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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 70%, animal products, aluminum, diatomite, ferrosilicon

Exports - partners: EU 64% (UK 20%, Germany 13%, France 5%, Denmark 5%), US 15%, Japan 5% (1999)

Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products; foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: EU 56% (Germany 12%, UK 9%, Denmark 8%, Sweden 6%), US 11%, Norway 10% (1999)

Debt - external: $2.6 billion (1999)

Economic aid - donor: $NA

Currency: Icelandic krona (ISK)

Currency code: ISK

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur per US dollar - 84.810 (January 2001), 78.676 (2000), 72.335 (1999), 70.958 (1998), 70.904 (1997), 66.500 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Iceland Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 168,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 65,746 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate domestic service

domestic: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables and microwave radio relay links

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM about 70 (including repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 260,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 14 (plus 156 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 98,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .is

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7 (2000)

Internet users: 144,000 (2000)



Iceland Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 12,691 km

paved: 3,262 km

unpaved: 9,429 km (1999)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Akureyri, Hornafjordur, Isafjordhur, Keflavik, Raufarhofn, Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur, Straumsvik, Vestmannaeyjar

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,435 GRT/4,538 DWT

ships by type: chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 87 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 75

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 52 (2000 est.)



Iceland Military

Military branches: no regular armed forces; Police, Coast Guard; note - Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 71,241 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 62,704 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $0

Military - note: defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik



Iceland Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); dispute with Denmark over the Faroe Islands fisheries median line boundary within 200 NM; disputes with Denmark, the UK, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM

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@India



India Introduction

Background: The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in 12th were followed by European traders beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.



India Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 3,287,590 sq km

land: 2,973,190 sq km

water: 314,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 14,103 km

border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

Land use: arable land: 56%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 4%

forests and woodland: 23%

other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 535,100 sq km (1995/96 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; earthquakes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes



India People

Population: 1,029,991,145 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.12% (male 175,630,537; female 165,540,672)

15-64 years: 62.2% (male 331,790,850; female 308,902,864)

65 years and over: 4.68% (male 24,439,022; female 23,687,200) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.55% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.86 years

male: 62.22 years

female: 63.53 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.7% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3.7 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 310,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Indian(s)

adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)

Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)

Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official), Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu (official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada (official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official), Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official), Hindustani (a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India)

note: 24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 52%

male: 65.5%

female: 37.7% (1995 est.)



India Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of India

conventional short form: India

Government type: federal republic

Capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 25 July 1997); Vice President Krishnan KANT (since 21 August 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Atal Behari VAJPAYEE (since 19 March 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term; election last held 14 July 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 16 August 1997 (next to be held NA August 2002); prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held NA October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)

election results: Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN elected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA%; Krishnan KANT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - NA%; Atal Behari VAJPAYEE elected prime minister; percent of vote - NA%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections: People's Assembly - last held 5 September through 3 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP alliance 40.8%, Congress alliance 33.8%, other 25.4%; seats by party - BJP alliance 304, Congress alliance 134, other 107

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65)

Political parties and leaders: All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All India Forward Bloc or AIFB [Prem Dutta PALIWAL (chairman), Chitta BASU (general secretary)]; Asom Gana Parishad [Prafulla Kumar MAHANTA]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [Kanshi RAM]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Bangaru LAXMAN, president]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Vinod MISHRA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI, president]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party in Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National League [Suliaman SAIT]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV, president, I. K. GUJRAL]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; National Democratic Alliance, a 16-party alliance including BJP, DMK, Janata Dal (U), SHS, Shiromani Akali Dal, Telugu Desam, BJD, Rinamool Congress]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Tridip CHOWDHURY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV, president]; Shiromani Akali Dal [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. MOOPANAR]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh) [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference

International organization participation: AfDB, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Naresh CHANDRA

chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000

FAX: [1] (202) 483-3972

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard F. CELESTE

embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [91] (11) 688-9033, 611-3033

FAX: [91] (11) 419-0025

consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band



India Economy

Economy - overview: India's economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. More than a third of the population is too poor to be able to afford an adequate diet. India's international payments position remained strong in 2000 with adequate foreign exchange reserves, moderately depreciating nominal exchange rates, and booming exports of software services. Growth in manufacturing output slowed, and electricity shortages continue in many regions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.2 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 25%

industry: 24%

services: 51% (2000)

