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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law

Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Moshe KATSAV (since 31 July 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Ariel SHARON (since 2 March 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset

elections: president elected by the Knesset for a five-year term; election last held 31 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2005); prime minister elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 6 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005); note - in March 1992, the Knesset approved legislation, effective in 1996, which allowed for the direct election of the prime minister, but in 2001 the Knesset voted to restore the previous method under which the legislators will choose the next prime minister after the next legislative elections in 2003

election results: Moshe KATSAV elected president by the 120-member Knesset with a total of 60 votes, other candidate, Shimon PERES, received 57 votes (there were three abstentions); Ariel SHARON elected prime minister; percent of vote - Ariel SHARON 62.5%, Ehud BARAK 37.4%; note - after the next legislative elections scheduled for 2003, the prime minister will be elected by the Knesset

Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset or parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 17 May 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - One Israel 20.2%, Likud Party 14.1%, Shas 13%, MERETZ 7.6%, Yisra'el Ba'Aliya 5.1%, Shinui 5%, Center Party 5%, National Religious Party 4.2%, United Torah Judaism 3.7%, United Arab List 3.4%, National Union 3%, Hadash 2.6%, Yisra'el Beiteinu 2.6%, Balad 1.9%, One Nation 1.9%, Democratic Movement NA (party formed after election, members elected under Yisra'el Ba'Aliya list); seats by party - One Israel 26, Likud Party 19, Shas 17, MERETZ 10, Yisra'el Ba'Aliya 4, Shinui 6, Center Party 6, National Religious Party 5, United Torah Judaism 5, United Arab List 5, National Union 4, Hadash 3, Yisra'el Beiteinu 4, Democratic Movement 2 (party formed after election, members elected under Yisra'el Ba'Aliya list), Balad 2, One Nation 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed for life by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Balad or National Democratic Alliance [Amnon LIPKIN-SHAHAK]; Center Party [Yitzhak MORDECHAI]; Democratic Movement [Roman BRONFMAN]; Gesher [David LEVI]; Hadash [Muhammad BARAKA]; Labor Party [leader vacant]; Likud Party [Ariel SHARON]; MERETZ [Yossi SARID]; National Democratic Alliance (Balad) [leader NA]; National Religious Party [Yitzhak LEVY]; National Union [Rehavam ZEEVI] (includes Herut, Tekuma, and Moledet); One Israel [leader NA] (includes Labor, Gesher, and Meimad); One Nation [Amir PERETZ]; Shas [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Shinui [Tommy LAPID]; United Arab List [Abd al-Malik DAHAMSHAH]; United Torah Judaism [Rabbi Eliezer SHACK, spiritual leader]; Yisra'el Ba'Aliya [Natan SHARANSKY]; Yisra'el Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Gush Emunim, Israeli nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and is critical of government's Lebanon policy

International organization participation: BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David IVRY

chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500

FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin S. INDYK

embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv

mailing address: PSC 98, Unit 7228, APO AE 09830

telephone: [972] (3) 519-7575

FAX: [972] (3) 517-3227

consulate(s) general: Jerusalem; note - an independent US mission, established in 1928, whose members are not accredited to a foreign government

Flag description: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag



Israel Economy

Economy - overview: Israel has a technologically advanced market economy with substantial government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Israel is largely self-sufficient in food production except for grains. Cuts diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable current account deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, which is its major source of economic and military aid. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR topped 750,000 during the period 1989-99, bringing the population of Israel from the former Soviet Union to 1 million, one-sixth of the total population, and adding scientific and professional expertise of substantial value for the economy's future. The influx, coupled with the opening of new markets at the end of the Cold War, energized Israel's economy, which grew rapidly in the early 1990s. But growth began moderating in 1996 when the government imposed tighter fiscal and monetary policies and the immigration bonus petered out. Growth was a strong 5.9% in 2000. But the outbreak of Palestinian unrest in late September and the collapse of the BARAK Government - coupled with a cooling off in the high-technology and tourist sectors - undercut the boom and foreshadows a slowdown to 2%-3% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $110.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 37%

services: 59% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 26.9% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.1% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.4 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: public services 31.2%, manufacturing 20.2%, finance and business 13.1%, commerce 12.8%, construction 7.5%, personal and other services 6.4%, transport, storage, and communications 6.2%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2.6% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 9% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $40 billion

expenditures: $42.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: high-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2000)

