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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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@Libya



Libya Introduction

Background: Since he took power in a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader, he used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures failed, e.g., the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987. Libyan support for terrorism decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. Those sanctions were suspended in April 1999.



Libya Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,759,540 sq km

land: 1,759,540 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 4,383 km

border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM

note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m

highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 8%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

Environment - international agreements: party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban



Libya People

Population: 5,240,599

note: includes 662,669 non-nationals, of which an estimated 500,000 or more are Africans living in Libya (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.41% (male 947,645; female 907,854)

15-64 years: 60.64% (male 1,645,085; female 1,533,066)

65 years and over: 3.95% (male 101,701; female 105,248) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.67 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.51 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.65 years

male: 73.53 years

female: 77.88 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.64 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Libyan(s)

adjective: Libyan

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.2%

male: 87.9%

female: 63% (1995 est.)



Libya Government

Country name: conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

conventional short form: Libya

local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma

local short form: none

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state

head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Premier) Mubarak al-SHAMEKH (since 2 March 2000)

cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress

elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held 2 March 2000 (next to be held NA)

election results: Mubarak al-SHAMEKH elected premier; percent of General People's Congress vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Libya does not have an embassy in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US suspended all embassy activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980

Flag description: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)



Libya Economy

Economy - overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of GDP. These oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. In this statist society, import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to periodic shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. Higher oil prices in 1999 and 2000 led to an increase in export revenues, which improved macroeconomic balances and helped to stimulate the economy. Following the suspension of UN sanctions in 1999, Libya has been trying to increase its attractiveness to foreign investors, and several foreign companies have visited in search of contracts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $45.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7%

industry: 47%

services: 46% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.5 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services and government 54%, industry 29%, agriculture 17% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $6.85 billion

expenditures: $4.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 18.9 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 17.577 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle

Exports: $13.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products

Exports - partners: Italy 33%, Germany 24%, Spain 10%, France 5%, Turkey 4%, Tunisia 4% (1999)

Imports: $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods

Imports - partners: Italy 24%, Germany 12%, Tunisia 9%, UK 7%, France 6%, South Korea 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $8.4 million (1995)

Currency: Libyan dinar (LYD)

Currency code: LYD

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars per US dollar - 0.5101 (January 2001), 0.5081 (2000), 0.4616 (1999), 0.3785 (1998), 0.3891 (1997), 0.3651 (1996)

note: Libya currently has two rates for foreign trade; one for government operations and foreign companies and one for Libyan individuals (0.45 dinars per US dollar in December 1998)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Libya Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 380,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996

domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 4, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 1.35 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus one low-power repeater) (1998)

Televisions: 730,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ly

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 7,500 (2000)



Libya Transportation

Railways: note: Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a 1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but there has been little progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with completion originally set for mid-1994; Libya signed contracts with two private companies - Bahne of Egypt and Jez Sistemas Ferroviarios of Spain - in 1998 for the supply of crossings and pointwork (1001)

Highways: total: 24,484 km

paved: 6,800 km

unpaved: 17,684 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km

Ports and harbors: Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah, Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah

Merchant marine: total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 399,725 GRT/654,843 DWT

ships by type: cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 4 (2000 est.)

Airports: 136 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 58

over 3,047 m: 23

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 22

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 78

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 40

under 914 m: 18 (2000 est.)



Libya Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,459,400 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 866,012 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 61,694 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.3 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.9% (FY99/00)



Libya Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger and also a part of southeastern Algeria

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@Liechtenstein



Liechtenstein Introduction

Background: The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. However, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight have resulted in concerns about the use of the financial institutions for money laundering.



Liechtenstein Geography

Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates: 47 10 N, 9 32 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 160 sq km

land: 160 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 76 km

border countries: Austria 35 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m

highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential, arable land

Land use: arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 16%

forests and woodland: 35%

other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation



Liechtenstein People

Population: 32,528 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.41% (male 2,992; female 2,996)

15-64 years: 70.6% (male 11,455; female 11,511)

65 years and over: 10.99% (male 1,439; female 2,135) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.98% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.53 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.95 years

male: 75.32 years

female: 82.6 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Liechtensteiner(s)

adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups: Alemannic 87.5%, Italian, Turkish, and other 12.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 7.4%, unknown 7.7%, other 4.9% (1996)

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (1981 est.)