Population below poverty line: 35% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 67%, services 18%, industry 15% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $44.3 billion

expenditures: $73.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 454.561 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 79.41%

hydro: 17.77%

nuclear: 2.52%

other: 0.3% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 424.032 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 200 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.49 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish

Exports: $43.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures

Exports - partners: US 22%, UK 6%, Germany 5%, Japan 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UAE 4% (1999)

Imports: $60.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals

Imports - partners: US 9%, Benelux 8%, UK 6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Japan 6%, Germany 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $99.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.9 billion (FY98/99)

Currency: Indian rupee (INR)

Currency code: INR

Exchange rates: Indian rupees per US dollar - 46.540 (January 2001), 44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



India Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 27.7 million (October 2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.93 million (November 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: mediocre service; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; major objective is to continue to expand and modernize long-distance network in order to keep pace with rapidly growing number of local subscriber lines; steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but, with telephone density at about two for each 100 persons and a waiting list of over 2 million, demand for main line telephone service will not be satisfied for a very long time

domestic: local service is provided by microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, with open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems still in use in rural areas; starting in the 1980s, a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced for local and long-distance service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by coaxial cable and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985 significant trunk capacity has been added in the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system with 254 earth stations; mobile cellular service is provided in four metropolitan cities

international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gaidhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 4 submarine cables - LOCOM linking Chennai (Madras) to Penang; Indo-UAE-Gulf cable linking Mumbai (Bombay) to Al Fujayrah, UAE; India-SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-2 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay); Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at Mumbai (Bombay) (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)

Radios: 116 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)

Televisions: 63 million (1997)

Internet country code: .in

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 43 (2000)

Internet users: 4.5 million (2000)



India Transportation

Railways: total: 62,915 km (12,307 km electrified; 12,617 km double track)

broad gauge: 40,620 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge: 18,501 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,794 km 0.762-m and 0.610-m gauge (1998 est.)

Highways: total: 3,319,644 km

paved: 1,517,077 km

unpaved: 1,802,567 km (1996)

Waterways: 16,180 km

note: 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural gas 1,700 km (1995)

Ports and harbors: Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam

Merchant marine: total: 315 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,433,831 GRT/10,691,973 DWT

ships by type: bulk 117, cargo 70, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 15, liquefied gas 9, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 76, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 337 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 235

over 3,047 m: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 48

1,524 to 2,437 m: 81

914 to 1,523 m: 77

under 914 m: 16 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 102

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 40

under 914 m: 55 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 16 (2000 est.)



India Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, Rashtriya Rifles, and National Security Guards)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 280,204,502 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 164,410,461 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 10,879,384 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13.02 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY00)



India Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with China in dispute; status of Kashmir with Pakistan; water-sharing problems with Pakistan over the Indus River (Wular Barrage); a portion of the boundary with Bangladesh is indefinite; exchange of 151 enclaves along border with Bangladesh subject to ratification by Indian parliament; dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty Island

Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of hashish and methaqualone

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@Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean Introduction Top of Page

Background: The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Southern Ocean and Arctic Ocean). Four critically important access waterways are the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab el Mandeb (Djibouti-Yemen), Strait of Hormuz (Iran-Oman), and Strait of Malacca (Indonesia-Malaysia). The decision by the International Hydrographic Organization in the spring of 2000 to delimit a fifth ocean, the Southern Ocean, removed the portion of the Indian Ocean south of 60 degrees south.



Indian Ocean Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, the Southern Ocean, Asia, and Australia

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 80 00 E

Map references: World

Area: total: 68.556 million sq km

note: includes Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Mozambique Channel, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: about 5.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 66,526 km

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninetyeast Ridge

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Java Trench -7,258 m

highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Natural hazards: occasional icebergs pose navigational hazard in southern reaches

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea

Geography - note: major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait



Indian Ocean Economy

Economy - overview: The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes connecting the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the Americas. It carries a particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its fish are of great and growing importance to the bordering countries for domestic consumption and export. Fishing fleets from Russia, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and western Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.



Indian Ocean Transportation

Ports and harbors: Chennai (Madras; India), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Jakarta (Indonesia), Kolkata (Calcutta; India) Melbourne (Australia), Mumbai (Bombay; India), Richards Bay (South Africa)



Indian Ocean Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

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@Indonesia



Indonesia Introduction

Background: The world's largest archipelago, Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting a transition to a popularly elected government after four decades of authoritarianism, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military accountable for human rights violations, and resolving growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999 a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence followed by Indonesia's national legislature, and the name East Timor was provisionally adopted. The independent status of East Timor - now under UN administration - has yet to be formally established.