Electricity - production: 35.437 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.89%

hydro: 0.11%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 31.899 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1.061 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 4 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products

Exports: $31.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel

Exports - partners: US 36%, UK 6%, Benelux 5%, Hong Kong 4%, Netherlands 4% (1999)

Imports: $35.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 20%, Benelux 11%, Germany 8%, UK 8%, Switzerland 6%, Italy 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $38 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.1 billion from the US (1999)

Currency: new Israeli shekel (ILS)

Currency code: ILS

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels per US dollar - 4.0810 (December 2000), 4.0773 (2000), 4.1397 (1999), 3.8001 (1998), 3.4494 (1997), 3.1917 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Israel Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.8 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.5 million (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest

domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital

international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 23, FM 15, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.07 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 17 (plus 36 low-power repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 1.69 million (1997)

Internet country code: .il

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 21 (2000)

Internet users: 1 million (2000)



Israel Transportation

Railways: total: 610 km

standard gauge: 610 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

Highways: total: 15,965 km

paved: 15,965 km (including 56 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km

Ports and harbors: Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv-Yafo

Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 631,582 GRT/745,011 DWT

ships by type: container 16, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 55 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 30

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 25

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 20 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Israel Military

Military branches: Israel Defense Forces (includes ground, naval, and air components), Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal), Frontier Guard, Chen (women); note - historically there have been no separate Israeli military services

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,522,003

females age 15-49: 1,482,027 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,245,757

females age 15-49: 1,208,973 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 49,206

females: 53,379 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.7 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 9.4% (FY99)



Israel Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights)

Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and increasingly Jordan

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@Italy



Italy Introduction

Background: Italy became a nation-state belatedly - in 1861 when the city-states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His disastrous alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the European Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, the ravages of organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the more prosperous north.



Italy Geography

Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 42 50 N, 12 50 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 301,230 sq km

land: 294,020 sq km

water: 7,210 sq km

note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: total: 1,932.2 km

border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km

Coastline: 7,600 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) 4,807 m

Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal, arable land

Land use: arable land: 31%

permanent crops: 10%

permanent pastures: 15%

forests and woodland: 23%

other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 27,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe



Italy People

Population: 57,679,825 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.17% (male 4,209,102; female 3,964,765)

15-64 years: 67.48% (male 19,375,742; female 19,546,332)

65 years and over: 18.35% (male 4,368,264; female 6,215,620) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.07% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.14 years

male: 75.97 years

female: 82.52 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.35% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 95,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Italian(s)

adjective: Italian

Ethnic groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)

Religions: predominately Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community

Languages: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98% (1998)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Italy Government

Country name: conventional long form: Italian Republic

conventional short form: Italy

local long form: Repubblica Italiana

local short form: Italia

former: Kingdom of Italy

Government type: republic

Capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)

National holiday: Republic Day, 2 June (1946)

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: based on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 10 June 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president

elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term; election last held 13 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2006); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament

election results: Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 70%

note: a 12-party government coalition; note - BERLUSCONI's coalition includes Forza Italian, National Alliance, Christian Democratic Center, Christian Northern League

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats elected by popular vote of which 232 are directly elected and 83 are elected by regional proportional representation plus, in addition, there are a small number of senators-for-life including former presidents of the republic; members serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 475 are directly elected, 155 by regional proportional representation; members serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 177 (Forza Italia 82, National Alliance 46, CCD-CDU 29, Northern League 17, others 3), Olive Tree 128 (Democrats of the Left 62, Daisy Alliance 42, Sunflower Alliance 16, Italian Communist Party 3, independents 5), non-affiliated with either coalition 10, senators for life 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 367 (Forza Italia 189, National Alliance 96, CCD-CDU 40, Northern League 30, others 12), Olive Tree 248 (Democrats of the Left 138, Daisy Alliance 76, Sunflower Alliance 18, Italian Communist Party 9, independents 7), non-affiliated with either coalition 15

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)

