 18%, France 17%, Italy 16%, Spain 11% (1998)

Imports: $305 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners: France 27%, Benelux 9%, Germany 7%, Spain 7% (1998)

Debt - external: $2.1 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $300 million (1998)

Currency: ouguiya (MRO)

Currency code: MRO

Exchange rates: ouguiyas per US dollar - 250.870 (December 2000), 238.923 (2000), 209.514 (1999), 188.476 (1998), 151.853 (1997), 137.222 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Mauritania Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 26,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations (improvements being made)

domestic: mostly cable and open-wire lines; a recently completed domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitals

international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 2 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 360,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 87,000 (1998)

Internet country code: .mr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2000)

Internet users: 3,500 (2000)



Mauritania Transportation

Railways: total: 750 km (single track); note - owned and operated by government mining company

standard gauge: 750 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 7,660 km

paved: 866 km

unpaved: 6,794 km (1996)

Waterways: note: ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports and harbors: Bogue, Kaedi, Nouadhibou, Nouakchott, Rosso

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 26 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Mauritania Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 624,375 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 302,699 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $41 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY97/98)



Mauritania Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Mauritius



Mauritius Introduction

Background: Discovered by the Portuguese in 1505, Mauritius was subsequently held by the Dutch, French, and British before independence was attained in 1968. A stable democracy with regular free elections and a positive human rights record, the country has attracted considerable foreign investment and has earned one of Africa's highest per capita incomes. Recent poor weather and declining sugar prices have slowed economic growth leading to some protests over standards of living in the Creole community.



Mauritius Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 20 17 S, 57 33 E

Map references: World

Area: total: 1,860 sq km

land: 1,850 sq km

water: 10 sq km

note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and Rodrigues

Area - comparative: almost 11 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Piton 828 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: arable land: 49%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 3%

forests and woodland: 22%

other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 170 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues: water pollution, degradation of coral reefs

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Mauritius People

Population: 1,189,825 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.53% (male 153,691; female 150,094)

15-64 years: 68.24% (male 404,940; female 407,056)

65 years and over: 6.23% (male 29,588; female 44,456) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.5 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.82 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.25 years

male: 67.26 years

female: 75.31 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.08% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Mauritian(s)

adjective: Mauritian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%

Religions: Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 2.3%), Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%

Languages: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 82.9%

male: 87.1%

female: 78.8% (1995 est.)



Mauritius Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mauritius

conventional short form: Mauritius

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos Shoals*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart, Rodrigues*, Savanne

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Constitution: 12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of English common law in certain areas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992) and Vice President Angidi Verriah CHETTIAR (since 28 June 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 17 September 2000) and Deputy Prime Minister Paul BERENGER (since 17 September 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 28 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president and are responsible to the National Assembly

election results: Cassam UTEEM reelected president and Angidi Verriah CHETTIAR elected vice president; percent of vote by the National Assembly - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (66 seats - 62 elected by popular vote, 4 appointed by the election commission from the losing political parties to give representation to various ethnic minorities; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 September 2000 (next to be held by September 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - MSM/MMM 52.3%, MLP/PMSD 36.9%, OPR 10.8%; seats by party - MSM/MMM 54, MLP/PMSD 6, OPR 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Hizbullah [Cehl Mohamed FAKEEMEEAH]; Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM]; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER] - in coalition with MSM; Mauritian Militant Renaissance or MMR [Dr. Paramhansa NABABSING]; Mauritian Social Democrat Party or PMSD [Charles Xavier-Luc DUVAL]; Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH] - governing party; Rodrigues Movement or OPR [Joseph (Nicholas) Von MALLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: various labor unions

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Usha JEETAH

chancery: Suite 441, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-1491, 1492

