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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since NA December 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature

elections: president elected by the majority party in the National Assembly following legislative elections, which must be held at least every five years; elections last held 19 March 2001 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: President Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of legislative vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (65 seats, 53 elected by popular vote, 10 elected by the ten Regional Democratic Councils, and 2 elected by the National Congress of Local Democratic Organs; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 19 March 2001 (next to be held NA March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPP/C 34, PNC 27, GAP and WPA 2, ROAR 1, TUF 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature; Judicial Court of Appeal; High Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Guyana or AFG (includes Guyana Labor Party or GLP and Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPNARINE]; Guyana Action Party or GAP [leader NA]; Guyana Labor Party or GLP [leader NA]; People's National Congress or PNC [Hugh Desmond HOYTE]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Janet JAGEN]; Rise, Organize and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPARNINE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Civil Liberties Action Committee or CLAC; Guyana Council of Indian Organizations or GCIO; Rise, Organize and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; Trades Union Congress or TUC

note: the GCIO and the CLAC are small and active but not well organized

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL

chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald D. GODARD

embassy: 100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown

mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown

telephone: [592] (2) 54900 through 54909, 57960 through 57969

FAX: [592] (2) 58497

Flag description: green, with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long, yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow, black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow, white border between the yellow and the green



Guyana Economy

Economy - overview: Severe drought and political turmoil contributed to Guyana's negative growth of -1.8% for 1998 following six straight years of growth of 5% or better. Growth came back to a positive 1.8% in 1999 and 3% in 2000. Underlying growth factors have included expansion in the key agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiative, a more realistic exchange rate, a moderate inflation rate, and continued support by international organizations. President JAGDEO, the former finance minister, is taking steps to reform the economy, including drafting an investment code and restructuring the inefficient and unresponsive public sector. Problems include a shortage of skilled labor and a deficient infrastructure. The government must persist in efforts to manage its sizable external debt and attract new investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 34.7%

industry: 32.5%

services: 32.8% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 245,492 (1992)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 12% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $220.1 million

expenditures: $286.4 million, including capital expenditures of $86.6 million (1998)

Industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 7.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 455 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 98.9%

hydro: 1.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 423.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest and fishery potential not exploited

Exports: $570 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber

Exports - partners: US 22%, Canada 22%, UK 18%, Netherlands Antilles 11%, Jamaica (1999)

Imports: $660 million (c.i.f., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food

Imports - partners: US 29%, Trinidad and Tobago 18%, Netherlands Antilles 16%, UK 7%, Japan (1999)

Debt - external: $1.1 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $84 million (1995), Heavily Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC) $253 million (1997)

Currency: Guyanese dollar (GYD)

Currency code: GYD

Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars per US dollar - 184.1 (November 2000), 182.2 (2000), 178.0 (1999), 150.5 (1998), 142.4 (1997), 140.4 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Guyana Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 70,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,100 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: fair system for long-distance calling

domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines

international: tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 420,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (one public station; two private stations which relay US satellite services) (1997)

Televisions: 46,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .gy

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 3,000 (2000)



Guyana Transportation

Railways: total: 187 km (all dedicated to ore transport)

standard gauge: 139 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 48 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways: total: 7,970 km

paved: 590 km

unpaved: 7,380 km (1996)

Waterways: 5,900 km (total length of navigable waterways)

note: Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km, respectively

Ports and harbors: Bartica, Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam, Parika

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,929 GRT/4,507 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 51 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 45

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 36 (2000 est.)



Guyana Military

Military branches: Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service (GNS), Guyana Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 204,938 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 154,259 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7 million (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY94)



Guyana Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: all of the area west of the Essequibo (river) claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari [Koetari] rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of cannabis

======================================================================

@Haiti



Haiti Introduction

Background: One of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. Over three decades of dictatorship followed by military rule ended in 1990 when Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE was elected president. Most of his term was usurped by a military takeover, but he was able to return to office in 1994 and oversee the installation of a close associate to the presidency in 1996. ARISTIDE won a second term as president in 2000, and took office early the following year.