Political parties and leaders: Center-Left Olive Tree Coalition [Francesco RUTELLI] - Democrats of the Left, Daisy Alliance (including Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats), Sunflower Alliance (including Green Federation, Italian Democratic Socialists), Italian Communist Party; Christian Democratic Center or CDC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Rocco BUTTIGLIONE]; Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; Green Federation [Grazia FRANCESCATO]; House of Liberties (formerly Freedom Alliance, a center-right coalition) [leader Silvio BERLUSCONI] - Forza Italian, National Alliance, Christian Democratic Center, Christian Democratic Union, Northern League; Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Italian Democratic Socialists [Enrico BOSELLI]; Italian Popular Party [Pierluigi CASTAGNETTI]; Italian Renewal [Lamberto DINI]; Italian Social Movement-Tricolored Flame or MSI-FI [Pino RAUTI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Northern League or NL [Umberto BOSSI]; Radical Party (formerly Panella Reformers and Autonomous List) [Marco PANNELLA]; Southern Tyrols People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Siegfried BRUGGER]; Union of Democrats for Europe [Clemente MASTELLA]; The Democrats [Arturo PARISI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Sergio COFFERATI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Sergio D'ANTONI] which is Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Pietro LARIZZA] which is lay centrist)

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinando SALLEO

chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400

FAX: [1] (202) 518-2154

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

embassy: Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome

mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624

telephone: [39] (06) 46741

FAX: [39] (06) 488-2672

consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green

note: inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797



Italy Economy

Economy - overview: Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south, with more than 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Since 1992, Italy has adopted budgets compliant with the requirements of the European Monetary Union (EMU); wage moderation agreements by representatives of government, labor, and employers have helped to bring Italy's inflation into conformity with EMU requirements. Italy's economic performance, however, has lagged behind that of its EU partners and it must work to stimulate employment, promote labor flexibility, reform its expensive pension system, and tackle the informal economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.273 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.5%

industry: 30.4%

services: 67.1% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000)

Labor force: 23.4 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 61.9%, industry 32.6%, agriculture 5.5% (1999)

Unemployment rate: 10.4% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $488 billion

expenditures: $501 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (2000)

Electricity - production: 247.679 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 79.09%

hydro: 18.08%

nuclear: 0%

other: 2.83% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 272.35 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 530 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 42.539 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $241.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals and nonferrous metals

Exports - partners: EU 56.8% (Germany 16.4%, France 12.9%, Netherlands 7.1%, Spain 6.3%, Netherlands 2.9%), US 9.5% (1999)

Imports: $231.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages and tobacco

Imports - partners: EU 61% (Germany 19.3%, France 12.6%, Netherlands 6.3%, Spain 4.4%), US 5.0% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.3 billion (1997)

Currency: Italian lira (ITL); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Italy at a fixed rate of 1,936.27 Italian lire per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: ITL; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,688.7 (January 1999), 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Italy Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 25 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 20.5 million (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services

domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)

Radios: 50.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 30.3 million (1997)

Internet country code: .it

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 93 (Italy and Holy See) (2000)

Internet users: 11.6 million (2000)



Italy Transportation

Railways: total: 19,394 km

standard gauge: 18,071 km 1.435-m gauge; Italian Railways (FS) operates 16,014 km of the total standard gauge routes (11,322 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 112 km 1.000-m gauge (112 km electrified); 1,211 km 0.950-m gauge (153 km electrified) (1998)

Highways: total: 654,676 km

paved: 654,676 km (including 6460 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1997)

Waterways: 2,400 km

note: for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value

Pipelines: crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km

Ports and harbors: Augusta (Sicily), Bagnoli, Bari, Brindisi, Gela, Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Milazzo, Naples, Porto Foxi, Porto Torres (Sardinia), Salerno, Savona, Taranto, Trieste, Venice (2001)

Merchant marine: total: 445 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,005,136 GRT/10,556,244 DWT

ships by type: bulk 44, cargo 41, chemical tanker 77, combination ore/oil 4, container 24, liquefied gas 38, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 11, petroleum tanker 85, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 64, short-sea passenger 26, specialized tanker 14, vehicle carrier 15 (2000 est.)

