HotFreeBooks.com
The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
Previous Part     1 ... 13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Imports - partners: Iraq, Germany, US, Japan, UK, Italy, Turkey, Malaysia, Syria, China

Debt - external: $8 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $850 million (1996 est.)

Currency: Jordanian dinar (JOD)

Currency code: JOD

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars per US dollar - 0.7090 (1996-present )

note: since May 1989, the Jordanian dinar has been pegged to a group of currencies

Fiscal year: calendar year



Jordan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 403,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 11,500 (1995)

Telephone system: general assessment: service has improved recently with the increased use of digital switching equipment, but better access to the telephone system is needed in the rural areas and easier access to pay telephones is needed by the urban public

domestic: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; considerable use is made of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is available

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; connection to international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); participant in MEDARABTEL; international links total about 4,000

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 1.66 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 20 (plus 96 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 500,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .jo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2000)

Internet users: 87,500 (2000)



Jordan Transportation

Railways: total: 677 km

narrow gauge: 677 km 1.050-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 8,000 km

paved: 8,000 km

unpaved: 0 km (2000 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 209 km; note - may not be in use

Ports and harbors: Al 'Aqabah

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,919 GRT/57,777 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, container 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 18 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 15

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Jordan Military

Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air Force); Ministry of the Interior's Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or crisis situations)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,458,571 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,034,109 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 57,131 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $608.9 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 7.8% (FY98/99)



Jordan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Juan de Nova Island



Juan de Nova Island Introduction

Background: Named after a famous 15th century Spanish navigator and explorer, the island has been a French possession since 1897. It has been exploited for its guano and phosphate. Presently a small military garrison oversees a meteorological station.



Juan de Nova Island Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 S, 42 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 4.4 sq km

land: 4.4 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about seven times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24.1 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low and flat

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 10 m

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 90%

other: 10%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary



Juan de Nova Island People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: there is a small French military garrison (July 2001 est.)



Juan de Nova Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Juan de Nova Island

local long form: none

local short form: Ile Juan de Nova

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Juan de Nova Island Economy

Economy - overview: Up to 12,000 tons of guano are mined per year.



Juan de Nova Island Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station



Juan de Nova Island Transportation

Railways: total: NA km; short line going to a jetty

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Juan de Nova Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Juan de Nova Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

======================================================================

@Kazakhstan



Kazakhstan Introduction

Background: Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; and continuing to strengthen relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.



Kazakhstan Geography

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 2,717,300 sq km

land: 2,669,800 sq km

water: 47,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 12,012 km

border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m

highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 11%

permanent pastures: 57%

forests and woodland: 4%

other: 16% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 22,000 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty

Environment - current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome



Kazakhstan People

Population: 16,731,303 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.73% (male 2,271,866; female 2,200,078)

15-64 years: 66.03% (male 5,358,535; female 5,688,550)

65 years and over: 7.24% (male 412,761; female 799,513) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.03% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.3 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.61 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.29 years

male: 57.87 years

female: 68.97 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Kazakhstani(s)

adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Uighur 1.4%, other 6.6% (1999 census)

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 40%, Russian (official, used in everyday business) 66%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 96% (1989 est.)



Kazakhstan Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan

conventional short form: Kazakhstan

local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy

local short form: none

former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Astana; note - the government moved from Almaty to Astana in December 1998

Administrative divisions: 14 oblystar (singular - oblysy) and 3 cities (qala, singular - qalasy)*; Almaty, Almaty*, Aqmola (Astana), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan (Oral), Bayqongyr*, Mangghystau (Aqtau; formerly Shevchenko), Ongtustik Qazaqstan (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan (Petropavl), Zhambyl (Taraz; formerly Dzhambul)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonyr, formerly Leninsk)

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Republic Day, 25 October (1990)