Haiti Geography

Location: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 275 km

border countries: Dominican Republic 275 km

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 20%

permanent crops: 13%

permanent pastures: 18%

forests and woodland: 5%

other: 44% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)



Haiti People

Population: 6,964,549

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.31% (male 1,421,945; female 1,385,580)

15-64 years: 55.52% (male 1,869,323; female 1,997,246)

65 years and over: 4.17% (male 140,556; female 149,899) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.4% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 31.68 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.38 years

male: 47.67 years

female: 51.17 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.4 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.17% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 210,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 23,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups: black 95%, mulatto and white 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)

note: roughly one-half of the population also practices Voodoo

Languages: French (official), Creole (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 45%

male: 48%

female: 42.2% (1995 est.)



Haiti Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: Republique d'Haiti

local short form: Haiti

Government type: elected government

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution: approved March 1987; suspended June 1988, with most articles reinstated March 1989; in October 1991, government claimed to be observing the constitution; return to constitutional rule, October 1994

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Marie CHERESTAL (since 9 February 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the Congress

election results: Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE elected president; percent of vote - Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 92%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (27 seats; members serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (83 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held for two-thirds of seats 21 May 2000, with runoffs on 9 July boycotted by the opposition; about eight seats still disputed; election for remaining one-third held on 26 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 May 2000, with runoffs on 30 July boycotted by the opposition; one vacant seat rerun 26 November 2000 (next election NA 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FL 26, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FL 73, OPL 1, other minor parties and independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for the Liberation and Advancement of Haiti or ALAH [Reynold GEORGES]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convergence (opposition coalition composed of ESPACE, OPL, and MOCHRENA) [Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES, Evans PAUL, Luc MESADIEU, Victor BENOIT]; Democratic Consultation Group coalition or ESPACE [Evans PAUL, Victor Benoit] composed of the following parties: National Congress of Democratic Movements or KONAKOM, National Progressive Revolutionary Party or PANPRA, Generation 2004, and Haiti Can; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Marie-France CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic Party or PADEM [Clark PARENT]; Lavalas Family or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert DE RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Rene THEODORE]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; Movement for the Organization of the Country or MOP [Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE]; National Front for Change and Democracy or FNCD [Evans PAUL and Turneb DELPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Autonomous Haitian Workers or CATH; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, Caricom (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Louis Harold JOSEPH

chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090

FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Brian Dean CURRAN

embassy: 5 Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince

mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince

telephone: [509] 222-0354, 222-0269, 222-0200, 223-4776

FAX: [509] 23-1641

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)



Haiti Economy

Economy - overview: About 80% of the population lives in abject poverty. Nearly 70% of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming and employs about two-thirds of the economically active work force. The country has experienced little job creation since the former President PREVAL took office in February 1996, although the informal economy is growing. Following legislative elections in May 2000, fraught with irregularities, international donors - including the US and EU - suspended almost all aid to Haiti. This destabilized the Haitian currency, the gourde, and, combined with a 40% fuel price hike in September, caused widespread price increases. Prices appear to have leveled off in January 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 32%

industry: 20%

services: 48% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 80% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.6 million (1995)

note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%

Unemployment rate: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs (1999)

Budget: revenues: $317 million

expenditures: $362 million, including capital expenditures of $84 million (FY99/00 est.)

Industries: sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 672 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 52.83%

hydro: 47.17%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 625 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood

Exports: $186 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: manufactures, coffee, oils, mangoes

Exports - partners: US 89%, EU 8% (1999)

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: food, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials

Imports - partners: US 60%, EU 13% (1999)

Debt - external: $1 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $730.6 million (1995)

Currency: gourde (HTG)

Currency code: HTG

Exchange rates: gourdes per US dollar - 23.761 (January 2001), 22.524 (2000), 17.965 (1999), 16.505 (1998), 17.311 (1997), 15.093 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Haiti Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better

domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 26, shortwave 0 (1999)

Radios: 415,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)

Televisions: 38,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ht

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)

Internet users: 6,000 (2000)



Haiti Transportation

Railways: total: 40 km (single track; privately owned industrial line) - closed in early 1990s

narrow gauge: 40 km 0.760-m gauge

Highways: total: 4,160 km

paved: 1,011 km

unpaved: 3,149 km (1996)

Waterways: NEGL; less than 100 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Jeremie, Les Cayes, Miragoane, Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Saint-Marc

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 13 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)



Haiti Military

Military branches: Haitian National Police (HNP)

note: the regular Haitian Army, Navy, and Air Force have been demobilized but still exist on paper until constitutionally abolished

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,635,253 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 888,305 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 87,049 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA; note - mainly for police and security activities

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Haiti Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Illicit drugs: major Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; vulnerable to money laundering

======================================================================

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Introduction

Background: These uninhabited, barren islands were transferred from the UK to Australia in 1947. Populated by large numbers of seal and bird species, the islands have been designated a nature preserve.



