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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Exports - partners: France 41%, US 19%, Germany 13%, UK 8%, Japan 6% (1999)

Imports: $693 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food

Imports - partners: France 34%, Hong Kong 6%, China 6%, Japan 5%, Singapore 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $4.4 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $838 million (1997)

Currency: Malagasy franc (MGF)

Currency code: MGF

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,656.3 (November 2000), 6,283.8 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997), 4,061.3 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Madagascar Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 43,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: system is above average for the region

domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links

international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2 (plus 8 repeater stations), FM 7, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 3.05 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 325,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .mg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 8,000 (2000)



Madagascar Transportation

Railways: total: 883 km

narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 49,837 km

paved: 5,781 km

unpaved: 44,056 km (1996)

Waterways: note: of local importance only

Ports and harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Merchant marine: total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,819 GRT/34,173 DWT

ships by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 130 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 29

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 101

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 56

under 914 m: 43 (2000 est.)



Madagascar Military

Military branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces, Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,640,554 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,159,767 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 153,856 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $29 million (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY94)



Madagascar Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

======================================================================

@Malawi



Malawi Introduction

Background: Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule, the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under a provisional constitution, which took full effect the following year. National multiparty elections were held again in 1999.



Malawi Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S, 34 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 118,480 sq km

land: 94,080 sq km

water: 24,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 2,881 km

border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m

highest point: Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources: limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite

Land use: arable land: 34%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 20%

forests and woodland: 39%

other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked



Malawi People

Population: 10,548,250

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.43% (male 2,348,940; female 2,337,290)

15-64 years: 52.78% (male 2,741,622; female 2,825,966)

65 years and over: 2.79% (male 119,283; female 175,149) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 22.81 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 121.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 37.08 years

male: 36.61 years

female: 37.55 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.18 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 15.96% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 800,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 70,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malawian(s)

adjective: Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important regionally

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 58%

male: 72.8%

female: 43.4% (1999 est.)



Malawi Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malawi

conventional short form: Malawi

former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland

Government type: multiparty democracy

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba; note - there may be three new districts named Balaka, Likoma, and Phalombe

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

Constitution: 18 May 1994

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: 36-member Cabinet named by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Bakili MULUZI reelected president; percent of vote - Bakili MULUZI (UDF) 51.4%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MCP-AFORD) 44.3%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - UDF 48%, MCP 34%, AFORD 15%, others 3%; seats by party - UDF 94, MCP 66, AFORD 29, others 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA, president]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda CHAKUAMBA, president, John TEMBO, vice president]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA, president]; National Independence Party; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eston KAKHOME, president]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI] - governing party

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Tony Steven KANDIERO

chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roger A. MEECE

embassy: Area 40, Plot 24, Kenyatta Road

mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi

telephone: [265] 773 166

FAX: [265] 770 471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band

Government - note: the executive exerts considerable influence over the legislature



Malawi Economy

Economy - overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 37% of GDP and 85% of export revenues. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In late 2000, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. The government faces strong challenges, e.g., to fully develop a market economy, to improve educational facilities, to face up to environmental problems, and to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 37%

industry: 29%

services: 34% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 54% (FY90/91 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29.5% (2000)

Labor force: 3.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 86% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $490 million

expenditures: $523 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)

Industries: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.025 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.44%

hydro: 97.56%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 950 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats

Exports: $416 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products

Exports - partners: South Africa 16%, Germany 16%, US 15%, Netherlands 7%, Japan (1999)

Imports: $435 million (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment

Imports - partners: South Africa 43%, Zimbabwe 14%, UK 5%, Germany 5%, Zambia, Japan, US (1999)

Debt - external: $2.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $427 million (1999)

Currency: Malawian kwacha (MWK)

Currency code: MWK

Exchange rates: Malawian kwachas per US dollar - 80.0946 (December 2000), 59.5438 (2000), 44.0881 (1999), 31.0727 (1998), 16.4442 (1997), 15.3085 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Malawi Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 37,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4 (plus 15 repeater stations), shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.6 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 0 (1999)

Internet country code: .mw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2001)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Malawi Transportation

Railways: total: 789 km

narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 16,451 km

paved: 3,126 km

unpaved: 13,325 km (1997)

Waterways: 144 km

note: on Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and Shire Riverall

Ports and harbors: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba

Airports: 44 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 38

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 23 (2000 est.)