FAX: [1] (202) 966-0983

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mark W. ERWIN

embassy: 4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis

mailing address: international mail: P. O. Box 544, Port Louis; US mail: American Embassy, Port Louis, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2450

telephone: [230] 208-2347, 208-2354, 208-9763 through 9767

FAX: [230] 208-9534

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green



Mauritius Economy

Economy - overview: Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculturally based economy to a middle-income diversified economy with growing industrial, financial, and tourist sectors. For most of the period, annual growth has been in the order of 5% to 6%. This remarkable achievement has been reflected in increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality, and a much-improved infrastructure. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area and accounts for 25% of export earnings. The government's development strategy centers on foreign investment. Mauritius has attracted more than 9,000 offshore entities, many aimed at commerce in India and South Africa, and investment in the banking sector alone has reached over $1 billion. Economic performance since 1991 has continued strong with solid growth and low unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%

industry: 29%

services: 61% (1996)

Population below poverty line: 10.6% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 514,000 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: construction and industry 36%, services 24%, agriculture and fishing 14%, trade, restaurants, hotels 16%, transportation and communication 7%, finance 3% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.1 billion

expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, clothing; chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.26 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 91.27%

hydro: 8.73%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.172 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses; cattle, goats; fish

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: clothing and textiles, sugar, cut flowers, molasses

Exports - partners: UK 32%, France 19%, US 15%, Germany 6%, Italy 4% (1999 est.)

Imports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, capital equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals (1996)

Imports - partners: France 14%, South Africa 11%, India 8%, UK 5% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $1.9 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $42 million (1997)

Currency: Mauritian rupee (MUR)

Currency code: MUR

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees per US dollar - 27.900 (January 2001), 26.250 (2000), 25.186 (1999), 22.993 (1998), 21.057 (1997), 17.948 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Mauritius Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 223,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 37,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: small system with good service

domestic: primarily microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 420,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus 11 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 258,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .mu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 55,000 (2000)



Mauritius Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,910 km

paved: 1,834 km (including 36 km of expressways)

unpaved: 76 km (1998)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Port Louis

Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 61,909 GRT/87,313 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, combination bulk 2, container 2, liquefied gas 1, refrigerated cargo 2

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: India 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Mauritius Military

Military branches: National Police Force (includes the paramilitary Special Mobile Force or SMF and National Coast Guard)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 339,473 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 171,206 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $11 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.3% (FY97/98)



Mauritius Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory); claims French-administered Tromelin Island

Illicit drugs: minor consumer and transshipment point for heroin from South Asia; small amounts of cannabis produced and consumed locally

======================================================================

@Mayotte



Mayotte Introduction

Background: Mayotte was ceded to France along with the other Comoros in 1843. It was the only island in the archipelago that voted in 1974 to retain its link with France and forgo independence.



Mayotte Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 50 S, 45 10 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 374 sq km

land: 374 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

Terrain: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Benara 660 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: NA%

permanent crops: NA%

permanent pastures: NA%

forests and woodland: NA%

other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones during rainy season

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: part of Comoro Archipelago; 18 islands



Mayotte People

Population: 163,366 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.59% (male 38,188; female 37,920)

15-64 years: 51.73% (male 46,132; female 38,378)

65 years and over: 1.68% (male 1,361; female 1,387) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.58% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 44.39 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.84 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.2 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 59.83 years

male: 57.77 years

female: 61.96 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.24 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Mahorais (singular and plural)

adjective: Mahoran

Ethnic groups: NA

Religions: Muslim 97%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)

Languages: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French (official language) spoken by 35% of the population

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Mayotte Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte

conventional short form: Mayotte

Dependency status: territorial collectivity of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Mamoutzou

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Pierre BAYLE (since 15 July 1998)

head of government: President of the General Council Younoussa BAMANA (since NA 1977)

cabinet: NA

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General Council elected by the members of the General Council for a six-year term