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica

Geographic coordinates: 53 06 S, 72 31 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 412 sq km

land: 412 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than two times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101.9 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with a quiescent volcano; McDonald Islands - small and rocky

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Southern Ocean 0 m

highest point: Big Ben 2,745 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: Heard Island is dominated by a dormant volcano called Big Ben

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: primarily used for research stations



Heard Island and McDonald Islands People

Population: uninhabited (July 2001 est.)



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands

conventional short form: Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Communications

Internet country code: .hm



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



Heard Island and McDonald Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Holy See (Vatican City)



Holy See (Vatican City) Introduction

Background: Popes in their secular role ruled much of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century, when many of the Papal States were seized by the newly united Kingdom of Italy. In 1870, the pope's holdings were further circumscribed when Rome itself was annexed. Disputes between a series of "prisoner" popes and Italy were resolved in 1929 by three Lateran Treaties, which established the independent state of Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy. In 1984, a concordat between the Vatican and Italy modified certain of the earlier treaty provisions, including the primacy of Roman Catholicism as the Italian state religion. Present concerns of the Holy See include the failing health of Pope John Paul II, interreligious dialogue and reconciliation, and the adjustment of church doctrine in an era of rapid change and globalization. About 1 billion people worldwide profess the Catholic faith.



Holy See (Vatican City) Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 27 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 0.44 sq km

land: 0.44 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 3.2 km

border countries: Italy 3.2 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location 19 m

highest point: unnamed location 75 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution, Environmental Modification

Geography - note: urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights



Holy See (Vatican City) People

Population: 890 (July 2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: none

adjective: none

Ethnic groups: Italians, Swiss, other

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian, Latin, French, various other languages

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: 100%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Holy See (Vatican City) Government

Country name: conventional long form: The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)

conventional short form: Holy See (Vatican City)

local long form: Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)

local short form: Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)

Government type: ecclesiastical

Capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

National holiday: Coronation Day of Pope JOHN PAUL II, 22 October (1978)

Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Executive branch: chief of state: Pope JOHN PAUL II (since 16 October 1978)

head of government: Secretary of State Cardinal Angelo SODANO (since 2 December 1990)

cabinet: Pontifical Commission appointed by the pope

elections: pope elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope

election results: Karol WOJTYLA elected pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)

International organization participation: CE (observer), IAEA, ICFTU, Intelsat, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WHO (observer), WIPO, WToO (observer), WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Apostolic Nuncio Archbishop Gabriele MONTALVO

chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

embassy: Villa Domiziana, Via delle Terme Deciane 26, 00162 Rome

mailing address: PSC 59, Box F, APO AE 09624

telephone: [39] (06) 4674-3428

FAX: [39] (06) 5758346

Flag description: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in the white band



Holy See (Vatican City) Economy

Economy - overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%; note - dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers live outside the Vatican

Budget: revenues: $209.6 million

expenditures: $198.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%

hydro: NA%

nuclear: NA%

other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by Italy

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: Italian lira (ITL); euro (EUR)

Currency code: ITL; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Vatican lire per US dollar - 2,099 (2000), 1817.2 (1999), 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996); note - the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira; the Vatican will start using euros in 2002 in conjunction with Italy at a fixed rate of 1,936.17 lire per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Holy See (Vatican City) Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: automatic exchange

domestic: tied into Italian system

international: uses Italian system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1996)

Televisions: NA

Internet country code: .va

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 93 (Holy See and Italy) (2000)

Internet users: NA



Holy See (Vatican City) Transportation

Railways: total: 862 m; note - a spur of the Italian Railways system, serving Rome's Saint Peter's station

standard gauge: 862 m 1.435-m gauge (1999)

Highways: none; all city streets

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Holy See (Vatican City) Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at entrances to the Vatican City to provide security and protect the Pope



Holy See (Vatican City) Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Honduras



Honduras Introduction

Background: Part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and one-half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting against leftist guerrillas.