Airports: 135 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 97

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 32

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 12 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 38

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 18 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)



Italy Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 14,248,674 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 12,244,166 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 304,369 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20.7 billion (FY00/01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY00/01)



Italy Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from World War II over property and ethnic minority rights

Illicit drugs: important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market

======================================================================

@Jamaica



Jamaica Introduction

Background: Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a dropoff in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office. Subsequent governments have been open market oriented. Political violence marred elections during the 1990s.



Jamaica Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 77 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 10,990 sq km

land: 10,830 sq km

water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

Land use: arable land: 14%

permanent crops: 6%

permanent pastures: 24%

forests and woodland: 17%

other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes (especially July to November)

Environment - current issues: heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal



Jamaica People

Population: 2,665,636 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 405,189; female 386,555)

15-64 years: 63.52% (male 845,226; female 847,944)

65 years and over: 6.78% (male 80,667; female 100,055) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.51% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.48 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.42 years

male: 73.45 years

female: 77.49 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.71% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,900 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 650 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Jamaican(s)

adjective: Jamaican

Ethnic groups: black 90.9%, East Indian 1.3%, white 0.2%, Chinese 0.2%, mixed 7.3%, other 0.1%

Religions: Protestant 61.3% (Church of God 21.2%, Baptist 8.8%, Anglican 5.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 9%, Pentecostal 7.6%, Methodist 2.7%, United Church 2.7%, Brethren 1.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.6%, Moravian 1.1%), Roman Catholic 4%, other, including some spiritual cults 34.7%

Languages: English, Creole

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 85%

male: 80.8%

female: 89.1% (1995 est.)



Jamaica Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Jamaica

Government type: constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, first Monday in August (1962)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 August 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats, and the opposition is allocated eight seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PNP 50, JLP 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Edward SEAGA]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Percival James PATTERSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Leighton BERNAL

chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660

FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley Louis MCLELLAND

embassy: Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston 5

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [1] (876) 929-4850 through 4859

FAX: [1] (876) 926-6743

Flag description: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)



Jamaica Economy

Economy - overview: Key sectors in this island economy are bauxite (alumina and bauxite account for more than half of exports) and tourism. Since assuming office in 1992, Prime Minister PATTERSON has eliminated most price controls, streamlined tax schedules, and privatized government enterprises. Continued tight monetary and fiscal policies have helped slow inflation - although inflationary pressures are mounting - and stabilize the exchange rate, but have resulted in the slowdown of economic growth (moving from 1.5% in 1992 to 0.5% in 1995). In 1996, GDP showed negative growth (-1.4%) and remained negative through 1999. Serious problems include: high interest rates; increased foreign competition; the weak financial condition of business in general resulting in receiverships or closures and downsizings of companies; the shift in investment portfolios to non-productive, short-term high yield instruments; a pressured, sometimes sliding, exchange rate; a widening merchandise trade deficit; and a growing internal debt for government bailouts to various ailing sectors of the economy, particularly the financial sector. Depressed economic conditions in 1999-2000 led to increased civil unrest, including a mounting crime rate. Jamaica's medium-term prospects will depend upon encouraging investment in the productive sectors, maintaining a competitive exchange rate, stabilizing the labor environment, selling off reacquired firms, and implementing proper fiscal and monetary policies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7.4%

industry: 35.2%

services: 57.4% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 34.2% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 28.9% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.13 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, agriculture 21%, industry 19% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 16% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.23 billion

expenditures: $2.56 billion, including capital expenditures of $232.5 million (FY99/00 est.)

Industries: tourism, bauxite, textiles, food processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.53 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 92.28%

hydro: 1.36%

nuclear: 0%

other: 6.36% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.073 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: alumina, bauxite; sugar, bananas, rum

Exports - partners: US 35.7%, EU (excluding UK) 15.8%, UK 13%, Canada 10.5% (1999)

Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, fuel, food, chemicals, fertilizers

Imports - partners: US 47.8%, Caricom countries 12.4%, Latin America 7.2%, EU (excluding UK) 4.7% (1999)

Debt - external: $4.7 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $102.7 million (1995)

Currency: Jamaican dollar (JMD)

Currency code: JMD

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars per US dollar - 45.557 (January 2001), 42.701 (2000), 39.044 (1999), 36.550 (1998), 35.404 (1997), 37.120 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Jamaica Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 353,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 54,640 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1.215 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1997)

Televisions: 460,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .jm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 21 (2000)

Internet users: 60,000 (2000)



Jamaica Transportation

Railways: total: 370 km

standard gauge: 370 km 1.435-m gauge; note - 207 km belong to the Jamaica Railway Corporation in common carrier service, but are no longer operational; the remaining track is privately owned and used to transport bauxite

Highways: total: 19,000 km

paved: 13,433 km

unpaved: 5,567 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: petroleum products 10 km

Ports and harbors: Alligator Pond, Discovery Bay, Kingston, Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Rocky Point, Port Esquivel (Longswharf)

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,930 GRT/3,065 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 35 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 22 (2000 est.)