Indonesia Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 1,919,440 sq km

land: 1,826,440 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 2,602 km

border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 7%

permanent pastures: 7%

forests and woodland: 62%

other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean



Indonesia People

Population: 228,437,870 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.26% (male 35,144,702; female 33,973,879)

15-64 years: 65.11% (male 74,273,519; female 74,458,291)

65 years and over: 4.63% (male 4,641,816; female 5,945,663) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 22.26 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.27 years

male: 65.9 years

female: 70.75 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.58 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 52,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 83.8%

male: 89.6%

female: 78% (1995 est.)



Indonesia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - the province of Irian Jaya may have been divided into two new provinces - Central Irian Jaya and West Irian Jaya; with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts (regencies) may become the key administrative units

note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor is under UN administration pending its formal independence

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999) and Vice President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 21 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Abdurrahman WAHID (since 20 October 1999) and Vice President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 21 October 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected separately by the 700-member People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; election last held 20 and 21 October 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)

election results: Abdurrahman WAHID elected president, receiving 373 votes to 313 votes for MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected vice president, defeating Hamzah HAZ; vote totals NA

note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 200 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA June 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature)

Political parties and leaders: Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Development Unity Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party or PDI (federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties) [Budi HARDJONO, chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Matori Abdul DJALIL, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador DORODJATUN Kuntjoro-Jakti

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert GELBARD

embassy: Jalan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520

telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000

FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922

consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red



Indonesia Economy

Economy - overview: Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe economic problems, stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, corruption, weaknesses in the banking system, and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. Growth of 4.8% in 2000 is not sustainable, being attributable to favorable short-term factors, including high world oil prices, a surge in nonoil exports, and increased domestic demand for consumer durables.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $654 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21%

industry: 35%

services: 44% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 20% (1998)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 30.3% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 99 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15%-20% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $26 billion

expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 78.674 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 80.36%

hydro: 14.63%

nuclear: 0%

other: 5.01% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 73.167 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Exports: $64.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners: Japan 21%, US 14%, Singapore 10%, South Korea 7%, Netherlands 3%, Australia 3%, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan (1999 est.)

Imports: $40.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Japan 12%, US 12%, Singapore 10%, Germany 6%, Australia 6%, South Korea 6%, Taiwan, China (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $144 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

Currency code: IDR

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 10,000 (January 2001), 8,421.8 (2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year



Indonesia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,588,310 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.07 million (1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good

domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Radios: 31.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999)

Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)

Internet country code: .id

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (2000)

Internet users: 400,000 (2000)



Indonesia Transportation

Railways: total: 6,458 km

narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 342,700 km

paved: 158,670 km

unpaved: 184,030 km (1997)

Waterways: 21,579 km total

note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya

Merchant marine: total: 609 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,698,157 GRT/3,723,933 DWT

ships by type: bulk 36, cargo 357, chemical tanker 10, container 25, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 117, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 5 (2000 est.)

Airports: 453 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 136

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 39

914 to 1,523 m: 44

under 914 m: 37 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 317

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 283 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)



Indonesia Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines

note: as of 1 July 2000, the National Police became an independent organization that reports directly to the president

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 64,046,049 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 37,418,755 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 2,263,706 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY98/99)



Indonesia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

======================================================================

@Iran



Iran Introduction

Background: Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces subsequently crushed westernizing liberal elements. Militant Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq over disputed territory. The key current issue is how rapidly the country should open up to the modernizing influences of the outside world.



Iran Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 1.648 million sq km

land: 1.636 million sq km

water: 12,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 5,440 km

border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline: 2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: natural prolongation

exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 27%

forests and woodland: 7%

other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast

Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation



Iran People

Population: 66,128,965 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.97% (male 11,150,053; female 10,654,884)

15-64 years: 62.38% (male 20,765,001; female 20,488,672)

65 years and over: 4.65% (male 1,617,045; female 1,453,310) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.72% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.1 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.41 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.95 years

male: 68.61 years

female: 71.37 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.02 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Iranian(s)

adjective: Iranian

Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 10%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 1%

Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 72.1%

male: 78.4%

female: 65.8% (1994 est.)