Constitution: adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister Kazymzhomart TOKAYEV (since 2 October 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 10 January 1999, a year before it was previously scheduled (next to be held NA 2006); note - President NAZARBAYEV's previous term had been extended to 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995; prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 81.7%, Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN 12.1%, Gani KASYMOV 4.7%, other 1.5%

note: President NAZARBAYEV expanded his presidential powers by decree: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 7 senators are appointed by the president; other members are popularly elected, two from each of the former oblasts and the former capital of Almaty, to serve six-year terms) and the Majilis (67 seats; the addition of 10 "Party List" seats brings the total to 77; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms); note - with the oblasts being reduced to 14, the Senate will eventually be reduced to 37; a number of Senate seats come up for reelection every two years

elections: Senate - (indirect) last held 17 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2001); Majilis - last held 10 and 24 October and 26 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; 16 seats up for election in 1999, candidates nominated by local councils; Majilis - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Otan 23, Civic Party 13, Communist Party 3, Agrarian Party 3, People's Cooperative Party 1, independents 34; note - most independent candidates are affiliated with parastatal enterprises and other pro-government institutions

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Romin MADENOV]; Alash [Soverkazhy AKATAYEV]; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK, Murat AUEZOV, and Galym ABILSIITOV, cochairmen]; Civic Party [Azat PERUASHEV, first secretary]; Communist Party or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first secretary]; Forum of Democratic Forces [Nurbulat MASANOV, Deputy Chairman of the Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan (RNPK); Amirzhan KOSANOV, RNPK activist; Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM, Orleu Movement; cochairmen]; Labor and Worker's Movement [Madel ISMAILOV, chairman]; Orleu Movement [Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM]; Otan [Sergei TERESCHENKO, chairman]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; People's Congress of Kazakhstan of NKK [Olzhas SULEIMENOV, chairman]; People's Cooperative Party [Umirzak SARSENOV]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV]; Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan or RNPK [Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kanat SAUDABAYEV

chancery: 1401 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488

FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845

consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard H. JONES

embassy: 99/97A Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480091

mailing address: American Embassy Almaty, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7030

telephone: [7] (3272) 63-39-21, 50-76-23, 50-76-27 (emergency number)

FAX: [7] (3272) 63-38-83, 50-76-24

Flag description: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in gold



Kazakhstan Economy

Economy - overview: Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also is a large agricultural - livestock and grain - producer. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products resulted in a short-term contraction of the economy, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97, the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil field to the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's economy again turned downward in 1998 with a 2% decline in GDP due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. The recovery of international oil prices in 1999, combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest, pulled the economy out of recession in 2000. Astana has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing light industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $85.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 10.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%

industry: 30%

services: 60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 26.3% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 8.8 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 27%, agriculture 23%, services 50% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 13.7% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $3.1 billion

expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 14.9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 44.36 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 87.12%

hydro: 12.65%

nuclear: 0.23%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 44.132 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 200 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 3.077 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; wool, livestock

Exports: $8.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil 40%, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery, chemicals, grain, wool, meat, coal

Exports - partners: EU 23%, Russia 20%, China 8% (1999)

Imports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas, vehicles

Imports - partners: Russia 37%, US, Uzbekistan, Turkey, UK, Germany, Ukraine, South Korea (1999)

Debt - external: $12.5 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $409.6 million (1995)

Currency: tenge (KZT)

Currency code: KZT

Exchange rates: tenge per US dollar - 145.09 (January 2001), 142.13 (2000), 119.52 (1999), 78.30 (1998), 75.44 (1997), 67.30 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Kazakhstan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.818 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 11,202 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: service is poor; equipment antiquated

domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan

international: international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay; with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 60, FM 17, shortwave 9 (1998)

Radios: 6.47 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus nine repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 3.88 million (1997)

Internet country code: .kz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: 70,000 (2000)



Kazakhstan Transportation

Railways: total: 14,400 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines

broad gauge: 14,400 km 1.520-m gauge (3,299 km electrified) (1997)

Highways: total: NA km

paved: 150,000 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather) (2000)

unpaved: NA km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather)

Waterways: 3,900 km

note: on the Syrdariya (Syr Darya) and Ertis (Irtysh) rivers

Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)

Airports: 449 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 28

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 14

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 421

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 45

914 to 1,523 m: 101

under 914 m: 246 (2000 est.)