Jamaica Military

Military branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 736,627 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 517,077 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 27,729 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $30 million (FY95/96 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Jamaica Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern

======================================================================

@Jan Mayen



Jan Mayen Introduction

Background: This desolate, mountainous island was named after a Dutch whaling captain who indisputably discovered it in 1614 (earlier claims are inconclusive). Visited only occasionally by seal hunters and trappers over the following centuries, the island came under Norwegian sovereignty in 1929. The long dormant Beerenberg volcano resumed activity in 1970; it is the northernmost active volcano on earth.



Jan Mayen Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea, northeast of Iceland

Geographic coordinates: 71 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total: 373 sq km

land: 373 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 124.1 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 10 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 4 NM

Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

highest point: Haakon VII Toppen/Beerenberg 2,277 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: dominated by the volcano Haakon VII Toppen/Beerenberg; volcanic activity resumed in 1970

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass



Jan Mayen People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: there are personnel who operate the Long Range Navigation (Loran-C) base and the weather and coastal services radio station (July 2001 est.)



Jan Mayen Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Jan Mayen

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered from Oslo through a governor (sysselmann) resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard); however, authority has been delegated to a station commander of the Norwegian Defense Communication Service

Legal system: the laws of Norway, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used



Jan Mayen Economy

Economy - overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on the island.



Jan Mayen Communications

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

note: there is one radio and meteorological station (1998)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (Jan Mayen and Svalbard) (2000)



Jan Mayen Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Jan Mayen Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway



Jan Mayen Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Japan



Japan Introduction

Background: While retaining its time-honored culture, Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its devastating defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become the second most powerful economy in the world and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth.



Japan Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula

Geographic coordinates: 36 00 N, 138 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 377,835 sq km

land: 374,744 sq km

water: 3,091 sq km

note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okino-tori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM; between 3 NM and 12 NM in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m

highest point: Fujiyama 3,776 m

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

Land use: arable land: 11%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 2%

forests and woodland: 67%

other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 27,820 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis; typhoons

Environment - current issues: air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location in northeast Asia



Japan People

Population: 126,771,662 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.64% (male 9,510,296; female 9,043,074)

15-64 years: 67.83% (male 43,202,513; female 42,790,187)

65 years and over: 17.53% (male 9,351,340; female 12,874,252) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.17% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.04 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.34 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.8 years

male: 77.62 years

female: 84.15 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 10,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 150 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Japanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Japanese

Ethnic groups: Japanese 99.4%, Korean 0.6% (1999)

Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%)

Languages: Japanese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1970 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Japan Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Japan

Government type: constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modeled after European civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)

head of government: Prime Minister Junichiro KOIZUMI (since 24 April 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the Diet designates the prime minister; the constitution requires that the prime minister must command a parliamentary majority, therefore, following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition in the House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister

note: following the resignation of Prime Minister Yoshiro MORI, Junichiro KOIZUMI was elected as the new president of the majority Liberal Democratic Party, and soon thereafter designated by the Diet to become the next prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet or Kokkai consists of the House of Councillors or Sangi-in (252 seats; one-half of the members elected every three years - 76 seats of which are elected from the 47 multi-seat prefectural districts and 50 of which are elected from a single nationwide list; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Shugi-in (480 seats - 180 of which are elected from 11 regional blocks on a proportional representation basis and 300 of which are elected from 300 single-seat districts; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: House of Councillors - last held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA July 2001); House of Representatives - last held 25 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2004)

election results: House of Councillors - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDP 102, DPJ 47, JCP 23, Komeito 22, SDP 13, Liberal Party 12, independents 26, others 7; note - the distribution of seats as of February 2001 is as follows - LDP 112, DPJ 58, Komeito 24, JCP 23, SDP 13, Liberal Party 5, independents 7, others 10; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDP 233, DPJ 127, Komeito 31, Liberal Party 22, JCP 20, SDP 19, other 28; note - the distribution of seats as of February 2001 is as follows - LDP 239, DPJ 129, Komeito 31, Liberal Party 22, JCP 20, SDP 19, other 20