Iran Government

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran

conventional short form: Iran

local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran

local short form: Iran

former: Persia

Government type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 28 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

National holiday: Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

Legal system: the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)

head of government: President (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani (since 3 August 1997); First Vice President Dr. Mohammad Reza AREF-YAZDI (since NA August 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval

elections: leader of the Islamic Revolution appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 8 June 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani reelected president; percent of vote - (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani 77%

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami (290 seats, note - changed from 270 seats with the 18 February 2000 election; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 18 February-NA April 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats by party - reformers 170, conservatives 45, and independents 10; 65 seats were up for runoff election on 5 May 2000 (reformers 52, conservatives 10, independents 3)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: the following organizations appeared to have achieved considerable success at elections to the sixth Majlis in early 2000: Assembly of the Followers of the Imam's Line, Freethinkers' Front, Islamic Iran Participation Front, Moderation and Development Party, Servants of Construction Party, Society of Self-sacrificing Devotees

Political pressure groups and leaders: active student groups include the pro-reform "Organization for Strengthening Unity" and "the Union of Islamic Student Societies'; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, and the Islamic Coalition Association; opposition groups include the Liberation Movement of Iran and the Nation of Iran party; armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan; the Society for the Defense of Freedom

International organization participation: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band



Iran Economy

Economy - overview: Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. President KHATAMI has continued to follow the market reform plans of former President RAFSANJANI and has indicated that he will pursue diversification of Iran's oil-reliant economy although he has made little progress toward that goal. The strong oil market in 1996 helped ease financial pressures on Iran and allowed for Tehran's timely debt service payments. Iran's financial situation tightened in 1997 and deteriorated further in 1998 because of lower oil prices. The subsequent zoom in oil prices in 1999-2000 afforded Iran fiscal breathing room but does not solve Iran's structural economic problems, including the encouragement of foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $413 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 24%

industry: 28%

services: 48% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 53% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 17.3 million

note: shortage of skilled labor (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 33%, industry 25%, services 42% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $27 billion

expenditures: $27 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (nonoil) (1999)

Electricity - production: 103.054 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 93.16%

hydro: 6.84%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 95.84 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

Exports: $25 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum 85%, carpets, fruits and nuts, iron and steel, chemicals

Exports - partners: Japan, Italy, UAE, South Korea, France, China

Imports: $15 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: industrial raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services, military supplies

Imports - partners: Germany, South Korea, Italy, UAE, France, Japan

Debt - external: $7.5 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $116.5 million (1995)

Currency: Iranian rial (IRR)

Currency code: IRR

Exchange rates: Iranian rials per US dollar - 1,754.71 (January 2001), 1,764.43 (2000), 1,725.93 (1999), 1,751.86 (1998), 1,752.92 (1997), 1,750.76 (1996)

note: Iran has three officially recognized exchange rates; the averages for 1999 are as follows: the official floating rate of 1,750 rials per US dollar, the "export" rate of 3,000 rials per US dollar, and the variable Tehran Stock Exchange rate, which averages 7,863 rials per US dollar; the market rate averages 8,615 rials per US dollar

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March



Iran Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 6.313 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 265,000 (August 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate but currently being modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages, not presently connected

domestic: as a result of heavy investing in the telephone system since 1994, the number of long-distance channels in the microwave radio relay trunk has grown substantially; many villages have been brought into the net; the number of main lines in the urban systems has approximately doubled; and thousands of mobile cellular subscribers are being served; moreover, the technical level of the system has been raised by the installation of thousands of digital switches

international: HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; satellite earth stations - 9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat; Internet service available but limited to electronic mail to promote Iranian culture

Radio broadcast stations: AM 72, FM 5, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 17 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 28 (plus 450 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 4.61 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ir

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)

Internet users: 100,000 (2000)



Iran Transportation

Railways: total: 5,600 km

broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge

standard gauge: 5,506 km 1.435-m gauge (146 km electrified)

note: broad gauge track is employed at the borders with Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan which have broad-gauge rail systems (2001)

Highways: total: 140,200 km

paved: 49,440 km (including 470 km of expressways)

unpaved: 90,760 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 904 km

note: the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use

Pipelines: crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km

Ports and harbors: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Ahvaz, Bandar 'Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bushehr, Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni, Bandar-e Lengeh, Bandar-e Mahshahr, Bandar-e Torkaman, Chabahar (Bandar Beheshti), Jazireh-ye Khark, Jazireh-ye Lavan, Jazireh-ye Sirri, Khorramshahr (limited operation since November 1992), Now Shahr

Merchant marine: total: 152 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,097,977 GRT/7,131,688 DWT

ships by type: bulk 49, cargo 38, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 1, container 10, liquefied gas 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Singapore 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 317 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 117

over 3,047 m: 38

2,438 to 3,047 m: 23

1,524 to 2,437 m: 25

914 to 1,523 m: 24

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 200

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 122

under 914 m: 60 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 11 (2000 est.)