Malawi Military

Military branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,466,708 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,265,893 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $9.5 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.76% (FY00/01)



Malawi Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

======================================================================

@Malaysia



Malaysia Introduction

Background: Malaysia was created in 1963 through the merging of Malaya (independent in 1957) and the former British Singapore, both of which formed West Malaysia, and Sabah and Sarawak in north Borneo, which composed East Malaysia. The first three years of independence were marred by hostilities with Indonesia. Singapore separated from the union in 1965.



Malaysia Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 329,750 sq km

land: 328,550 sq km

water: 1,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,669 km

border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite

Land use: arable land: 3%

permanent crops: 12%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 68%

other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,941 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea



Malaysia People

Population: 22,229,040 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.5% (male 3,943,324; female 3,724,634)

15-64 years: 61.35% (male 6,828,670; female 6,808,623)

65 years and over: 4.15% (male 404,042; female 519,747) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.96% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.75 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.11 years

male: 68.48 years

female: 73.92 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.24 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.42% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 49,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,900 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malaysian(s)

adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 58%, Chinese 27%, Indian 8%, others 7% (2000)

Religions: Islam, Buddhism, Daoism, Hinduism, Christianity, Sikhism; note - in addition, Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia

Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai; note - in addition, in East Malaysia several indigenous languages are spoken, the largest of which are Iban and Kadazan

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 83.5%

male: 89.1%

female: 78.1% (1995 est.)



Malaysia Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Malaysia

former: Federation of Malaysia

Government type: constitutional monarchy

note: Malaya (what is now Peninsular Malaysia) formed 31 August 1957; Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore) formed 9 July 1963 (Singapore left the federation on 9 August 1965); nominally headed by the paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, Penang, Sabah, and Sarawak, where governors are appointed by the Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by the federal constitution; under terms of the federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., the right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah - holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - holds 28 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

note: the city of Kuala Lumpur is located within the federal territory of Wilayah Persekutuan; the terms therefore are not interchangeable; there may be a new federal territory named Putrajaya

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day/Malaysia Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Paramount Ruler Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1999); Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah

head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 8 January 1999)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler

elections: paramount ruler and deputy paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister

election results: Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah elected paramount ruler; Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah elected deputy paramount ruler

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of nonelected Senate or Dewan Negara (69 seats; 43 appointed by the paramount ruler, 26 appointed by the state legislatures) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (193 seats; members elected by popular vote weighted toward the rural Malay population to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 29 November 1999 (next must be held by 20 December 2004)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NF 56%, other 44%; seats by party - NF 148, PAS 27, DAP 10, NJP 5, PBS 3

Judicial branch: Federal Court (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: Alternative Coalition or Barisan Alternatif-BA (includes the following parties: Party Islam Se-Malaysia or PAS [FADZIL Mohamad Noor], National Justice Party or NJP [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail], Democratic Action Party or DAP [LIM Kit Siang], and Malaysian People's Party or PRM [SYED HUSIN]); National Front or NF (ruling coalition dominated by the United Malays National Organization or UMNO [MAHATHIR bin Mohammad], includes the following parties: Malaysian Indian Congress or MIC [S. Samy VELLU], Malaysian Chinese Association or MCA [LING Liong Sik], Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia or Gerakan [LIM Keng Yaik], Parti Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or PBB [Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud], Parti Angkatan Keadilan Rakyat Bersatu or Akar [PANDIKAR Amin Mulia], Parti Bangsa Dayak Sarawak or PBDS [Leo MOGGIE], Sarawak United People's Party or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam], Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [CHONG Kah Kiat], Sabah Progressive Party or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee], People's Progressive Party or PPP [M. KAYVEAS], Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP], Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Amar James WONG], Parti Demokratik Sabah or PDS [leader NA], and United Pasok Momogun Kadazan Organization or UPKO (state level only) [Bernard DOMPOK]); Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Bersekutu [HARRIS Salleh]; State Reform Party of Sarawak or STAR [PATAU Rubis]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador GHAZZALI Sheikh Abdul Khalid

chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 483-7661

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador B. Lynn PASCOE

embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur

mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur; American Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152

telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000

FAX: [60] (3) 2168-4961

Flag description: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US



Malaysia Economy

Economy - overview: GDP grew at 8.6% in 2000, mainly on the strength of double-digit export growth and continued government fiscal stimulus. As an oil exporter, Malaysia also benefited from higher petroleum prices. Higher export revenues allowed the country to register a current account surplus, but foreign exchange reserves have been declining - from a peak of $34.5 billion in April 2000 to $29.7 billion by December - as foreign investors pulled money out of the country. Despite this development, Kuala Lumpur is unlikely to abandon its currency peg soon. An economic slowdown in key Western markets, especially the United States, and lower world demand for electronics products will slow GDP growth to 3%-6% in 2001, according to private forecasters. Over the longer term, Malaysia's failure to make substantial progress on key reforms of the corporate and financial sectors clouds prospects for sustained growth and the return of critical foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $223.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14%

industry: 44%

services: 42% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 6.8% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%

highest 10%: 20.4% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (2000)

Labor force: 9.6 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: local trade and tourism 28%, manufacturing 27%, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 16%, services 10%, government 10%, construction 9% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $16.4 billion

expenditures: $17.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $43 billion (2000 est.)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 12.1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 59.044 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 91.61%

hydro: 8.39%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 54.872 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 50 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 11 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak - rubber, pepper; timber

Exports: $97.9 billion (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, chemicals, palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles

Exports - partners: US 21%, Singapore 18%, Japan 13%, Hong Kong 5%, Netherlands 4%, Taiwan 4%, Thailand 3% (2000 est.)

Imports: $82.6 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food, fuel and lubricants

Imports - partners: Japan 21%, US 17%, Singapore 14%, Taiwan 6%, South Korea 5%, Thailand 4%, China 4% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $41.8 billion (2000 est.)

Currency: ringgit (MYR)

Currency code: MYR

Exchange rates: ringgits per US dollar - 3.8000 (January 2001), 3.8000 (2000), 3.8000 (1999), 3.9244 (1998), 2.8133 (1997), 2.5159 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Malaysia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.5 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.698 million (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system; international service excellent

domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations

international: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2001)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 56, FM 31 (plus 13 repeater stations), shortwave 5 (1999)

Radios: 10.9 million (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 27 (plus 15 high-power repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 10.8 million (1999)

Internet country code: .my

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2000)

Internet users: 1.5 million (2000)



Malaysia Transportation

Railways: total: 1,801 km

narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (148 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total: 64,672 km

paved: 48,707 km (including 1,192 km of expressways)

unpaved: 15,965 km

note: in addition to these national and main regional roads, Malaysia has thousands of kilometers of local roads that are maintained by local jurisdictions (1999)

Waterways: 7,296 km

note: Peninsular Malaysia 3,209 km, Sabah 1,569 km, Sarawak 2,518 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Ports and harbors: Bintulu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Dickson, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjung Berhala, Tanjung Kidurong, Tawau

Merchant marine: total: 362 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,103,657 GRT/7,574,999 DWT

ships by type: bulk 62, cargo 110, chemical tanker 35, container 60, liquefied gas 20, livestock carrier 1, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 58, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 6 (2000 est.)