Kazakhstan Military

Military branches: General Purpose Forces (Army), Air Force, Border Guards, Navy, Republican Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,509,179 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,598,859 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 163,628 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $322 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99)



Kazakhstan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: significant illicit cultivation of cannabis and limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrone); limited government eradication program; cannabis consumed largely in the CIS; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia, North America, and Western Europe from Southwest Asia; developing heroin addiction problem

======================================================================

@Kenya



Kenya Introduction

Background: Revered president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978, when current President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but are viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. The country faces a period of political uncertainty because MOI is constitutionally required to step down at the next elections that have to be held by early 2003.



Kenya Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 582,650 sq km

land: 569,250 sq km

water: 13,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries: total: 3,446 km

border countries: Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barites, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 7%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 37%

forests and woodland: 30%

other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring drought in northern and eastern regions; flooding during rainy seasons

Environment - current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value



Kenya People

Population: 30,765,916

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.95% (male 6,524,776; female 6,381,192)

15-64 years: 55.26% (male 8,529,842; female 8,471,609)

65 years and over: 2.79% (male 376,151; female 482,346) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.27% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.5 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.35 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: according to UNHCR, by the end of 1999 Kenya was host to 223,700 refugees from neighboring countries, including: Somalia 141,000 and Sudan 64,250

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 67.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.49 years

male: 46.57 years

female: 48.44 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 13.95% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2.1 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 180,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Kenyan(s)

adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%

Religions: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs 26%, Muslim 7%, other 1%

note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely

Languages: English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 78.1%

male: 86.3%

female: 70% (1995 est.)



Kenya Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Kenya

conventional short form: Kenya

former: British East Africa

Government type: republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, and 1997

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote from among the members of the National Assembly for a five-year term; in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003); vice president appointed by the president

election results: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI reelected; percent of vote - Daniel T. arap MOI (KANU) 40.6%, Mwai KIBAKI (DP) 31.5%, Raila ODINGA (NDP) 11.1%, Michael WAMALWA (FORD-K) 8.4%, Charity NGILU (SDP) 7.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (222 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called "nominated" members who are appointed by the president, but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals)

elections: last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held by early 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - KANU 107, FORD-A 1, FORD-K 17, FORD-People 3, DP 39, NDP 21, SDP 15, SAFINA 5, smaller parties 2; seats appointed by the president - KANU 6, FORD-K 1, DP 2, SDP 1, NDP 1, SAFINA 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Kenya or DP [Mwai KIBAKI]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Asili or FORD-A [Martin SHIKUKU, secretary general]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Michael Kijana WAMALWA]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimaniwa NYOIKE, chairman]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI] - the governing party; National Development Party or NDP [Raila ODINGA, president]; SAFINA [Farah MAALIM, chairman]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. Apollo NJONJO, secretary general and Justus NYANG'AYA, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY, chairman]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yusuf Abdulraham NZIBO

chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101

FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829

consulate(s) general: offices in Los Angeles and New York are closed; mission to the UN remains open

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Johnnie CARSON

embassy: US Embassy, Mombasa Road, Nairobi

mailing address: P. O. Box 30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831

telephone: [254] (2) 537-800

FAX: [254] (2) 537-810

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center



Kenya Economy

Economy - overview: Kenya is well placed to serve as an engine of growth in East Africa, but its economy has been stagnating because of poor management and uneven commitment to reform. In 1993, the government of Kenya implemented a program of economic liberalization and reform that included the removal of import licensing, price controls, and foreign exchange controls. With the support of the World Bank, IMF, and other donors, the reforms led to a brief turnaround in economic performance following a period of negative growth in the early 1990s. Kenya's real GDP grew 5% in 1995 and 4% in 1996, and inflation remained under control. Growth slowed after 1997, averaging only 1.5% in 1997-2000. In 1997, political violence damaged the tourist industry, and Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program lapsed due to the government's failure to maintain reform or address public sector corruption. Severe drought in 1999 and 2000 caused water and energy rationing and reduced agricultural sector productivity. A new economic team was put in place in 1999 to revitalize the reform effort, strengthen the civil service, and curb corruption. The IMF and World Bank renewed their support to Kenya in mid-2000, but a number of setbacks to the economic reform program in late 2000 have renewed donor and private sector concern about the government's commitment to sound governance. Long-term barriers to development include electricity shortages, inefficient government dominance of key sectors, endemic corruption, and high population growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $45.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25%

industry: 13%

services: 62% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 42% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 34.9% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9.2 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75%-80%