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 7 October 2000 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

note: Mayotte elects one member of the French Senate; elections last held 24 September 1995 (next to be held 24 September 2001); results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPM 1; Mayotte also elects one member to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May and 1 June 1997 (next to be held as a special election on NA May 2002); results - percent of vote by party - UDF/FD 51.7%, RPR 48.3%; seats by party - UDF/FD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Front or FD [Youssouf MOUSSA]; Mahoran Popular Movement or MPM [Younoussa BAMANA]; Mahoran Rally for the Republic or RPR [Mansour KAMARDINE]; Movement for Department Status Mayotte or MDM [Henri JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Socialist Party or PS (local branch of French Parti Socialiste) [Ibrahim ABUBACAR]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Henri JEAN-BAPTISTE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: FZ

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Mayotte Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development of the island are heavily dependent on French financial assistance, an important supplement to GDP. Mayotte's remote location is an obstacle to the development of tourism.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $85 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 45% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $73 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry, construction

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: vanilla, ylang-ylang (perfume essence), coffee, copra

Exports: $3.44 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: ylang-ylang (perfume essence), vanilla, copra, coconuts, coffee, cinnamon

Exports - partners: France 80%, Comoros 15%, Reunion

Imports: $141.3 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Imports - commodities: food, machinery and equipment, transportation equipment, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners: France 66%, Africa 14%, Southeast Asia 11% (1997)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $107.7 million (1995); note - extensive French financial assistance

Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Mayotte Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9,314 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: small system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications

domestic: NA

international: microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communications to Comoros and other international connections

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 3,500 (1994)

Internet country code: .yt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: NA



Mayotte Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 93 km

paved: 72 km

unpaved: 21 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Dzaoudzi

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Mayotte Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France; small contingent of French forces stationed on the island



Mayotte Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Comoros

======================================================================

@Mexico



Mexico Introduction

Background: The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states.



Mexico Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the US

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references: North America

Area: total: 1,972,550 sq km

land: 1,923,040 sq km

water: 49,510 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 4,538 km

border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 39%

forests and woodland: 26%

other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 61,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coasts

Environment - current issues: natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; serious air pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location on southern border of US



Mexico People

Population: 101,879,171 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.32% (male 17,312,220; female 16,635,438)

15-64 years: 62.28% (male 30,888,015; female 32,558,359)

65 years and over: 4.4% (male 1,997,219; female 2,487,920) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 22.77 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.76 years

male: 68.73 years

female: 74.93 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.62 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 150,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,700 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mexican(s)

adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%

Languages: Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89.6%

male: 91.8%

female: 87.4% (1995 est.)



Mexico Government

Country name: conventional long form: United Mexican States

conventional short form: Mexico

local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos

local short form: Mexico

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 December 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 December 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2006)

election results: Vicente FOX Quesada elected president; percent of vote - Vicente FOX Quesada (PAN) 42.52%, Francisco LABASTIDA Ochoa (PRI) 36.1%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 16.64%, other 4.74%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Federal Chamber of Deputies or Camara Federal de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are directly elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote, also for three-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 2 July 2000 for all of the seats (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRI 59, PAN 45, PRD 17, PVEM 5, PT 1, PCD 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRI 211, PAN 208, PRD 50, PVEM 16, PT 7, PCD 3, PSN 3, PAS 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)

Political parties and leaders: Convergence for Democracy or CD [Dante DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Dulce Maria SAURI Riancho]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge GONZALEZ Torres]; National Action Party or PAN [Luis Felipe BRAVO Mena]; Party of the Democratic Center or PCD [Manuel CAMACHO Solis]; Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD [Amalia GARCIA Medina]; Party of the Nationalist Society or PSN [Gustavo RIOJAIS Santana]; Social Alliance Party or PAS [Jose Antonio CALDERON Cardoso]; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Union of Workers or UNT; Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers or CROM; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants or CROC; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, BCIE, BIS, Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB, CE (observer), EBRD, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Jose BREMER Martino

chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Laredo (Texas), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Phoenix, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s): Albuquerque, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), McAllen (Texas), Midland (Texas), Orlando, Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, Santa Ana (California), Seattle, Tucson