Liechtenstein Government

Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein

conventional short form: Liechtenstein

local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein

local short form: Liechtenstein

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established; 12 July 1806 established independence from the Holy Roman Empire

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968)

head of government: Head of Government Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993) and Deputy Head of Government Michael RITTER (since 2 February 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Diet; confirmed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 9-11 February 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 49.90%, VU 41.35%, FL 8.71%; seats by party - FBP 13, VU 11, FL 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court or Obergericht

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald KRANZ]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Dr. Ernst WALCH]; The Free List or FL [Dr. Pepo FRICK, Karin JENNY, Rene HASLER]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO (observer), WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Liechtenstein's Ambassador to the US, Claudia FRITSCHE, is dually accredited to the UN in New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band



Liechtenstein Economy

Economy - overview: Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 18% - and easy incorporation rules have induced 73,700 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $730 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 22,891 of which 13,847 are foreigners; 8,231 commute from Austria and Switzerland to work each day

Labor force - by occupation: industry, trade, and building 45%, services 53%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 2% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.8% (February 1999)

Budget: revenues: $424.2 million

expenditures: $414.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products

Exports: $2.47 billion (1996)

Exports - commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery

Exports - partners: EU and EFTA countries 60.57% (Switzerland 15.7%) (1995)

Imports: $917.3 million (1996)

Imports - commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles

Imports - partners: EU countries, Switzerland (1996)

Debt - external: $0 (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: Swiss franc (CHF)

Currency code: CHF

Exchange rates: Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.6303 (January 2001), 1.6888 (2000), 1.5022 (1999), 1.4498 (1998), 1.4513 (1997), 1.2360 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Liechtenstein Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 20,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: automatic telephone system

domestic: NA

international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 21,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)

Televisions: 12,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .li

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 44 (Liechtenstein and Switzerland) (2000)

Internet users: NA



Liechtenstein Transportation

Railways: total: 18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

Highways: total: 250 km

paved: 250 km

unpaved: 0 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none



Liechtenstein Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Switzerland



Liechtenstein Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918

Illicit drugs: multilateral organizations engaged in issuing international guidelines for financial sector oversight have found gaps in Liechtenstein's financial services controls that make it vulnerable to money laundering

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@Lithuania



Lithuania Introduction

Background: Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but this proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently has restructured its economy for eventual integration into Western European institutions.



Lithuania Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 65,200 sq km

land: 65,200 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,273 km

border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat, arable land

Land use: arable land: 39%

permanent crops: 9%

permanent pastures: 6%

forests and woodland: 31%

other: 15% (2001 est.)

Irrigated land: 430 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Lithuania People

Population: 3,610,535 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.75% (male 345,694; female 331,125)

15-64 years: 67.69% (male 1,181,119; female 1,262,872)

65 years and over: 13.56% (male 165,732; female 323,993) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.27% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.86 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female

total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.25 years

male: 63.3 years

female: 75.5 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Lithuanian(s)

adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 80.6%, Russian 8.7%, Polish 7%, Byelorussian 1.6%, other 2.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (primarily), Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, Evangelical Christian Baptist, Muslim, Jewish

Languages: Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 98% (1989 est.)



Lithuania Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

conventional short form: Lithuania

local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

local short form: Lietuva

former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai, singular - rajonas) and 11 municipalities*: Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*, Anyksciu Rajonas, Birstonas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos Rajonas, Jonavos Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas, Kaisiadoriu Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas, Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas, Kretingos Rajonas, Kupiskio Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*, Marijampoles Rajonas, Mazeikiu Rajonas, Moletu Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*, Panevezio Rajonas, Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas, Prienu Rajonas, Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio Rajonas, Sakiu Rajonas, Salcininku Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu Rajonas, Silales Rajonas, Silutes Rajonas, Sirvintu Rajonas, Skuodo Rajonas, Svencioniu Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traku Rajonas, Ukmerges Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas, Vilkaviskio Rajonas, Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas

Independence: 11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 is the date of independence from German, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian occupation, 11 March 1990 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 26 February 1998)

head of government: Premier Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS (since 3 July 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997 and 4 January 1998 (next to be held NA 2002); premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament

election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 50.4%, Arturas PAULAUSKAS 49.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 8 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Coalition 31.1%, New Union/Social Liberals 19.6%, Liberal Union 17.2%, TS 8.6%, remaining parties all less than 5%; seats by party - Social Democratic Coalition 52, Liberal Union 34, New Union/Social Liberals 29, TS 9, Farmer's Party 4, Center Union 2, Poles' Electoral Action 2, Modern Christian Democratic Union 1, independents 3, others 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts appointed by the Parliament

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or LKDP [Zigmas ZINKEVICIUS, chairman]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS [Kestutis GLAVECKAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Liberal Union [Rolandas PAKSAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party or LDDP, the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSPD, and New Democracy; Modern Christian Democratic Union [Vytautas BOGUSIS, chairman]; New Union-Social Liberals [Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT (observer), BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Vygaudas USACKAS

chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860

FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466

consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John F. TEFFT

embassy: Akmenu 6, 2600 Vilnius

mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723

telephone: [370] (2) 223-031

FAX: [370] (2) 227-236

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red



Lithuania Economy

Economy - overview: Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has been slowly rebounding from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. High unemployment and weak consumption have held back recovery. GDP growth for 2000 - estimated at 2.9% - fell behind that of Estonia and Latvia, and unemployment is estimated at 10.8%, the country's highest since regaining independence in 1990. For 2001, Lithuanians forecast 3.2% growth, 1.8% inflation, and a fiscal deficit of 3.3%. In early 2001, the Lithuanian Government announced that it will repeg its currency, the litas, to the euro (the litas is currently pegged to the dollar) some time in 2002. Lithuania must ratify 25 agreements along with other legal documents and obligations by 1 May 2001 before gaining World Trade Organization membership. Lithuania was invited to the Helsinki summit in December 1999 and began EU accession talks in early 2000. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector, remains a key challenge for 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%

industry: 33%

services: 57% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 25.6% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 30%, agriculture 20%, services 50% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10.8% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $1.5 billion

expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 13.567 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 23.89%

hydro: 3.43%

nuclear: 72.68%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 9.817 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 3.2 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 400 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish

Exports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment 22%, mineral products 15%, chemicals 12%, textiles and clothing, foodstuffs (1999)

Exports - partners: Germany 15.8%, Latvia 12.6%, Russia 6.9%, Belarus 5.8%, Denmark (1999)

Imports: $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 18%, mineral products 16%, chemicals 10%, textiles and clothing 10%, transport equipment 7% (1999)

Imports - partners: Russia 20.4%, Germany 16.5%, Denmark 3.8%, Belarus 2.2%, Latvia 2% (1999)

Debt - external: $2.5 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $228.5 million (1995)

Currency: litas (LTL)

Currency code: LTL

Exchange rates: litai per US dollar - 4.000 (fixed rate since 1 May 1994); note - litai is the plural of litas

Fiscal year: calendar year



Lithuania Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.048 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 297,500 (November 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access

domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications

international: landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 112, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.9 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 20 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 1.7 million (1997)

Internet country code: .lt

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 14 (2000)

Internet users: 225,000 (2000)



Lithuania Transportation

Railways: total: 2,002 km

broad gauge: 2,002 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified) (1994)

Highways: total: 44,000 km

paved: 35,500 km

unpaved: 8,500 km (2000)

Waterways: 600 km (perennially navigable)

Pipelines: crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Butinge, Kaunas, Klaipeda

Merchant marine: total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 293,168 GRT/327,827 DWT

ships by type: cargo 26, combination bulk 10, petroleum tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 72 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9

over 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 63

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 55 (2000 est.)



Lithuania Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard (Skat)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 929,389 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 730,363 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 28,506 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $181 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.66% (FY00)



Lithuania Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Latvia has not ratified a 1998 maritime boundary agreement with Lithuania (primary concern is oil exploration rights); 1997 border agreement with Russia not yet ratified by Russia

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy

======================================================================

@Luxembourg



Luxembourg Introduction

Background: Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.