Unemployment rate: 50% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.91 billion

expenditures: $2.97 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing; oil refining, cement; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.225 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 31%

hydro: 67%

nuclear: 0%

other: 2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 4.075 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 146 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: tea, coffee, horticultural products, petroleum products, fish, cement

Exports - partners: Uganda 18%, UK 15%, Tanzania 12%, Pakistan 8% (1999)

Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, iron and steel

Imports - partners: UK 12%, UAE 8%, Japan 8%, US 7% (1999)

Debt - external: $6.2 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $457 million (1997)

Currency: Kenyan shilling (KES)

Currency code: KES

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings per US dollar - 78.733 (December 2000), 76.176 (2000), 70.326 (1999), 60.367 (1998), 58.732 (1997), 57.115 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Kenya Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 290,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 5,345 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except for service to business

domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system

international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 24, FM 8, shortwave 6 (1999)

Radios: 3.07 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (1997)

Televisions: 730,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ke

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2000)

Internet users: 45,000 (1999)



Kenya Transportation

Railways: total: 2,778 km

narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge

note: the line connecting Nairobi with the port of Mombasa is the most important in the country

Highways: total: 63,800 km

paved: 8,868 km

unpaved: 54,932 km (1996)

Waterways: NA

note: part of the Lake Victoria system is within the boundaries of Kenya

Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km

Ports and harbors: Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,893 GRT/6,255 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 230 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 22

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 208

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 109

under 914 m: 84 (2000 est.)



Kenya Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of the Police

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 7,712,402 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,774,889 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $197 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY98/99)



Kenya Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa

======================================================================

@Kingman Reef



Kingman Reef Introduction

Background: The US annexed the reef in 1922. Its sheltered lagoon served as a way station for flying boats on Hawaii-to-American Samoa flights during the late 1930s. There is no flora on the reef, which is frequently awash, but it does support an abundant and diverse marine fauna. In 2001, the waters surrounding the reef were designated a National Wildlife Refuge.



Kingman Reef Geography

Location: Oceania, reef in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 6 24 N, 162 24 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 1 sq km

land: 1 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

Terrain: low and nearly level

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 1 m

Natural resources: terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1996)

Natural hazards: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of about 1 meter makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: none

Geography - note: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public



Kingman Reef People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Kingman Reef Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Kingman Reef

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the US Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior

note: on 1 September 2000, the Department of the Interior accepted restoration of its administrative jurisdiction over Kingman Reef from the Department of the Navy; Executive Order 3223 signed 18 January 2001 established Kingman Reef National Wildlife Refuge to be administered by the Director, US Fish and Wildlife Service; this refuge is managed to protect the terrestrial and aquatic wildlife of Kingman Reef out to the twelve nautical mile territorial sea limit

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Kingman Reef Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Kingman Reef Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938 (2000 est.)



Kingman Reef Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Kingman Reef Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Kiribati



Kiribati Introduction

Background: The Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in 1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati. The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati.



Kiribati Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the equator, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia; note - on 1 January 1995, Kiribati proclaimed that all of its territory lies in the same time zone as its Gilbert Islands group (GMT +12) even though the Phoenix Islands and the Line Islands under its jurisdiction lie on the other side of the International Date Line

Geographic coordinates: 1 25 N, 173 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 717 sq km

land: 717 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands

Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,143 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Banaba 81 m

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 51%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 3%

other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them very sensitive to changes in sea level

Environment - current issues: heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru



Kiribati People

Population: 94,149 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.53% (male 19,322; female 18,833)

15-64 years: 56.27% (male 26,136; female 26,841)

65 years and over: 3.2% (male 1,291; female 1,726) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.31% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 31.98 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.88 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.16 years

male: 57.25 years

female: 63.22 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.36 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)

adjective: I-Kiribati

Ethnic groups: predominantly Micronesian with some Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 54%, Protestant (Congregational) 30%, some Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Latter-day Saints, and Church of God (1996)