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Yukio HATOYAMA, leader, Naoto KAN, secretary general]; Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII, chairman, Tadaaki ICHIDA, secretary general]; Komeito [Takenori KANZAKI, president, Tetsuzo FUYUSHIBA, secretary general]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Junichiro KOIZUMI, president, Taku YAMASAKI, secretary general]; Liberal Party [Ichiro OZAWA, president, Hirohisa FUJII, secretary general]; New Conservative Party [Chikage OGI, president, Takeshi NODA, secretary general]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Takako DOI, chairperson, Sadao FUCHIGAMI, secretary general]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Shunji YANAI

chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187

consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Hagatna (Guam), Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle

consulate(s): Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Howard H. BAKER, Jr.

embassy: 10-5 Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8420

mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 205, APO AP 96337-5004

telephone: [81] (03) 3224-5000

FAX: [81] (03) 3224-5856

consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo

consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya

Flag description: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center



Japan Economy

Economy - overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of GDP) have helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most technologically powerful economy in the world after the US and third largest economy in the world after the US and China. One notable characteristic of the economy is the working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in closely-knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades overall real economic growth had been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s largely because of the aftereffects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth have met little success and were further hampered in late 2000 by the slowing of the US and Asian economies. The crowding of habitable land area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems. Robotics constitutes a key long-term economic strength, with Japan possessing 410,000 of the world's 720,000 "working robots".

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.15 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2%

industry: 35%

services: 63% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.8%

highest 10%: 21.7% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 67.7 million (December 2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 65%, industry 30%, agriculture 5%

Unemployment rate: 4.7% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $441 billion

expenditures: $718 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $84 billion (FY01/02 est.)

Industries: among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals; textiles, processed foods

Industrial production growth rate: 5.3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.018 trillion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 58.91%

hydro: 8.35%

nuclear: 30.31%

other: 2.43% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 947.038 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs; fish

Exports: $450 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, semiconductors, office machinery, chemicals

Exports - partners: US 30%, Taiwan 7%, South Korea 6.4%, China 6.2%, Hong Kong 5.6% (2000 est.)

Imports: $355 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, office machinery

Imports - partners: US 19%, China 14.5%, South Korea 5.4%, Taiwan 4.8%, Indonesia 4.3%, Australia 3.9% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $9.1 billion (1999)

Currency: yen (JPY)

Currency code: JPY

Exchange rates: yen per US dollar - 117.10 (January 2001), 107.77 (2000), 113.91 (1999), 130.91 (1998), 120.99 (1997), 108.78 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Japan Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60.381 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 63.88 million (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international service

domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind

international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); submarine cables to China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam) (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 190, FM 88, shortwave 24 (1999)

Radios: 120.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7,108 (plus 441 repeaters; note - in addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services) (1999)

Televisions: 86.5 million (1997)

Internet country code: .jp

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 73 (2000)

Internet users: 27.06 million (2000)



Japan Transportation

Railways: total: 23,670.7 km

standard gauge: 2,893.1 km 1.435-m gauge (entirely electrified)

narrow gauge: 89.8 km 1.372-m gauge (89.8 km electrified); 20,656.8 km 1.067-m gauge (10,383.6 km electrified); 31 km 0.762-m gauge (3.6 km electrified) (1994)

Highways: total: 1,152,207 km

paved: 863,003 km (including 6,114 km of expressways)

unpaved: 289,204 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 1,770 km approximately

note: seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km

Ports and harbors: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate, Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Tomakomai

Merchant marine: total: 630 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,691,174 GRT/15,484,848 DWT

ships by type: bulk 137, cargo 51, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 22, combination ore/oil 3, container 22, liquefied gas 49, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 194, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 49, short-sea passenger 6, vehicle carrier 56 (2000 est.)