Luxembourg Geography

Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: total: 356 km

border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 135 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use: arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 20%

forests and woodland: 35%

other: 20%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (including Belgium) (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification

Geography - note: landlocked



Luxembourg People

Population: 442,972 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.91% (male 43,051; female 40,711)

15-64 years: 67.03% (male 149,781; female 147,165)

65 years and over: 14.06% (male 24,921; female 37,343) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.26% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.25 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.88 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.3 years

male: 74.02 years

female: 80.8 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.16% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European (guest and resident workers)

Religions: the greatest preponderance of the population is Roman Catholic with a very few Protestants, Jews, and Muslims

note: 1979 legislation forbids the collection of religious statistics

Languages: Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (2000 est.)



Luxembourg Government

Country name: conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence: 1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981);

head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie POLFER (since 7 August 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and vice prime minister appointed by the monarch, following popular election to the Chamber of Deputies; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

note: government coalition - CSV and DP

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 13 June 1999 (next to be held by NA June 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 29.79%, DP 21.58%, LSAP 23.75%, ADR 10.36%, Green Party 9.09%, the Left 3.77%; seats by party - CSV 19, DP 15, LSAP 13, ADR 6, Green Party 5, the Left 2

note: the Council of State or Conseil d'Etat, which has 21 members who are appointed and dismissed by the Grand Duke based on proposals from the government, the Chamber of Deputies, or the Council of State, is an advisory body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (known also as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Abbes JACOBY and Felix BRAS]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)

International organization participation: ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arlette CONZEMIUS

chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171

FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270

consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James C. HORMEL

embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)

telephone: [352] 46 01 23

FAX: [352] 46 14 01

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France



Luxembourg Economy

Economy - overview: The stable, high-income economy features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a substantial proportion of the economy. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and trans-border workers for 30% of its labor force. Luxembourg has a custom union with Belgium and the Netherlands, and, as a member of the EU, enjoys the advantages of the open European market. It joined with 10 other EU members to launch the euro on 1 January 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $15.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $36,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 30%

services: 69% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 248,000 (of whom 70,200 are foreign cross-border workers primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 83.2%, industry 14.3%, agriculture 2.5% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.7% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $5.6 billion

expenditures: $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Industrial production growth rate: 7.8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 648 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.88%

hydro: 53.09%

nuclear: 0%

other: 10.03% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.149 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 655 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 6.201 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; livestock products

Exports: $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

Exports - partners: EU 75% (Germany 25%, France 21%, Belgium 13%, UK 8%, Italy 6%, Netherlands 5%), US 4% (1999)

Imports: $10 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities: minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods

Imports - partners: EU 81% (Belgium 35%, Germany 26%, France 12%, Netherlands 4%), US 9% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $160 million (1999)

Currency: Luxembourg franc (LUF); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Luxembourg at a fixed rate of 40.3399 Luxembourg francs per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: LUF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Luxembourg francs per US dollar - 34.77 (January 1999), 36.299 (1998), 35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996); note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year



Luxembourg Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 314,700 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 215,741 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables

domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable

international: 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 285,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1999)

Televisions: 285,000 (1998 est.)

Internet country code: .lu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)

Internet users: 86,000 (1999)



Luxembourg Transportation

Railways: total: 274 km

standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km electrified; 178 km double track) (1998)

Highways: total: 5,166 km

paved: 5,166 km (including 118 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways: 37 km (on the Moselle)

Pipelines: petroleum products 48 km

Ports and harbors: Mertert

Merchant marine: total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 988,450 GRT/1,313,498 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, chemical tanker 11, container 2, liquefied gas 18, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 7

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 4 (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Luxembourg Military

Military branches: Army; note - the government abolished the Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 112,714 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 92,817 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 2,565 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $131 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY98/99)



Luxembourg Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Macau



Macau Introduction

Background: Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs.



Macau Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 10 N, 113 33 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 21 sq km

land: 21 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 0.34 km

border countries: China 0.34 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: not specified

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Coloane Alto 174 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 98% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland



Macau People

Population: 453,733 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.68% (male 53,291; female 49,615)

15-64 years: 70.08% (male 150,538; female 167,431)

65 years and over: 7.24% (male 13,287; female 19,571) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.79% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.36 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 3.71 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.69 years

male: 78.88 years

female: 84.64 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry), Portuguese, other

Religions: Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997 est.)