Languages: English (official), I-Kiribati

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Kiribati Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati

conventional short form: Kiribati

note: pronounced kir-ih-bahss

former: Gilbert Islands

Government type: republic

Capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994); Vice President Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994); Vice President Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Assembly, includes the president, vice president, attorney general, and up to eight other ministers

elections: the House of Assembly chooses the presidential candidates from among their members and then those candidates compete in a general election; president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 27 November 1998 (next to be held by NA November 2002); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Teburoro TITO reelected president; percent of vote - Teburoro TITO 52.3%, Dr. Harry TONG 45.8%, Amberoti NIKORA 1.9%, Taberannang TIMEON 0%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly or Maneaba Ni Maungatabu (41 seats; 39 elected by popular vote, one ex officio member, and one nominated to represent Banaba; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 23 September 1998 (next to be held by NA September 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Maneaban Te Mauri Party 14, National Progressive Party 11, independents 14

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Maneaban Te Mauri Party [Teburoro TITO]; National Progressive Party [Teatao TEANNAKI]

note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Kiribati does not have an embassy in the US; there is an honorary consulate in Honolulu

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the ambassador to the Marshall Islands is accredited to Kiribati

Flag description: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean



Kiribati Economy

Economy - overview: A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence from the UK in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. Tourism provides more than one-fifth of GDP. The financial sector is at an early stage of development as is the expansion of private sector initiatives. Foreign financial aid, largely from the UK and Japan, is a critical supplement to GDP, equal to 25%-50% of GDP in recent years. Remittances from workers abroad account for more than $5 million each year. Performance in 2000 fell short of the 2.5% growth in 1999, which benefited from increased copra production and exceptionally large revenues from fishing licenses.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $76 million (2000 est.), supplemented by a nearly equal amount from external sources

GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $850 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14%

industry: 7%

services: 79% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $33.3 million

expenditures: $47.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1992 est.)

Electricity - production: 7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; fish

Exports: $6 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: copra 62%, coconuts, seaweed, fish

Exports - partners: Bangladesh, Australia, US, Hong Kong (1999)

Imports: $44 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel

Imports - partners: Australia, Fiji, Japan, NZ, China (1999)

Debt - external: $10 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $15.5 million (1995), largely from UK and Japan

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.7995 (January 2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996)

Fiscal year: NA



Kiribati Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

note: Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 17,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ki

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Kiribati Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 670 km (1996)

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

Waterways: 5 km (small network of canals in Line Islands)

Ports and harbors: Banaba, Betio, English Harbor, Kanton

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,291 GRT/1,295 DWT

ships by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 21 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)



Kiribati Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force (carries out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; small police posts are on all islands)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ



Kiribati Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Korea, North



Korea, North Introduction

Background: Following World War II, Korea was split into a northern, communist half and a southern, Western-oriented half. KIM Chong-il has ruled North Korea since his father and the country's founder, president KIM Il-song, died in 1994. After decades of mismanagement, the North relies heavily on international food aid to feed its population, while continuing to expend resources to maintain an army of about 1 million. North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear and chemical weapons are of major concern to the international community.



Korea, North Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South Korea

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 127 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 120,540 sq km

land: 120,410 sq km

water: 130 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries: total: 1,673 km

border countries: China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

note: military boundary line 50 NM in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are banned

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m

highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 14%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 61%

other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 14,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall

Environment - current issues: water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; water-borne disease; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated



Korea, North People

Population: 21,968,228 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.52% (male 2,873,390; female 2,733,163)

15-64 years: 67.63% (male 7,301,531; female 7,556,554)

65 years and over: 6.85% (male 486,805; female 1,016,785) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.22% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.1 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.92 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.02 years

male: 68.04 years

female: 74.15 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.26 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Korean(s)

adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japanese

Religions: traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way)

note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom

Languages: Korean

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write Korean

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (1990 est.)