Honduras Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Nicaragua

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 86 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 112,090 sq km

land: 111,890 sq km

water: 200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total: 1,520 km

border countries: Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km

Coastline: 820 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 15%

permanent crops: 3%

permanent pastures: 14%

forests and woodland: 54%

other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 740 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast

Environment - current issues: urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water) as well as several rivers and streams with heavy metals; severe Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Honduras People

Population: 6,406,052

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.22% (male 1,381,823; female 1,322,684)

15-64 years: 54.21% (male 1,719,593; female 1,753,003)

65 years and over: 3.57% (male 108,271; female 120,678) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.43% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 31.94 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.35 years

male: 67.51 years

female: 71.28 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.15 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.92% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 63,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,200 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Honduran(s)

adjective: Honduran

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority

Languages: Spanish, Amerindian dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 72.7%

male: 72.6%

female: 72.7% (1995 est.)



Honduras Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Honduras

conventional short form: Honduras

local long form: Republica de Honduras

local short form: Honduras

Government type: democratic constitutional republic

Capital: Tegucigalpa

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended 1995

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law with increasing influence of English common law; recent judicial reforms include abandoning Napoleonic legal codes in favor of the oral adversarial system; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse (since 27 January 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; First Vice President William HANDAL (since NA); Second Vice President Gladys CABALLERO de Arevalo (since NA); Third Vice President Hector Vidal CERRATO Hernandez (since NA)

head of government: President Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse (since 27 January 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; First Vice President William HANDAL (since NA); Second Vice President Gladys CABALLERO de Arevalo (since NA); Third Vice President Hector Vidal CERRATO Hernandez (since NA)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 30 November 1997 (next to be held 25 November 2001)

election results: Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse elected president; percent of vote - Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse (PL) 50%, Nora de MELGAR (PN) 40%, other 10%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members are elected proportionally to the number of votes their party's presidential candidate receives to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 30 November 1997 (next to be held 25 November 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - PL 46%, PN 38%, PINU-SD 4%, PDC 2%, PUD 2%; seats by party - PL 67, PN 55, PINU-SD 3, PDC 2, PUD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are elected for four-year terms by the National Congress)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Efrain DIAZ Arrivillaga, president]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Marias FUNES Valladares, president]; Liberal Party or PL [Carlos Roberto FLORES Facusse, president]; National Innovation and Unity Party-Social Democratic Party or PINU-SD [Olban VALLADARES, president]; National Party of Honduras or PN [Carlos URBIZO, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Federation of Honduran Workers or FUTH

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hugo NOE PINO

chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702

FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

honorary consulate(s): Boston, Detroit, and Jacksonville

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Frank ALMAGUER

embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa

mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa

telephone: [504] 238-5114, 236-9320

FAX: [504] 236-9037

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band



Honduras Economy

Economy - overview: Honduras, one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, is banking on expanded trade privileges under the Enhanced Caribbean Basin Initiative and on debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. While reconstruction from 1998's Hurricane Mitch is at an advanced stage, and the country has met most of its macroeconomic targets, it failed to meet the IMF's goals to liberalize its energy and telecommunications sectors. Economic growth has rebounded nicely since the hurricane and should continue in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $17 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16.2%

industry: 31.9%

services: 51.9% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 53% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 42.1% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.3 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, industry 21%, services 50% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 28% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $607 million

expenditures: $411.9 million, including capital expenditures of $106 million (1999 est.)

Industries: sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.319 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 44.71%

hydro: 55.29%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.232 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 145 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, bananas, shrimp, lobster, meat; zinc, lumber

Exports - partners: US 35.4%, Germany 7.5%, El Salvador 6.4%, Guatemala 5.8%, Nicaragua 4.8% (1999)

Imports: $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: US 47.1%, Guatemala 7.4%, El Salvador 5.9%, Mexico 4.8%, Japan 4.7% (1999)

Debt - external: $5.4 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $557.8 million (1999)

Currency: lempira (HNL)

Currency code: HNL

Exchange rates: lempiras per US dollar - 15.1407 (December 2000), 15.1407 (2000), 14.5039 (1999), 13.8076 (1998), 13.0942 (1997), 12.8694 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Honduras Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 234,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 14,427 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate system

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 241, FM 53, shortwave 12 (1998)

Radios: 2.45 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (plus 17 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 570,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .hn

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Honduras Transportation

Railways: total: 595 km

narrow gauge: 349 km 1.067-m gauge; 246 km 0.914-m gauge (1999)

Highways: total: 15,400 km

paved: 3,126 km

unpaved: 12,274 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 465 km (navigable by small craft)

Ports and harbors: La Ceiba, Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela, Puerto Lempira

Merchant marine: total: 313 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 760,819 GRT/820,582 DWT

ships by type: bulk 21, cargo 187, chemical tanker 7, container 4, livestock carrier 2, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 52, refrigerated cargo 17, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Russia 4, Singapore 2, Vietnam 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 119 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 107

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 21

under 914 m: 84 (2000 est.)