Airports: 173 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 142

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 38

914 to 1,523 m: 30

under 914 m: 30 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 27 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 16 (2000 est.)



Japan Military

Military branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 29,926,614 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 25,876,484 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 765,817 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $43 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.96% (FY01)



Japan Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks (Takeshima/Tokdo) disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

======================================================================

@Jarvis Island



Jarvis Island Introduction

Background: First discovered by the British in 1821, the uninhabited island was annexed by the US in 1858, but abandoned in 1879 after tons of guano had been removed. The UK annexed the island in 1889, but never carried out plans for further exploitation. The US occupied and reclaimed the island in 1935. Abandoned after World War II, the island is currently a National Wildlife Refuge administered by the US Department of the Interior; a day beacon is situated near the middle of the west coast.



Jarvis Island Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to the Cook Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 22 S, 160 03 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 4.5 sq km

land: 4.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 7 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife



Jarvis Island People

Population: uninhabited

note: Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2001 est.)



Jarvis Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Jarvis Island

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Jarvis Island Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Jarvis Island Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat landing area in the middle of the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island

Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast



Jarvis Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard



Jarvis Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Jersey



Jersey Introduction

Background: The island of Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II.



Jersey Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 49 15 N, 2 10 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 116 sq km

land: 116 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 70 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 143 m

Natural resources: arable land

Land use: arable land: 66%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier



Jersey People

Population: 89,361 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.77% (male 8,214; female 7,667)

15-64 years: 67.59% (male 30,065; female 30,331)

65 years and over: 14.64% (male 5,603; female 7,481) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.48% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.27 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.63 years

male: 76.21 years

female: 81.23 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Channel Islander(s)

adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

Languages: English (official), French (official), Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA



Jersey Government

Country name: conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey

conventional short form: Jersey

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: NA

Capital: Saint Helier

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Air Chief Marshall Sir John CHESHIRE (since 24 January 2001) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since NA February 1995)

cabinet: committees appointed by the Assembly of the States

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States (55 voting members - 12 senators, 12 constables or heads of parishes, 29 deputies; all elected for six-year terms, half elected every third year; the bailiff and the deputy bailiff; and 3 non-voting members - the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General and the Solicitor General all appointed by the monarch

elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 52

Judicial branch: Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff)

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag and in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield holding the three lions of England in yellow



Jersey Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. In 1996 the finance sector accounted for about 60% of the island's output. Tourism, another mainstay of the economy, accounts for 24% of GDP. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5%

industry: 2%

services: 93% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.7% (1998)

Labor force: 57,050 (1996)

Unemployment rate: 0.7% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $601 million

expenditures: $588 million, including capital expenditures of $98 million (2000 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

note: electricity supplied by France

Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs, textiles

Exports - partners: UK

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners: UK

Debt - external: none

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: British pound (GBP); note - there is also a Jersey pound

Currency code: GBP

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds per US dollar - 0.6764 (January 2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Jersey Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 65,500 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,400 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: 3 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .je

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: NA



Jersey Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 577 km (1995)

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Jersey Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Jersey Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Johnston Atoll



Johnston Atoll Introduction

Background: Both the US and the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858, but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. The US Navy took over the atoll in 1934, and subsequently the US Air Force assumed control in 1948. The site was used for high altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s and 1960s, and until late in 2000 the atoll was maintained as a storage and disposal site for chemical weapons. Munitions destruction is now complete, and cleanup and closure of the facility is progressing.



Johnston Atoll Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 717 NM (1328 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 169 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 2.8 sq km

land: 2.8 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Summit Peak 5 m

Natural resources: guano deposits worked until depletion about 1890, terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to the public; former US nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation



Johnston Atoll People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: in previous years, there was an average of 1,100 US military and civilian contractor personnel present; as of 1 October 2000, population decreased to approximately 970 when US Army Chemical Activity Pacific (USACAP) departed (January 2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -5.94% (2001 est.)