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffery DAVIDOW

embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal

mailing address: P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087

telephone: [52] (5) 209-9100

FAX: [52] (5) 208-3373, 511-9980

consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana

consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo, Nogales

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band



Mexico Economy

Economy - overview: Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 2000. The ZEDILLO administration privatized and expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution, and airports. A strong export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996-2000. Private consumption became the leading driver of growth in 2000, accompanied by increased employment and higher real wages. Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and raise living standards. Income distribution is very unequal, with the top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income. Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994. Mexico completed free trade agreements with the EU, Israel, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in 2000, and is pursuing additional trade agreements with countries in Latin America and Asia to lessen its dependence on the US.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $915 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5%

industry: 27%

services: 68% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 27% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 36.6% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 39.8 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 24%, services 56% (1998)

Unemployment rate: urban - 2.2% (2000); plus considerable underemployment

Budget: revenues: $125 billion

expenditures: $130 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 182.492 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 74.12%

hydro: 17.75%

nuclear: 5.21%

other: 2.92% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 170.754 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 11 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.047 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

Exports: $168 billion (f.o.b., 2000), includes in-bond industries (assembly plant operations)

Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners: US 88.6%, Canada 2%, Spain 0.9%, Germany 0.9%, Japan 0.6%, UK 0.6%, Netherlands Antilles 0.5%, Switzerland 0.3% Venezuela 0.3%, Chile 0.3% (2000 est.)

Imports: $176 billion (f.o.b., 2000), includes in-bond industries (assembly plant operations)

Imports - commodities: metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts

Imports - partners: US 73.6%, Japan 3.7%, Germany 3.3%, Canada 2.3%, South Korea 2%, China 1.6%, Taiwan 1.2%, Italy 1%, Brazil 1% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $162 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.166 billion (1995)

Currency: Mexican peso (MXN)

Currency code: MXN

Exchange rates: Mexican pesos per US dollar - 9.7701 (January 2001), 9.4556 (2000), 9.5604 (1999), 9.1360 (1998), 7.9185 (1997), 7.5994 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Mexico Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9.6 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.02 million (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: low telephone density with about 11 main lines per 100 persons; privatized in December 1990; the opening to competition in January 1997 has brightened prospects for development

domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, and mobile cellular service

international: satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Morocco, Spain, and Italy (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 865, FM about 500, shortwave 13 (1999)

Radios: 31 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 236 (plus repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 25.6 million (1997)

Internet country code: .mx

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 51 (2000)

Internet users: 2.5 million (2000)



Mexico Transportation

Railways: total: 31,048 km

standard gauge: 30,958 km 1.435-m gauge (246 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 90 km 0.914-m gauge (1998 est.)

Highways: total: 323,977 km

paved: 96,221 km (including 6,335 km of expressways)

unpaved: 227,756 km (1997)

Waterways: 2,900 km

note: navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km

Ports and harbors: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, La Paz, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz

Merchant marine: total: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 590,657 GRT/920,456 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 28, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1,848 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 238

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 28

1,524 to 2,437 m: 90

914 to 1,523 m: 82

under 914 m: 27 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1,610

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 65

914 to 1,523 m: 470

under 914 m: 1,073 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Mexico Military

Military branches: National Defense Secretariat (includes Army and Air Force), Navy Secretariat (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

note: starting in 2000, females will be allowed to volunteer for military service

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 26,703,300 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 19,394,184 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 1,077,536 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY99)



Mexico Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy (cultivation in 2000 - 1,900 hectares; potential heroin production - 2.4 metric tons) and cannabis cultivation in 2000 - 3,900 hectares; government eradication efforts have been key in keeping illicit crop levels low; major supplier of heroin and marijuana to the US market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America; two major drug syndicates control majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; primary supplier of methamphetamine to the US market; growing producer and distributor of ecstasy

======================================================================

@Micronesia, Federated States of



Micronesia, Federated States of Introduction

Background: In 1979 the Federated States of Micronesia, a UN Trust Territory under US administration, adopted a constitution. In 1986 independence was attained under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Present concerns include large-scale unemployment, overfishing, and overdependence on US aid.