Honduras Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,515,101 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 902,220 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 72,335 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $35 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.6% (FY99)



Honduras Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required; the maritime boundary dispute with Nicaragua in the Caribbean Sea is before the ICJ

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; vulnerable to money laundering

======================================================================

@Hong Kong



Hong Kong Introduction

Background: Occupied by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded by China the following year; various adjacent lands were added later in the 19th century. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Hong Kong and that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.



Hong Kong Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 1,092 sq km

land: 1,042 sq km

water: 50 sq km

Area - comparative: six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 30 km

border countries: China 30 km

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 20%

other: 72% (1997 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1997 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution from rapid urbanization

Environment - international agreements: party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)

Geography - note: more than 200 islands



Hong Kong People

Population: 7,210,505 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.73% (male 677,785; female 600,781)

15-64 years: 71.52% (male 2,554,329; female 2,602,662)

65 years and over: 10.75% (male 354,199; female 420,749) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.13 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.02 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.67 years

male: 76.97 years

female: 82.55 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.06% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, other 5%

Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English; both are official

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 92.2%

male: 96%

female: 88.2% (1996 est.)



Hong Kong Government

Country name: conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Hong Kong

local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu

local short form: Xianggang

abbreviation: HK

Dependency status: special administrative region of China

Government type: NA

Administrative divisions: none (special administrative region of China)

Independence: none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day

Constitution: Basic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies

Executive branch: chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)

head of government: Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex-officio members and 10 appointed members; ex-officio members are: Chief Secretary Anson CHAN (since 29 November 1993), Financial Secretary Donald TSANG (since 7 March 1995), and Secretary of Justice Elsie LEUNG (since 1 July 1997)

elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; 30 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 24 elected by popular vote, and 6 elected by an 800-member election committee; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 10 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 12, Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 10, Liberal Party 7, Frontier Party 5, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 4, New Century Forum 2, Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 1, independents 19

Judicial branch: The Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Political parties and leaders: Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee, chairman]; Citizens Party [leader NA]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong [Jasper TSANG Yok-sing, chairman]; Democratic Party [Martin LEE Chu-ming, chairman]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing, chairwoman]; Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [leader NA]; Hong Kong Progressive Alliance [Ambrose LAU Hon-chuen]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun, chairman]; New Century Forum [NQ Ching-fai, chairman]

note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood, Citizens Party, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, Liberal Party, New Century Forum

Political pressure groups and leaders: Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China) [LEE Chark-tim, president]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Liberal Democratic Federation [HU Fa-kuang, chairman]

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICC, ICFTU, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (special administrative region of China)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Consul General Michael KLOSSON

consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong

mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002

telephone: [852] 2523-9011

FAX: [852] 2845-1598

Flag description: red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center



Hong Kong Economy

Economy - overview: Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy highly dependent on international trade. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Indeed, imports and exports, including reexports, each exceed GDP in dollar value. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997 it had extensive trade and investment ties with China. Per capita GDP compares with the level in the four big countries of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% in 1989-97. The widespread Asian economic difficulties in 1998 hit this trade-dependent economy quite hard, with GDP down 5%. The economy is undergoing a rapid recovery, with growth of 10% in 2000 to be followed by projected growth of 5% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $181 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 10% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 14.3%

services: 85.6% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.39 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 31.5%, community and social services 24%, financing, insurance, and real estate 14.5%, transport and communications 11.6%, manufacturing 7.7%, construction 2.6% (October 1999)

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $20.8 billion

expenditures: $24.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2000)

Electricity - production: 27.726 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 32.202 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 633 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 7.05 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fresh vegetables; poultry

Exports: $204 billion (including reexports; f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: clothing, textiles, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys

Exports - partners: China 33%, US 24%, Japan 5%, UK 4%, Germany, Singapore (1999)

Imports: $215 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum; a large share is reexported

Imports - partners: China 44%, Japan 12%, US 7%, Taiwan 7%, South Korea, Singapore (1999)