Languages: Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90%

male: 93%

female: 86% (1981 est.)



Macau Government

Country name: conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Macau

local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)

local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)

Dependency status: special administrative region of China

Government type: NA

Administrative divisions: none (special administrative region of China)

Independence: none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day

Constitution: Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies

Executive branch: chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)

head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of all five government secretaries, three legislators, and two businessmen

elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (23 seats; 8 elected by popular vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held by 15 October 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - APPEM 2, UNIPRO 2, CODEM 1, UDM 1, UPD 1, ANMD 1

Judicial branch: The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special Administrative Region

Political parties and leaders: the following is a listing of those associations that participated in the last legislative elections: Associacao de Novo Macau Democratico or ANMD [leader NA]; Associacao Promotora para a Economia de Macau or APPEM [leader NA]; Convergencia para o Desenvolvimento or CODEM [leader NA]; Uniao Geral para o Desenvolvimento de Macau or UDM [leader NA]; Uniao para o Desenvolvimento or UPD [leader NA]; Uniao Promotora para o Progresso or UNIPRO [leader NA]

note: there are no formal political parties, but civic associations are used instead

Political pressure groups and leaders: Catholic Church [Domingos LAM, bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (special administrative region of China)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag description: light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller



Macau Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about three-fourths of export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40% of GDP. More than 8 million tourists visited Macau in 2000. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods. Output dropped 5% in 1998 and 3% in 1999, with a small 2% gain in 2000. Macau reverted to Chinese administration on 20 December 1999. Gang violence, a dark spot in the economy, probably will be reduced in 2000-01 to the advantage of the tourism sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.82 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%

industry: 25%

services: 74% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 283,450 (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: restaurants and hotels 26%, manufacturing 22%, other services 52% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.6% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $1.26 billion

expenditures: $1.22 billion, including capital expenditures of $175 million (1999 est.)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, electronics, footwear, tourism, gambling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.355 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.422 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 165 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables

Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles, clothing, toys, electronics, cement, footwear, machinery

Exports - partners: US 47%, EU 30%, China 9.2%, Hong Kong 6.7% (1999)

Imports: $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods, fuels, consumer goods

Imports - partners: China 36%, Hong Kong 18%, EU 13%, Taiwan 10%, Japan 7% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.7 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: pataca (MOP)

Currency code: MOP

Exchange rates: patacas per US dollar - 8.033 (January 2001), 8.025 (2000), 7.990 (1999), 7.978 (1998), 7.974 (1997), 7.966 (1996); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Macau Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 176,837 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 120,957 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services

domestic: NA

international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 160,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (receives Hong Kong broadcasts) (1997)

Televisions: 49,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .mo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 40,000 (2000)



Macau Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 50 km

paved: 50 km

unpaved: 0 km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Macau

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Macau Military

Military branches: Macau garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) includes about 500 troops

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 125,737 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 69,191 (2001 est.)

Military - note: responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999



Macau Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic



Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Introduction Top of Page

Background: International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (FYROM) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, despite continued disagreement over FYROM's use of "Macedonia." FYROM's large Albanian minority and the de facto independence of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.



Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 25,333 sq km

land: 24,856 sq km

water: 477 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries: total: 748 km

border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Yugoslavia 221 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 39%

other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 830 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe



Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of People

Population: 2,046,209 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.92% (male 243,715; female 225,349)

15-64 years: 66.94% (male 688,484; female 681,225)

65 years and over: 10.14% (male 92,043; female 115,393) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.43% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.5 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.02 years

male: 71.79 years

female: 76.43 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%, Turkish 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%, other 2.4% (1994)

Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Government

Country name: conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republika Makedonija

local short form: Makedonija

abbreviation: FYROM

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Poloska, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnia, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnika, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zileno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci

note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Uprising Day, 2 August (1903)

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

note: Democratic Party for Albanians (DPA), which is now a member party of the government, is calling for a rewrite of the constitution to declare ethnic Albanians a constituent national group and allow for greater regional autonomy

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI (since 30 November 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, LDP, and DPA