Micronesia, Federated States of Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 15 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 702 sq km

land: 702 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk) Islands, Yap Islands, and Kosrae

Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Totolom 791 m

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use: arable land: NA%

permanent crops: NA%

permanent pastures: NA%

forests and woodland: NA%

other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)

Environment - current issues: overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: four major island groups totaling 607 islands



Micronesia, Federated States of People

Population: 134,597 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Micronesian(s)

adjective: Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic groups: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, other and none 3%

Languages: English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89%

male: 91%

female: 88% (1980 est.)



Micronesia, Federated States of Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia

conventional short form: none

former: Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

abbreviation: FSM

Government type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986

Capital: Palikir

Administrative divisions: 4 states; Chuuk (Truk), Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap

Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 10 May (1979)

Constitution: 10 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Leo A. FALCAM (since 21 July 1999); Vice President Redley KILLION (since 21 July 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Leo A. FALCAM (since 21 July 1999); Vice President Redley KILLION (since 21 July 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet

elections: president and vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators-at-large for four-year terms; election last held NA May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2003)

election results: Leo A. FALCAM elected president; percent of Congress vote - NA%; Redley KILLION elected vice president; percent of Congress vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress (14 seats; members elected by popular vote; four - one elected from each of state - to serve four-year terms and 10 - elected from single-member districts delineated by population - to serve two-year terms)

elections: elections for four-year term seats last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003); elections for two-year term seats last held 6 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jesse Bibiano MAREHALAU

chancery: 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 223-4383

FAX: [1] (202) 223-4391

consulate(s) general: Honolulu and Tamuning (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Diane E. WATSON

embassy: address NA, Kolonia

mailing address: P. O. Box 1286, Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia 96941

telephone: [691] 320-2187

FAX: [691] 320-2186

Flag description: light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern



Micronesia, Federated States of Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development. In 1996, the country experienced a 20% reduction in revenues from the Compact of Free Association - the agreement between the US and Micronesia in which Micronesia receives $1.3 billion in financial and technical assistance over a 15-year period until 2001 - as a result of the second step-down under the agreement. Since these revenues accounted for 57% of consolidated government revenues, reduced Compact funding resulted in a severe depression. While Micronesia's economy appears to have bottomed out in 1999, the country's medium-term economic outlook remains fragile due to likely further reductions in external grants made under the US Compact funding. Geographical isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure remain major impediments to long-term growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $263 million (1999 est.)

note: GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging perhaps $100 million annually

GDP - real growth rate: 0.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%

industry: 4%

services: 77% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (FY98/99)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: two-thirds are government employees

Unemployment rate: 16% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $161 million ($69 million less grants)

expenditures: $160 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: black pepper, tropical fruits and vegetables, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, chickens

Exports: $73 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

Exports - commodities: fish, garments, bananas, black pepper

Exports - partners: Japan, US, Guam

Imports: $168 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)

Imports - commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, beverages

Imports - partners: US, Japan, Australia

Debt - external: $111 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: the US dollar is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Micronesia, Federated States of Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 11,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate system

domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)

international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .fm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Micronesia, Federated States of Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 240 km

paved: 42 km

unpaved: 198 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Colonia (Yap), Kolonia (Pohnpei), Lele, Moen

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Micronesia, Federated States of Military

Military - note: Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is a sovereign, self-governing state in free association with the US; FSM is totally dependent on the US for its defense



Micronesia, Federated States of Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Midway Islands



Midway Islands Introduction

Background: The US took formal possession of the islands in 1867. The laying of the trans-Pacific cable, which passed through the islands, brought the first residents in 1903. Between 1935 and 1947, Midway was used as a refueling stop for trans-Pacific flights. The US naval victory over a Japanese fleet off Midway in 1942 was one of the turning points of World War II. The islands continued to serve as a naval station until closed in 1993. Today the islands are a wildlife refuge open to the public.