Iran Military

Military branches: Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Revolutionary Guards (includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij-mobilization-forces), Law Enforcement Forces

Military manpower - military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 18,319,328 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 10,872,407 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 823,040 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5.787 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.9% (FY98/99)



Iran Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; Iran occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); Iran jointly administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (called Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran) - over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since 1992, including access restrictions and a military build-up on the island; the UAE has garnered significant diplomatic support in the region in protesting these Iranian actions; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: despite substantial interdiction efforts, Iran remains a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; domestic consumption of narcotics remains a persistent problem and Iranian press reports estimate that there are at least 1.2 million drug users in the country

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@Iraq



Iraq Introduction

Background: Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq became an independent kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-1988). In August 1990 Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during January-February 1991. The victors did not occupy Iraq, however, thus allowing the regime to stay in control. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. UN trade sanctions remain in effect due to incomplete Iraqi compliance with relevant UNSC resolutions.



Iraq Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 437,072 sq km

land: 432,162 sq km

water: 4,910 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries: total: 3,631 km

border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: not specified

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Haji Ibrahim 3,600 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 9%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 79% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 25,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods

Environment - current issues: government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Shi'a Muslims, who have inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification



Iraq People

Population: 23,331,985 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.64% (male 4,934,340; female 4,781,206)

15-64 years: 55.28% (male 6,528,854; female 6,368,823)

65 years and over: 3.08% (male 335,953; female 382,809) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.84% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 34.64 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.95 years

male: 65.92 years

female: 68.03 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.75 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Iraqi(s)

adjective: Iraqi

Ethnic groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%

Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 58%

male: 70.7%

female: 45% (1995 est.)



Iraq Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Iraq

conventional short form: Iraq

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah

local short form: Al Iraq

Government type: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 17 July (1968)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice Presidents Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974) and Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)

head of government: Prime Minister SADDAM Husayn (since 29 May 1994); Deputy Prime Ministers Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979), Hikmat Mizban Ibrahim al-AZZAWI (since 30 July 1999), Ahmad Husayn al-KHUDAYIR (since NA July 2001), and Abd al-Tawab Mullah al-HUWAYSH (since NA July 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; note - there is also a Revolutionary Command Council or RCC (Chairman SADDAM Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri) which controls the ruling Ba'th Party, and is the most powerful political entity in the country

elections: president and vice presidents elected by a two-thirds majority of the Revolutionary Command Council; election last held 17 October 1995 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: SADDAM Husayn reelected president; percent of vote - 99%; Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF and Taha Yasin RAMADAN elected vice presidents; percent of vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani (250 seats; 30 appointed by the president to represent the three northern provinces of Dahuk, Arbil, and As Sulaymaniyah; 220 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 27 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Ba'th Party [SADDAM Husayn, central party leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: any formal political activity must be sanctioned by the government; opposition to regime from Kurdish groups and southern Shi'a dissidents

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, EAPC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian Embassy headed by Akram AL DOURI; address: Iraqi Interests Section, Algerian Embassy, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500; FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Polish Embassy in Baghdad; address: P. O. Box 2051 Hay Babel, Baghdad; telephone: [964] (1) 718-9267; FAX: [964] (1) 718-9297

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria which has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band



Iraq Economy

Economy - overview: Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq suffered economic losses of at least $100 billion from the war. After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program in December 1996 has helped improve conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. For the first six, six-month phases of the program, Iraq was allowed to export limited amounts of oil in exchange for food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In December 1999, the UN Security Council authorized Iraq to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Oil exports are now more than three-quarters their prewar level. Per capita food imports have increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services are steadily improving. Per capita output and living standards are still well below the prewar level, but any estimates have a wide range of error.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $57 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 15% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6%

industry: 13%

services: 81% (1993 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.4 million (1989)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 29.42 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 97.96%

hydro: 2.04%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 27.361 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep

Exports: $21.8 billion (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil

Exports - partners: Russia, France, Switzerland, China (2000)