Airports: 115 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 33

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 82

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 73 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Malaysia Military

Military branches: Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts

Military manpower - military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,800,456 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,514,023 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 196,042 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.69 billion (FY00 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.03% (FY00)



Malaysia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Philippines have not fully revoked claim to Sabah State; Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca Island) disputed with Singapore; Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Indonesia

Illicit drugs: transit point for some illicit drugs; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties

======================================================================

@Maldives



Maldives Introduction

Background: The Maldives were long a sultanate, first under Dutch and then under British protection. They became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. Tourism and fishing are being developed on the archipelago.



Maldives Geography

Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates: 3 15 N, 73 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 300 sq km

land: 300 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat, with white sandy beaches

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Wilingili island in the Addu Atoll 2.4 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 3%

forests and woodland: 3%

other: 84% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea level rise

Environment - current issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; global warming and sea level rise; coral reef bleaching

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean



Maldives People

Population: 310,764 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.63% (male 72,920; female 68,895)

15-64 years: 51.37% (male 81,506; female 78,149)

65 years and over: 3% (male 4,806; female 4,488) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.01% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 38.15 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.09 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.56 years

male: 61.39 years

female: 63.8 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Maldivian(s)

adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic groups: South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.2%

male: 93.3%

female: 93% (1995 est.)



Maldives Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Maldives

conventional short form: Maldives

local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa

local short form: Dhivehi Raajje

Government type: republic

Capital: Male

Administrative divisions: 19 atolls (atholhu, singular and plural) and 1 other first-order administrative division*; Alifu, Baa, Dhaalu, Faafu, Gaafu Alifu, Gaafu Dhaalu, Gnaviyani, Haa Alifu, Haa Dhaalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Lhaviyani, Maale*, Meemu, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Vaavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution: adopted January 1998

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: appointed by the president; note - need not be members of Majlis

elections: president nominated by the Majlis and then that nomination must be ratified by a national referendum (at least a 51% approval margin is required); president elected for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003)

election results: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected; percent of popular vote - Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 90.9%

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council or Majlis (50 seats; 42 elected by popular vote, 8 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 20 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2004)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 42

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: although political parties are not banned, none exist

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Maldives does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic visits there

Flag description: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag



Maldives Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, Maldives largest industry, accounts for 20% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. Almost 400,000 tourists visited the islands in 1998. Fishing is a second leading sector. The Maldivian Government began an economic reform program in 1989 initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign investment. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a minor role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods must be imported. Industry, which consists mainly of garment production, boat building, and handicrafts, accounts for about 18% of GDP. Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is one meter or less above sea level.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $594 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20%

industry: 18%

services: 62% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 67,000 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 22%, industry 18%, services 60% (1995)

Unemployment rate: NEGL%

Budget: revenues: $166 million (excluding foreign grants)

expenditures: $192 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (1999 est.)

Industries: fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining

Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 101 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 93.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fish

Exports: $88 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: fish, clothing

Exports - partners: US, UK, Sri Lanka, Japan

Imports: $372 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Japan, Canada

Debt - external: $237 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: rufiyaa (MVR)

Currency code: MVR

Exchange rates: rufiyaa per US dollar - 11.770 (fixed rate since 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Maldives Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,000 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,290 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: minimal domestic and international facilities

domestic: interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands are connected with telephone and fax service

international: satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 35,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1999)

Internet country code: .mv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Maldives Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km; note - Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city (1988 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Gan, Male

Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 58,604 GRT/81,451 DWT

ships by type: cargo 16, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Maldives Military

Military branches: National Security Service

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 71,856 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 40,006 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Maldives Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Mali



Mali Introduction

Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997, President KONARE has continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term.



Mali Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1.24 million sq km

land: 1.22 million sq km

water: 20,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 7,243 km

border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m

highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower

note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 6%

other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked



Mali People

Population: 11,008,518 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,612,215; female 2,583,370)

15-64 years: 49.73% (male 2,610,142; female 2,864,127)

65 years and over: 3.07% (male 158,486; female 180,178) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.97% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 48.79 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 18.71 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 121.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.02 years

male: 45.84 years

female: 48.24 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.03% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 100,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 9,900 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malian(s)

adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 31%

male: 39.4%

female: 23.1% (1995 est.)