Korea, North Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea

conventional short form: North Korea

local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk

local short form: none

note: the North Koreans generally use the term "Choson" to refer to their country

abbreviation: DPRK

Government type: authoritarian socialist; one-man dictatorship

Capital: P'yongyang

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3 special cities* (si, singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province), Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City), Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City), P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do (Yanggang Province)

Independence: 15 August 1945 (from Japan)

National holiday: Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), 9 September (1948)

Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972, revised again in April 1992 and September 1998

Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: KIM Chong-il (since NA July 1994); note - in September 1998, KIM Chong-il was reelected Chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded the nation's "highest administrative authority"; KIM Yong-nam was named President of the Supreme People's Assembly Presidium and given the responsibility of representing the state and receiving diplomatic credentials

head of government: Premier HONG Song-nam (since 5 September 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet (Naegak), members, except for the Minister of People's Armed Forces, are appointed by the Supreme People's Assembly

elections: premier elected by the Supreme People's Assembly; election last held NA September 1998 (next to be held NA)

election results: HONG Song-nam elected premier; percent of Supreme People's Assembly vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly or Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui (687 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 26 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - the KWP approves a single list of candidates who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a few seats

Judicial branch: Central Court (judges are elected by the Supreme People's Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Chondoist Chongu Party [YU Mi-yong, chairwoman]; Korean Social Democratic Party [KIM Pyong-sik, chairman]; major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Chong-il, General Secretary]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ARF (dialogue partner), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - North Korea has a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York, headed by YI Hyong-chol

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (Swedish Embassy in P'yongyang represents the US as consular protecting power)

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star



Korea, North Economy

Economy - overview: North Korea, one of the world's most centrally planned and isolated economies, faces desperate economic conditions. Industrial capital stock is nearly beyond repair as a result of years of underinvestment and spare parts shortages. The nation faces its seventh year of food shortages because of weather-related problems, including major drought in 2000, and chronic shortages of fertilizer and fuel. Massive international food aid deliveries have allowed the regime to escape the major consequence of spreading economic failure, such as mass starvation, but the population remains vulnerable to prolonged malnutrition and deteriorating living conditions. Large-scale military spending eats up resources needed for expanding investment and consumption goods. In 2000, the regime placed emphasis on expanding foreign trade links, embracing modern technology, and attracting foreign investment, but in no way at the expense of relinquishing central control over key national assets or undergoing market-oriented reforms.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $22 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 30%

industry: 42%

services: 28% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 9.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: military products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 28.6 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 34.62%

hydro: 65.38%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 26.598 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; cattle, pigs, pork, eggs

Exports: $520 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, manufactures (including armaments); agricultural and fishery products

Exports - partners: Japan 28%, South Korea 21%, China 5%, Germany 4%, Russia 1% (1995)

Imports: $960 million (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: petroleum, coking coal, machinery and equipment; consumer goods, grain

Imports - partners: China 33%, Japan 17%, Russia 5%, South Korea 4%, Germany 3% (1995)

Debt - external: $12 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - an estimated $200 million to $300 million in humanitarian aid from US, South Korea, Japan, and EU in 1997 plus much additional aid from the UN and non-governmental organizations; substantial continuing humanitarian aid, 1998-2000

Currency: North Korean won (KPW)

Currency code: KPW

Exchange rates: official: North Korean won per US dollar - 2.15 (May 1994), 2.13 (May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989); market: North Korean won per US dollar - 200

Fiscal year: calendar year



Korea, North Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.1 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Russian (Indian Ocean region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 14, shortwave 12 (1999)

Radios: 3.36 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 38 (1999)

Televisions: 1.2 million (1997)

Internet country code: .kp

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Korea, North Transportation

Railways: total: 5,000 km

standard gauge: 4,095 km 1.435-m gauge (3,500 km electrified; 159 km double track)

narrow gauge: 665 km 0.762-m gauge

dual gauge: 240 km 1.435-m and 1.600-m gauges (four rails interlaced) (1996 est.)