Imports: $13.8 billion (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: food, medicine, manufactures

Imports - partners: Egypt, Russia, France, Vietnam (2000)

Debt - external: $139 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $327.5 million (1995)

Currency: Iraqi dinar (IQD)

Currency code: IQD

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars per US dollar - 0.3109 (fixed official rate since 1982); black market rate - Iraqi dinars per US dollar - 1,910 (December 1999), 1,815 (December 1998), 1,530 (December 1997), 910 (December 1996), 3,000 (December 1995); note - subject to wide fluctuations

Fiscal year: calendar year



Iraq Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 675,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA; service available in northern Iraq (2001)

Telephone system: general assessment: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been rebuilt

domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably nonoperational

Radio broadcast stations: AM 19 (5 are inactive), FM 51, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 4.85 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (1997)

Televisions: 1.75 million (1997)

Internet country code: .iq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Iraq Transportation

Railways: total: 2,032 km

standard gauge: 2,032 km 1.435-m gauge

note: rail link between Iraq and Syria restored in 2000 after 19 years

Highways: total: 45,550 km

paved: 38,400 km

unpaved: 7,150 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,015 km

note: Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft boats; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Gulf war

Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km

Ports and harbors: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited functionality

Merchant marine: total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 453,273 GRT/779,662 DWT

ships by type: cargo 14, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 12, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 110 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 76

over 3,047 m: 20

2,438 to 3,047 m: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 34

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 12 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 4 (2000 est.)



Iraq Military

Military branches: Army, Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Fedayeen Saddam

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,902,215 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,301,880 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 274,035 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Iraq Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993), and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands although the government continues periodic rhetorical challenges; dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

======================================================================

@Ireland



Ireland Introduction

Background: A failed 1916 Easter Monday Rebellion touched off several years of guerrilla warfare that in 1921 resulted in independence from the UK for the 26 southern counties; the six northern counties (Ulster) remained part of Great Britain. In 1948 Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth; it joined the European Community in 1973. Irish governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and have cooperated with Britain against terrorist groups. A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, approved in 1998, was implemented the following year.



Ireland Geography

Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 70,280 sq km

land: 68,890 sq km

water: 1,390 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 360 km

border countries: UK 360 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: not specified

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Carrauntoohil 1,041 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use: arable land: 13%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 68%

forests and woodland: 5%

other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 97 km of Dublin



Ireland People

Population: 3,840,838 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.57% (male 425,328; female 403,204)

15-64 years: 67.08% (male 1,290,002; female 1,286,312)

65 years and over: 11.35% (male 188,868; female 247,124) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.12% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 14.57 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.07 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.99 years

male: 74.23 years

female: 79.93 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural)

adjective: Irish

Ethnic groups: Celtic, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 91.6%, Church of Ireland 2.5%, other 5.9% (1998)

Languages: English is the language generally used, Irish (Gaelic) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98% (1981 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Ireland Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Ireland

Government type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK by treaty)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 November 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 June 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 31 October 1997 (next to be held NA November 2004); prime minister nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president

election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote - Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%

note: government coalition - Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats - 49 elected by the universities and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are nominated by the prime minister; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held NA August 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); House of Representatives - last held 6 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Fianna Fail 29, Fine Gael 16, Labor Party 4, Progressive Democrats 4, others 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Fianna Fail 76, Fine Gael 53, Labor Party 19, Progressive Democrats 4, Democratic Left 4, Green Alliance 2, Sinn Fein 1, independents 7; note - seats by party in the House of Representatives as of 1 January 2001 were as follows: Fianna Fail 76, Fine Gael 54, Labor Party 21, Progressive Democrats 4, Green Alliance 2, Socialist Party 1, Sinn Fein 1, independents 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Left [Proinsias DE ROSSA]; Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Fine Gael [Michael NOONAN]; Green Party [Mary BOWERS]; Labor Party [Ruairi QUINN]; Progressive Democrats [Mary HARNEY]; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Tom FRENCH]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sean O'HUIGINN

chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939

FAX: [1] (202) 232-5993

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. SULLIVAN

embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [353] (1) 668-7122/668-8777