Mali Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali

conventional short form: Mali

local long form: Republique de Mali

local short form: Mali

former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Mande SIDIBE (since September 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha Oumar KONARE 95.9%, Mamadou DIABY 4.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held in two rounds in 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 130, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH

chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950

FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER

embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako

mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako

telephone: [223] 22 54 70

FAX: [223] 22 37 12

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Mali Economy

Economy - overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. Growth should remain around 5% in 2001-02, and inflation should stay less than 2%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $850 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 46%

industry: 21%

services: 33% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $730 million

expenditures: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1997 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Electricity - production: 445 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 44.94%

hydro: 55.06%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 413.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $480 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton 50%, gold, livestock (1999 est.)

Exports - partners: Italy 18%, Thailand 15%, Germany 7%, Portugal 4% (1999)

Imports: $575 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire 19%, France 19%, Senegal 4%, Benelux 3% (1999)

Debt - external: $3 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $596.4 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Mali Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 23,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,842 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service

domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 14, shortwave 7 (1998)

Radios: 570,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 45,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ml

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 10,000 (2000)



Mali Transportation

Railways: total: 729 km (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)

narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 15,100 km

paved: 1,827 km

unpaved: 13,273 km (1996)

Waterways: 1,815 km

Ports and harbors: Koulikoro

Airports: 27 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)



Mali Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,284,632 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,309,612 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $49 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96)



Mali Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Malta



Malta Introduction

Background: Great Britain formally acquired possession of Malta in 1814. The island staunchly supported the UK through both World Wars and remained in the Commonwealth when it became independent in 1964. A decade later Malta became a republic. Over the last 15 years, the island has become a major freight transshipment point, financial center, and tourist destination. It is an official candidate for EU membership.



Malta Geography

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 316 sq km

land: 316 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 196.8 km (does not include 56.01 km for the island of Gozo)

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 25 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Ta'Dmejrek 253 m (near Dingli)

Natural resources: limestone, salt, arable land

Land use: arable land: 32%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 4%

other: 61% (2000 est.)

Irrigated land: 11.45 sq km (2000 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; increasing reliance on desalination

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: the country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration



Malta People

Population: 394,583 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.98% (male 40,791; female 38,062)

15-64 years: 67.49% (male 133,914; female 132,402)

65 years and over: 12.53% (male 20,643; female 28,771) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.74% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.75 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.1 years

male: 75.64 years

female: 80.79 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.52% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Maltese (singular and plural)

adjective: Maltese

Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and Phoenicians, with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean stock)

Religions: Roman Catholic 91%

Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 88.76%

male: 86.91%

female: 89.55% (1995 census)



Malta Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malta

conventional short form: Malta

local long form: Repubblika ta' Malta

local short form: Malta

Government type: republic

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administered directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964)

Constitution: 1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Guido DE MARCO (since 4 April 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Eddie FENECH ADAMI (since 6 September 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Lawrence GONZE (since 4 April 1999)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections: president elected by the House of Representatives for a five-year term; election last held NA April 1999 (next to be held by NA April 2004); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

election results: Guido DE MARCO elected president; percent of House of Representatives vote - 54%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (usually 65 seats; note - additional seats are given to the party with the largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 5 September 1998 (next to be held by September 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - PN 51.8%, MLP 46.9%, AD 1.2%; seats by party - PN 35, MLP 30

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for Social Justice or AD [Harry VASSALLO]; Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]; Nationalist Party or PN [Edward FENECH ADAMI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George SALIBA

chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-3611, 3612

FAX: [1] (202) 387-5470

consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George SALIBA

embassy: 3rd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, Malta VLT 01

mailing address: P. O. Box 535, Valletta, Malta, CMR 01

telephone: [356] 235960 through 235965

FAX: [356] 243229

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the Saint George Cross, edged in red