Midway Islands Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo

Geographic coordinates: 28 13 N, 177 22 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 6.2 sq km

land: 6.2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Eastern Island, Sand Island, and Spit Island

Area - comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: subtropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 13 m

Natural resources: wildlife, terrestrial and aquatic

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation and photography, sport fishing, snorkeling, and scuba diving



Midway Islands People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; approximately 150 people make up the staff of US Fish and Wildlife Service and their services cooperator living at the atoll (July 2001 est.)



Midway Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Midway Islands

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; formerly administered from Washington, DC, by the US Navy, under Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division; this facility has been operationally closed since 10 September 1993; on 31 October 1996, through a presidential executive order, the jurisdiction and control of the atoll was transferred to the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Midway Islands Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on providing support services for the national wildlife refuge activities located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.



Midway Islands Transportation

Highways: total: NA km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports and harbors: Sand Island

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Midway Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Midway Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Moldova



Moldova Introduction

Background: Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe and plagued by a moribund economy, in 2001 Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist as its president.



Moldova Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 33,843 sq km

land: 33,371 sq km

water: 472 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 1,389 km

border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Nistru (Dnister) River 2 m

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land

Land use: arable land: 53%

permanent crops: 14%

permanent pastures: 13%

forests and woodland: 13%

other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: landslides (57 cases in 1998)

Environment - current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note: landlocked



Moldova People

Population: 4,431,570 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.44% (male 506,303; female 488,311)

15-64 years: 67.62% (male 1,437,492; female 1,559,090)

65 years and over: 9.94% (male 163,473; female 276,901) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.05% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.35 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 42.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.6 years

male: 60.15 years

female: 69.26 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 est.)

note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000 members) (1991)

Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96%

male: 99%

female: 94% (1989 est.)



Moldova Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: none

former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Government type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: 10 juletule (singular - juletul), 1 municipality*, and 1 autonomous territorial unit**; Balti, Cahul, Chisinau, Chisinau*, Dubasari, Edinet, Gagauzia**, Lapusna, Orhei, Soroca, Tighina, Ungheni

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), three Deputy Prime Ministers: Valerian CRISTEA, Andrei CUCU, and Dmitri TODOROGLO (all since 19 April 2001)

cabinet: selected by prime minister, subject to approval of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2001; presidential elections were scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct popular elections; Parliament's failure to chose a new president in December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections (moved up a year to February 2001); according to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with Parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate will request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated on 15 April 2001, cabinet received vote of confidence on 19 April 2001

election results: Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CHRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV elected Prime Minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs, as well as independent candidates, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance 19, PPCD 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)

Political parties and leaders: Braghis Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ceslav CIOBANU

chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rudolf Vilem PERINA

embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevicie, #103, Chisinau 2009

mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7080

telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72

FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag description: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow



Moldova Economy

Economy - overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. Yet these efforts could not offset the impact of political and economic difficulties, both internal and regional. In 1998, the economic troubles of Russia, by far Moldova's leading trade partner, were a major cause of the 8.6% drop in GDP. In 1999, GDP fell again, by 4.4%, the fifth drop in the past seven years; exports were down, and energy supplies continued to be erratic. GDP declined slightly in 2000, with a serious drought hurting agriculture. Growth should turn positive in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 31%

industry: 35%

services: 34% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 75% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 25.8% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 32% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 14%, other 46% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 1.9% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (November 2000)

Budget: revenues: $536 million

expenditures: $594 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.155 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 93.62%

hydro: 6.38%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.78 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.916 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk

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