Highways: total: 31,200 km

paved: 1,997 km

unpaved: 29,203 km (1996)

Waterways: 2,253 km

note: mostly navigable by small craft only

Pipelines: crude oil 37 km; petroleum product 180 km

Ports and harbors: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Kimch'aek, Kosong, Najin, Namp'o, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi), Ungsang, Wonsan

Merchant marine: total: 110 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 661,792 GRT/903,367 DWT

ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 94, combination bulk 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 1, short-sea passenger 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 87 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 39

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 26

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 48

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)



Korea, North Military

Military branches: Korean People's Army (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil Security Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,943,735 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,574,050 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 179,136 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.7 billion to $4.9 billion (FY98 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 25% to 33% (FY98 est.)



Korea, North Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: 33-km section of boundary with China in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; Demarcation Line with South Korea

======================================================================

@Korea, South



Korea, South Introduction

Background: After World War II, a republic was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a communist-style government was installed in the north. The Korean War (1950-53) had US and other UN forces intervene to defend South Korea from North Korean attacks supported by the Chinese. An armistice was signed in 1953 splitting the peninsula at the 38th parallel known as the DMZ. Thereafter, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth, with per capita income rising to 13 times the level of North Korea. In 1997, the nation suffered a severe financial crisis from which it continues to make a solid recovery. South Korea has also maintained its commitment to democratize its political processes. In June 2000, a historic first south-north summit took place between the south's President KIM Dae-jung and the north's leader KIM Chong-il. In December 2000, President KIM Dae-jung won the Noble Peace Prize for his lifeling committment to democracy and human rights in Asia. He is the first Korean to win a Nobel Prize.



Korea, South Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea

Geographic coordinates: 37 00 N, 127 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 98,480 sq km

land: 98,190 sq km

water: 290 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 238 km

border countries: North Korea 238 km

Coastline: 2,413 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: not specified

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM; between 3 NM and 12 NM in the Korea Strait

Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m

highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m

Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 65%

other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity common in southwest

Environment - current issues: air pollution in large cities; acid rain; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift net fishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Korea, South People

Population: 47,904,370 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.59% (male 5,475,453; female 4,864,918)

15-64 years: 71.14% (male 17,291,202; female 16,789,380)

65 years and over: 7.27% (male 1,352,312; female 2,131,105) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.89% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 14.85 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.93 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.65 years

male: 70.97 years

female: 78.74 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,800 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 180 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Korean(s)

adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)

Religions: Christian 49%, Buddhist 47%, Confucianist 3%, Shamanist, Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way), and other 1%

Languages: Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high school

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99.3%

female: 96.7% (1995 est.)



Korea, South Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Korea

conventional short form: South Korea

local long form: Taehan-min'guk

local short form: none

note: the South Koreans generally use the term "Han-guk" to refer to their country

abbreviation: ROK

Government type: republic

Capital: Seoul

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 7 metropolitan cities* (gwangyoksi, singular and plural); Cheju-do, Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-gwangyoksi*, Kangwon-do, Kwangju-gwangyoksi*, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-gwangyoksi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*, Taegu-gwangyoksi*, Taejon-gwangyoksi*, Ulsan-gwangyoksi*

Independence: 15 August 1945 (from Japan)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 15 August (1945)

Constitution: 25 February 1988

Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President KIM Dae-jung (since 25 February 1998)

head of government: Prime Minister YI Han-tong (since 23 May 2000)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation

elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held by 18 December 2002); prime minister appointed by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation

election results: KIM Dae-jung elected president; percent of vote - KIM Dae-jung (NCNP) 40.3% (with ULD partnership), YI Hoe-chang (GNP) 38.7%, YI In-che (NPP) 19.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Kukhoe (273 seats total - 227 elected by direct, popular vote; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 13 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - GNP 133, MDP 115, ULD 17, other 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices are appointed by the president with the consent of the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Grand National Party or GNP [YI Hoe-chang, president]; Millennium Democratic Party or MDP [KIM Dae-jung, president]; United Liberal Democrats or ULD [KIM Chong-p'il, honorary chairman, KIM Chong-ho, acting president]

note: on 20 January 2000, the National Congress for New Politics or NCNP was renamed the Millennium Democratic Party or MDP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federation of Korean Industries; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Song-chol

chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600

FAX: [1] (202) 387-0205

consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

consulate(s): Hagatna (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

embassy: 82 Sejong-ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul 110-710

mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 15550, APO AP 96205-0001

telephone: [82] (2) 397-4114

FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845

Flag description: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field



Korea, South Economy

Economy - overview: As one of the Four Dragons of East Asia, South Korea has achieved an incredible record of growth. Three decades ago GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries of Africa and Asia. Today its GDP per capita is seven times India's, 16 times North Korea's, and comparable to the lesser economies of the European Union. This success through the late 1980s was achieved by a system of close government/business ties, including directed credit, import restrictions, sponsorship of specific industries, and a strong labor effort. The government promoted the import of raw materials and technology at the expense of consumer goods and encouraged savings and investment over consumption. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-99 exposed certain longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's development model, including high debt/equity ratios, massive foreign borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector. By 1999 GDP growth had recovered, reversing the substantial decline of 1998. Seoul has pressed the country's largest business groups to restructure and to strengthen their financial base. Growth in 2001 likely will be a more sustainable rate of 5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $764.6 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.6%

industry: 41.4%

services: 53% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 24.3% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2000)

Labor force: 22 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 68%, industry 20%, agriculture 12% (1999)

Unemployment rate: 4.1% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $81.8 billion

expenditures: $94.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.1 billion (1999)

Industries: electronics, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel, textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 17% (2000)

Electricity - production: 250.287 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 59.22%

hydro: 1.64%

nuclear: 39.12%

other: 0.02% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 232.767 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish

Exports: $172.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: electronic products, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, steel, ships; textiles, clothing, footwear; fish

Exports - partners: US 20.5%, Japan 11%, China 9.5%, Hong Kong 6.3%, Taiwan 4.4% (1999)

Imports: $160.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil, steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains

Imports - partners: US 20.8%, Japan 20.2%, China 7.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, Australia 3.9% (1999)

Debt - external: $137 billion (November 2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: South Korean won (KRW)

Currency code: KRW

Exchange rates: South Korean won per US dollar - 1,271.89 (January 2001), 1,130.96 (2000), 1,188.82 (1999), 1,401.44 (1998), 951.29 (1997), 804.45 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Korea, South Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 24 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 27 million (June 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international services

domestic: NA

international: fiber-optic submarine cable to China; the Russia-Korea-Japan submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 106, FM 97, shortwave 6 (1999)

Radios: 47.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 121 (plus 850 repeater stations and the eight-channel American Forces Korea Network) (1999)

Televisions: 15.9 million (1997)

Internet country code: .kr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 11 (2000)

Internet users: 15.3 million (2000)



Korea, South Transportation

Railways: total: 6,240 km

standard gauge: 6,240 km 1.435-m gauge (525 km electrified) (1998 est.)

Highways: total: 87,534 km

paved: 65,388 km (including 1,996 km of expressways)

unpaved: 22,146 km (1999)

Waterways: 1,609 km

note: restricted to small native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 455 km; note - additionally, there is a parallel petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) pipeline being completed

Ports and harbors: Chinhae, Inch'on, Kunsan, Masan, Mokp'o, P'ohang, Pusan, Tonghae-hang, Ulsan, Yosu

Merchant marine: total: 496 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,421,993 GRT/8,757,034 DWT

ships by type: bulk 105, cargo 168, chemical tanker 38, combination bulk 5, container 49, liquefied gas 16, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 70, refrigerated cargo 27, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 5 (2000 est.)

Airports: 102 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 68

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 21 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 34

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 32 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 203 (2000 est.)



Korea, South Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, National Maritime Police (Coast Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 14,148,552 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 8,979,778 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 394,397 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $12 billion (2000)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.2% (FY98/99)



Korea, South Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima/Tokdo) disputed with Japan

======================================================================

@Kuwait



Kuwait Introduction

Background: Kuwait was attacked and overrun by Iraq on 2 August 1990. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a US-led UN coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that completely liberated Kuwait in four days. Kuwait has spent more than $5 billion to repair oil infrastructure damaged during 1990-91.

Previous Part     1 ... 13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25 ... 75     Next Part
Home - Random Browse