Malta Economy

Economy - overview: Major resources are limestone, a favorable geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy sources. The economy is dependent on foreign trade, manufacturing (especially electronics and textiles), and tourism. Malta is privatizing state-controlled firms and liberalizing markets in order to prepare for membership in the European Union. However, the island is divided politically over the question of joining the EU. The sizable budget deficit remains a key concern.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $14,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.8%

industry: 25.5%

services: 71.7% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 145,901 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 24%, services 71%, agriculture 5% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (3rd Quarter 2000)

Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion

expenditures: $1.73 billion, including capital expenditures of $265.4 million (1999)

Industries: tourism; electronics, ship building and repair, construction; food and beverages, textiles, footwear, clothing, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.65 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.534 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry, eggs

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactures

Exports - partners: US 21.4%, France 15.2%, Germany 12.6%, UK 9.3%, Italy 4.9% (1999)

Imports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured and semi-manufactured goods; food, drink, and tobacco

Imports - partners: France 19.1%, Italy 16.7%, UK 10.9%, Germany 10.0%, US 8.5% (1999)

Debt - external: $130 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Maltese lira (MTL)

Currency code: MTL

Exchange rates: Maltese liri per US dollar - 0.4370 (January 2001), 0.4376 (2000), 0.3994 (1999), 0.3885 (1998), 0.3857 (1997), 0.3604 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Malta Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 187,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 17,691 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: automatic system satisfies normal requirements

domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands

international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 18, shortwave 6 (1999)

Radios: 255,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (2000)

Televisions: 280,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .mt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 40,000 (2000)



Malta Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,742 km

paved: 1,677 km

unpaved: 65 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Marsaxlokk, Valletta

Merchant marine: total: 1,414 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,191,090 GRT/46,773,603 DWT

ships by type: bulk 443, cargo 394, chemical tanker 48, combination bulk 12, combination ore/oil 14, container 69, liquefied gas 2, livestock carrier 3, multi-functional large-load carrier 2, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 296, refrigerated cargo 37, roll on/roll off 50, short-sea passenger 15, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 18

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 1, Bermuda 1, Belgium 1, Bangladesh 2, Bulgaria 11, China 7, Costa Rica 1, Cuba 2, Cyprus 15, Denmark 1, Estonia 2, Finland 1, Germany 23, Greece 258, Hong Kong 3, Croatia 9, Hungary 1, India 2, Israel 2, Italy 17, South Korea 1, Lebanon 2, Latvia 2, Lithuania 1, Monaco 14, Nigeria 1, Netherlands 10, Norway 31, Poland 8, Romania 3, Russia 39, Singapore 6, Spain 3, Sweden 3, Syria 1, Switzerland 25, UAE 2, Turkey 24, UK 8, Ukraine 9, US 9, Venezuela 1, Vietnam 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Malta Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (including land forces, an air squadron, a maritime squadron, and the Revenue Security Corps), Maltese Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 98,953 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 78,783 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $201 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.5% (FY98)



Malta Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Western Europe

======================================================================

@Man, Isle of



Man, Isle of Introduction

Background: Part of the Norwegian Kingdom of the Hebrides until the 13th century when it was ceded to Scotland, the isle came under the British crown in 1765. Current concerns include reviving the almost extinct Manx Celtic language.