Johnston Atoll Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Johnston Atoll

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by Pacific Air Forces, Hickam AFB, and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Johnston Atoll Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity - production: approximately 1,000,000 kWh weekly; note - there are six 25,000 kWh generators supplied by the base operating support contractor (1999)

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh



Johnston Atoll Communications

Telephone system: general assessment: 13 outgoing and 10 incoming commercial lines; adequate telecommunications

domestic: 60-channel submarine cable, 22 DSN circuits by satellite, Autodin with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), UHF/VHF air-ground radio, a link to the Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network (PCTN) satellite

international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Television broadcast stations: commercial satellite television system, with 16 channels (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA



Johnston Atoll Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Johnston Island

Airports: 1; note - six flights per week; three commercial, three military (2001 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Johnston Atoll Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US



Johnston Atoll Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Jordan



Jordan Introduction

Background: For most of its history since independence from British administration in 1946, Jordan was ruled by King HUSSEIN (1953-1999). A pragmatic ruler, he successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population, through several wars and coup attempts. In 1989 he resumed parliamentary elections and gradually permitted political liberalization; in 1994 a formal peace treaty was signed with Israel. King ABDALLAH II - the eldest son of King HUSSEIN and Princess MUNA - assumed the throne following his father's death in February 1999. Since then, he has consolidated his power and established his domestic priorities.



Jordan Geography

Location: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 92,300 sq km

land: 91,971 sq km

water: 329 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,619 km

border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m

highest point: Jabal Ram 1,734 m

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use: arable land: 4%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 9%

forests and woodland: 1%

other: 85% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 630 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Jordan People

Population: 5,153,378 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.23% (male 980,345; female 938,081)

15-64 years: 59.44% (male 1,633,579; female 1,429,631)

65 years and over: 3.33% (male 84,815; female 86,927) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 25.44 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 2.62 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.53 years

male: 75.1 years

female: 80.12 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.29 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek Catholics, Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2000 est.)

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.6%

male: 93.4%

female: 79.4% (1995 est.)



Jordan Government

Country name: conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HAMZAH (half brother of the monarch, born 29 March 1980)

head of government: Prime Minister Ali Abul RAGHEB (since 19 June 2000)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate (a 40-member body appointed by the monarch from designated categories of public figures; members serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (80 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 4 November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2001)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - National Constitutional Party 2, Arab Land Party 1, independents 75, other 2

note: the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by the monarch several times since 1974; in November 1989 the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)

Political parties and leaders: Al-Umma (Nation) Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH, secretary general]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Muhammad al-'ORAN, secretary general]; Jordanian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'eed THIYAB, secretary general]; National Constitutional Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI, secretary general]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Council of Professional Association Presidents [Ahmad al-QADIRI, chairman]; Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Abd-al-Majid DHUNAYBAT, secretary general]

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marwan Jamil MUASHER

chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William J. BURNS

embassy: Abdoum, Amman

mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; APO AE 09892-0200

telephone: [962] (6) 5920101

FAX: [962] (6) 5920121

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top, the Abbassid Caliphate of Islam), white (the Ummayyad Caliphate of Islam), and green (the Fatimid Caliphate of Islam) with a red isosceles triangle (representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916) based on the hoist side bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations



Jordan Economy

Economy - overview: Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil. The Persian Gulf crisis, which began in August 1990, aggravated Jordan's already serious economic problems, forcing the government to stop most debt payments and suspend rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker remittances, and trade revenues contracted. Refugees flooded the country, producing serious balance-of-payments problems, stunting GDP growth, and straining government resources. The economy rebounded in 1992, largely due to the influx of capital repatriated by workers returning from the Gulf. After averaging 9% in 1992-95, GDP growth averaged only 1.5% during 1996-99. In an attempt to spur growth, King ABDALLAH has undertaken limited economic reform, including partial privatization of some state-owned enterprises and Jordan's entry in January 2000 into the World Trade Organization (WTrO). Debt, poverty, and unemployment are fundamental ongoing economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $17.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 25%

services: 72% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 30% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 34.7% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.15 million

note: in addition, at least 300,000 workers are employed abroad (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 10.5%, construction 10%, transport and communications 8.7%, agriculture 7.4%, other services 52% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 15% official rate; actual rate is 25%-30% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.8 billion

expenditures: $3.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.657 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.79%

hydro: 0.21%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.594 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 407 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactures

Exports - partners: India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, EU, Indonesia, UAE, Lebanon, Kuwait, Syria, Ethiopia

Imports: $4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live animals, manufactured goods

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