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by parliament; election last held NA November 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote, 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on the percentage that parties gain from the overall vote; all serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 18 October and 1 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 43, SDSM 27, PDP 14, DA 13, DPA 11, VMRO-VMRO 6, LDP 4, SP 1, Roma Party 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Judicial Court of the Republic; judges for both courts are elected by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Party for Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris STOJMANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto GUSTERVO]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Imeri IMERI, president]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT (associate), BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ljubica Z. ACEVSKA

chancery: 3050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 337 3063

FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael M. EINIK

embassy: Bul. Ilinden bb, 91000 Skopje

mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)

telephone: [389] (91) 116-180

FAX: [389] (91) 117-103

Flag description: a rising yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges of the red field



Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Economy

Economy - overview: At independence in November 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on its largest market Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP has subsequently increased each year, rising by 5% in 2000. Successful privatization in 2000 boosted the country's reserves to over $700 million. Also, the leadership demonstrated a continuing commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration. Inflation jumped to 11% in 2000, largely due to higher oil prices.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12%

industry: 25%

services: 63% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 25% (2000 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 32% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $1.06 billion

expenditures: $1 billion, including capital expenditures of $107 million (1996 est.)

Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000)

Electricity - production: 6.395 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 82.25%

hydro: 17.75%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.992 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 30 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 75 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel

Exports - partners: Germany 22%, Yugoslavia 22%, US 12%, Greece 7%, Italy 6% (2000)

Imports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products

Imports - partners: Germany 13%, Ukraine 13%, Russia 10%, Yugoslavia 8%, Greece 8% (2000)

Debt - external: $1.4 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $100 million from the EU (2000)

Currency: Macedonian denar (MKD)

Currency code: MKD

Exchange rates: Macedonian denars per US dollar - 64.757 (January 2001), 65.904 (2000), 56.902 (1999), 54.462 (1998), 50.004 (1997), 39.981 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Communications Top of Page

Telephones - main lines in use: 408,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 12,362 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 410,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 510,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .mk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)

Internet users: 30,000 (2000)

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Transportation Top of Page

Railways: total: 699 km

standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified)

note: a 56-km extension of the Kumanovo-Beljakovci line to the Bulgarian border at Gyveshevo is under construction (2001)

Highways: total: 8,684 km

paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)

unpaved: 3,144 km (1997)

Waterways: note: lake transport only, on the Greek and Albanian borders

Pipelines: 10 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 16 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Military

Military branches: Army (includes Air and Air Defense Forces), Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 548,183 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 442,053 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 17,905 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $76.3 million (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.17% (FY00/01)

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Transnational Issues Top of Page

Disputes - international: dispute with Greece over its name; February 2001 agreement with Yugoslavia settled alignment of boundary, stipulating implementation within two years

Illicit drugs: increasing transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe

======================================================================

@Madagascar



Madagascar Introduction

Background: Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997 in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency.



Madagascar Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 587,040 sq km

land: 581,540 sq km

water: 5,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or 100 NM from the 2,500-m deep isobath

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 4%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 41%

forests and woodland: 40%

other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel



Madagascar People

Population: 15,982,563 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.02% (male 3,607,803; female 3,587,532)

15-64 years: 51.77% (male 4,093,720; female 4,180,430)

65 years and over: 3.21% (male 239,839; female 273,239) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.02% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 42.66 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 83.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.35 years

male: 53.08 years

female: 57.68 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 11,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 870 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)

adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 80%

male: 88%

female: 73% (1990 est.)



Madagascar Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar

conventional short form: Madagascar

local long form: Republique de Madagascar

local short form: Madagascar

former: Malagasy Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO (since NA 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA November 2001); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly

election results: Didier RATSIRAKA elected president; percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (AFFA) 49.3%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms

elections: National Assembly - last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6, MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 32

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle

Political parties and leaders: Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]; Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Zina ANDRIANARIVELO-RAZAFY

chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Shirley E. BARNES

embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo

mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo

telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57

FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side



Madagascar Economy

Economy - overview: Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 30% of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee prices, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. The extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants of future growth. For 2001, growth should again be about 5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 30%

industry: 14%

services: 56% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 36.7% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 7 million (1999)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $553 million

expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 810 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 37.04%

hydro: 62.96%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 753.3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Exports: $538 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products

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