Man, Isle of Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland

Geographic coordinates: 54 15 N, 4 30 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 572 sq km

land: 572 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; temperate; overcast about one-third of the time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Irish Sea 0 m

highest point: Snaefell 621 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 9%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 46%

forests and woodland: 6%

other: 39% (includes 25% mountain and heathland)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: waste disposal (both household and industrial); transboundary air pollution

Geography - note: one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird sanctuary



Man, Isle of People

Population: 73,489 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.51% (male 6,562; female 6,306)

15-64 years: 65.19% (male 24,061; female 23,845)

65 years and over: 17.3% (male 5,076; female 7,639) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.52% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.58 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 11.84 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.64 years

male: 74.26 years

female: 81.2 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Manxman (men), Manxwoman (women)

adjective: Manx

Ethnic groups: Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of Friends

Languages: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Man, Isle of Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Isle of Man

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: there are 24 local authorities each with its own elections

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Constitution: unwritten; note - The Isle of Man Constitution Act, 1961, does not embody the Manx Constitution

Legal system: English common law and Manx statute

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor His Excellency Sir Timothy DAUNT (since 27 October 1995)

head of government: Chief Minister Donald GELLING (since 3 December 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch for a five-year term; the Chief Minister is elected by the Tynwald; election last held 3 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results: Donald GELLING elected chief minister by the Tynwald

Legislative branch: bicameral Tynwald consists of the Legislative Council (a 11-member body composed of the President of Tynwald, the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others named by the House of Keys) and the House of Keys (24 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Keys - last held 21 November 1996 (next to be held NA November 2001)

election results: House of Keys - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - independents 24

Judicial branch: High Court of Justice (justices are appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor)

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system; members sit as independents

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used



Man, Isle of Economy

Economy - overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their shares of GDP. Banking and other services now contribute 42% to GDP. Trade is mostly with the UK. The Isle of Man enjoys free access to EU markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 13.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 9%

services: 90% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 36,610 (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture, forestry and fishing 3%, manufacturing 11%, construction 10%, transport and communication 8%, wholesale and retail distribution 11%, professional and scientific services 18%, public administration 6%, banking and finance 18%, tourism 2%, entertainment and catering 3%, miscellaneous services 10%

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (August 2000)

Budget: revenues: $485 million

expenditures: $463 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries: financial services, light manufacturing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (FY96/97)

Agriculture - products: cereals, vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, beef, lamb

Exports - partners: UK

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: timber, fertilizers, fish

Imports - partners: UK

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: British pound (GBP); note - there is also a Manx pound

Currency code: GBP

Exchange rates: Manx pounds per US dollar - 0.6764 (January 2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Man, Isle of Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 51,000 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system

international: fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (receives broadcasts from the UK and satellite) (1999)

Televisions: 27,490 (1999)

Internet country code: .im

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: NA



Man, Isle of Transportation

Railways: total: 68.5 km (43.5 km electrified)

Highways: total: 800 km

paved: 800 km

unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Castletown, Douglas, Peel, Ramsey

Merchant marine: total: 157 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,917,402 GRT/8,333,858 DWT

ships by type: bulk 27, cargo 13, chemical tanker 11, combination bulk 3, container 20, liquefied gas 13, petroleum tanker 43, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 18, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 5

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 1, Denmark 1, Germany 1, Netherlands 1, Sweden 1, UK 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Man, Isle of Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Man, Isle of Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Marshall Islands



Marshall Islands Introduction

Background: After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the islands between 1947 and 1962.



Marshall Islands Geography

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 181.3 sq km

land: 181.3 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein

Area - comparative: about the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 60%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range



Marshall Islands People

Population: 70,822 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 49.29% (male 17,808; female 17,101)

15-64 years: 48.61% (male 17,573; female 16,853)

65 years and over: 2.1% (male 707; female 780) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.88% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 45.07 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.23 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 39.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.84 years

male: 64.04 years

female: 67.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.55 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)

adjective: Marshallese

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant)

Languages: English (universally spoken and is the official language), two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93%

male: 100%

female: 88% (1980 est.)



Marshall Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands

conventional short form: Marshall Islands

former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

Government type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: 33 municipalities; Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat, Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang, Utirik, Wotho, Wotje

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 1 May (1979)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members for a four-year term; election last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of Parliament vote - 100%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Nitijela (33 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

note: the Council of Chiefs is a 12-member body that advises on matters affecting customary law and practice

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Kabua Party [Imata KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO

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