FAX: [353] (1) 668-9946

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red



Ireland Economy

Economy - overview: Ireland is a small, modern, trade-dependent economy with growth averaging a robust 9% in 1995-2000. Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 38% of GDP and about 80% of exports and employs 28% of the labor force. Although exports remain the primary engine for Ireland's robust growth, the economy is also benefiting from a rise in consumer spending and recovery in both construction and business investment. Over the past decade, the Irish government has implemented a series of national economic programs designed to curb inflation, reduce government spending, increase labor force skills, and promote foreign investment. Ireland joined in launching the euro currency system in January 1999 along with 10 other EU nations. The Irish economy is in danger of overheating, with the tight labor market driving up wage demands and inflation.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $81.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 38%

services: 58% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 10% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 27.3% (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (2000)

Labor force: 1.82 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 64%, industry 28%, agriculture 8% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.1% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $25.7 billion

expenditures: $19.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $2 billion (2000)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal; software

Industrial production growth rate: 14% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 19.542 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 94.42%

hydro: 4.23%

nuclear: 0%

other: 1.35% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 18.414 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 50 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 290 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; beef, dairy products

Exports: $73.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; live animals, animal products

Exports - partners: EU 59% (UK 19%, Germany 9%, France 7%), US 20% (2000)

Imports: $45.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: data processing equipment, other machinery and equipment, chemicals; petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, clothing

Imports - partners: EU 54% (UK 29%, Germany 6%, France 5%), US 18%, Japan 5%, Singapore 4% (2000)

Debt - external: $11 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $245 million (2000)

Currency: Irish pound (IEP); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Ireland at a fixed rate of 0.787564 Irish pounds per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: IEP; EUR

Exchange rates: Irish pounds per US dollar - 1.0658 (January 2001), 1.0823 (2000), 0.9374 (1999), 0.7014 (1998), 0.6588 (1997), 0.6248 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Ireland Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.59 million (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2 million (2001)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 106, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2.55 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (many low-power repeaters) (2001)

Televisions: 1.82 million (2001)

Internet country code: .ie

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 22 (2000)

Internet users: 1 million (2001)



Ireland Transportation

Railways: total: 1,947 km

broad gauge: 1,947 km 1.600-m gauge (38 km electrified; 485 km double track) (1998)

Highways: total: 92,500 km

paved: 87,043 km (including 115 km of expressways)

unpaved: 5,457 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 700 km (limited facilities for commercial traffic) (1998)

Pipelines: natural gas 7,592 km (transmission 1,158 km; distribution 6,434 km) (2000)

Ports and harbors: Arklow, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Foynes, Galway, Limerick, New Ross, Waterford

Merchant marine: total: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 115,554 GRT/135,391 DWT

ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 22, container 2, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 44 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 17

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 27

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 25 (2000 est.)



Ireland Military

Military branches: Army (includes Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (Garda Siochana)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,004,469 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 809,808 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 32,287 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $738 million (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.75% (2001 est.)



Ireland Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Northern Ireland issue with the UK (historic peace agreement signed 10 April 1998); disputes with Iceland, Denmark, and the UK over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced synthetic drugs; minor transshipment point for heroin and cocaine destined for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Israel



Israel Introduction

Background: Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations are being conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives (from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip) and Israel and Syria, to achieve a permanent settlement. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. On 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982.



Israel Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon

Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 20,770 sq km

land: 20,330 sq km

water: 440 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 1,006 km

border countries: Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m

highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m

Natural resources: timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand, oil

Land use: arable land: 17%

permanent crops: 4%

permanent pastures: 7%

forests and woodland: 6%

other: 66% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts

Environment - current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: there are 231 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (August 2000 est.)



Israel People

Population: 5,938,093 (July 2001 est.)

note: includes about 176,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, about 6,900 in the Gaza Strip, and about 173,000 in East Jerusalem (August 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.36% (male 831,523; female 792,982)

15-64 years: 62.73% (male 1,869,114; female 1,855,707)

65 years and over: 9.91% (male 253,105; female 335,662) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.58% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 19.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.71 years

male: 76.69 years

female: 80.84 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.08% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Israeli(s)

adjective: Israeli

Ethnic groups: Jewish 80.1% (Europe/America-born 32.1%, Israel-born 20.8%, Africa-born 14.6%, Asia-born 12.6%), non-Jewish 19.9% (mostly Arab) (1996 est.)

Religions: Jewish 80.1%, Muslim 14.6% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2.1%, other 3.2% (1996 est.)

Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95%

male: 97%

female: 93% (1992 est.)



Israel Government

Country name: conventional long form: State of Israel

conventional short form: Israel

local long form: Medinat Yisra'el

local short form: Yisra'el

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Jerusalem; note - Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

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