Debt - external: $48.1 billion (1999)

Currency: Hong Kong dollar (HKD)

Currency code: HKD

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.7990 (January 2001), 7.7912 (2000), 7.7575 (1999), 7.7453 (1998), 7.7421 (1997), 7.7343 (1996); note - Hong Kong became a special administrative region of China on 1 July 1997; before then, the Hong Kong dollar was linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 Hong Kong dollars per US dollar

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Hong Kong Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.839 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3.7 million (December 1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services

domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 4.45 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 1.84 million (1997)

Internet country code: .hk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 17 (2000)

Internet users: 1.85 million (2000)



Hong Kong Transportation

Railways: total: 34 km

standard gauge: 34 km 1.435-m gauge (all electrified) (1996 est.)

Highways: total: 1,831 km

paved: 1,831 km

unpaved: 0 km (1997)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Hong Kong

Merchant marine: total: 354 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,330,662 GRT/17,227,315 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 208, cargo 36, chemical tanker 7, combination bulk 2, container 59, liquefied gas 6, multi-functional large-load carrier 2, petroleum tanker 26, refrigerated cargo 3, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Bermuda 2, Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 9, Japan 3, Mongolia 1, Norway 1, South Africa 1, UK 7 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3

over 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Hong Kong Military

Military branches: Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) including elements of the PLA Ground Forces, PLA Navy, and PLA Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,020,937 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,520,531 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 47,139 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA; note - separate budget for Hong Kong not established by China

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of China



Hong Kong Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin and regional stimulants trade; transshipment and money-laundering center; increasing indigenous amphetamine abuse

======================================================================

@Howland Island



Howland Island Introduction

Background: Discovered by the US early in the 19th century, the island was officially claimed by the US in 1857. Both US and British companies mined for guano until about 1890. Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt; it is named in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia EARHART. The island is administered by the US Department of the Interior as a National Wildlife Refuge.



Howland Island Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 48 N, 176 38 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 1.6 sq km

land: 1.6 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6.4 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 5%

other: 95%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife



Howland Island People

Population: uninhabited

note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2001 est.)



Howland Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Howland Island

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Legal system: the laws of the US, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of the US is used



Howland Island Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Howland Island Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one small boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia EARHART and Fred NOONAN - they left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable (2000 est.)

Transportation - note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt; named in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia EARHART



Howland Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard



Howland Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Hungary



Hungary Introduction

Background: Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.



Hungary Geography

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 93,030 sq km

land: 92,340 sq km

water: 690 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 2,009 km

border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Yugoslavia 151 km, Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Land use: arable land: 51%

permanent crops: 3.6%

permanent pastures: 12.4%

forests and woodland: 19%

other: 14% (1999)

Irrigated land: 2,060 sq km (1993 est.)

Environment - current issues: the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin



Hungary People

Population: 10,106,017 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.63% (male 862,468; female 818,052)

15-64 years: 68.66% (male 3,406,717; female 3,532,008)

65 years and over: 14.71% (male 546,992; female 939,780) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.32% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.32 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.63 years

male: 67.28 years

female: 76.3 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 98% (1980 est.)



Hungary Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Hungary

conventional short form: Hungary

local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag

local short form: Magyarorszag

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day, 20 August

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system

Legal system: rule of law based on Western model

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 6 July 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Viktor ORBAN elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%

note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 and 24 May 1998 (next to be held May/June 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSZP 32.0%, FIDESZ 28.2%, FKGP 13.8%, SZDSZ 7.9%, MIEP 5.5%, MMP 4.1%, MDF 2.8%, KDNP 2.3%, MDNP 1.5%; seats by party - MSZP 134, FIDESZ 148, FKGP 48, SZDSZ 24, MDF 17, MIEP 14, independent 1; note - seating as of 2000 by party - MSZP 136, FIDESZ 141, FKGP 48, SZDSZ 24, MDF 16, MIEP 12, independents 9

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Gabor DEMSZKY]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Federation of Young Democrats-Hungarian Civic Party or FYD-HCP [Laszlo KOVER]; note - used to be Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Geza JESZENSZKY

chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. TUFO

embassy: Szabadsag Ter 12, H.-1054 Budapest

mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270

telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400, 475-4703 (after hours)

FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green



Hungary Economy

Economy - overview: Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms is widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling $23 billion by 2000. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation - a top economic concern in 2000 - is still high at almost 10%, pushed upward by higher world oil and gas and domestic food prices. Economic reform measures such as health care reform, tax reform, and local government financing have not yet been addressed by the ORBAN government.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $113.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5%

industry: 35%

services: 60% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 8.6% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9%

highest 10%: 24.8% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13 billion

expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 18% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 36.75 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 61.09%

hydro: 0.51%

nuclear: 38.4%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 35.234 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 2.35 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 3.406 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Exports: $25.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment 59.5%, other manufactures 29.4%, food products 6.9%, raw materials 2.4%, fuels and electricity 1.8% (2000)

Exports - partners: Germany 37%, Austria 9%, Italy 6%, Netherlands 5% (2000)

Imports: $27.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 51.1%, other manufactures 35.9%, fuels and electricity 8.1%, food products 2.8%, raw materials 2.1% (2000)

Imports - partners: Germany 25%, Russia 8%, Austria 7%, Italy 7% (2000)

Debt - external: $29.6 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $122.7 million (1995)

Currency: forint (HUF)

Currency code: HUF

Exchange rates: forints per US dollar - 282.240 (January 2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999), 214.402 (1998), 186.789 (1997), 152.647 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Hungary Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.095 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.269 million (July 1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service

domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones

international: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 7.01 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 4.42 million (1997)

Internet country code: .hu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: 650,000 (2000)



Hungary Transportation

Railways: total: 7,606 km

broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 7,394 km 1.435-m gauge (2,270 km electrified; 1,236 km double track)

narrow gauge: 176 km 0.760-m gauge (1998)

note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) a distance of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria

Highways: total: 188,203 km

paved: 81,680 km (including 448 km of expressways)

unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Budapest, Dunaujvaros

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,199 GRT/1,050 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 43 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 16

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 27

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 5 (2000 est.)



Hungary Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force; note - there is a paramilitary Border Guard which is under the Ministry of Interior

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,573,119 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,050,404 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 64,121 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $822 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY00)



Hungary Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Gabcikovo/Nagymaros Dam dispute with Slovakia is before the ICJ

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine

======================================================================

@Iceland



Iceland Introduction

Background: Settled by Norwegian and Celtic (Scottish and Irish) immigrants during the late 9th and 10th centuries A.D., Iceland boasts the world's oldest functioning legislative assembly, the Althing, established in 930. Independent for over 300 years, Iceland was subsequently ruled by Norway and Denmark. Fallout from the Askja volcano of 1875 devastated the Icelandic economy and caused widespread famine. Over the next quarter century, 20% of the island's population emigrated, mostly to Canada and the US. Limited home rule from Denmark was granted in 1874 and complete independence attained in 1944. Literacy, longevity, income, and social cohesion are first-rate by world standards.



Iceland Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK

Geographic coordinates: 65 00 N, 18 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total: 103,000 sq km

land: 100,250 sq km

water: 2,750 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,988 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Hvannadalshnukur 2,119 m

Natural resources: fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 23%

forests and woodland: 1%

other: 76% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater treatment

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital in the world; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe



Iceland People

Population: 277,906 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.18% (male 33,238; female 31,191)

15-64 years: 65.01% (male 91,095; female 89,583)

65 years and over: 11.81% (male 14,681; female 18,118) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.54% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 14.62 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.52 years

male: 77.31 years

female: 81.92 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.14% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Icelander(s)

adjective: Icelandic

Ethnic groups: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Celts

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 93%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic, none (1997)

Languages: Icelandic

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.9% (1997 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Iceland Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Iceland

conventional short form: Iceland

local long form: Lyoveldio Island

local short form: Island

Government type: constitutional republic

Capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla, Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la, Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

note: there may be four other counties

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 June (1944)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August 1996)

head of government: Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 29 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2004); President GRIMSSON ran unopposed in June 2000 so there were no elections; prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON elected president; President GRIMSSON ran unopposed

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Althing (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 May 1999 (next to be held by April 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - Independence Party 40.7%, The Alliance (PA, People's Party, Women's List) 26.8%, Progressive Party 18.4%, Left-Green Alliance 9.1%, Liberal Party 4.2%; seats by party - Independence Party 26, The Alliance 17, Progressive Party 12, Left-Green Alliance 6, Liberal Party 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Haestirettur (justices are appointed for life by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Independence Party (conservative) or IP [David ODDSSON]; Left-Green Alliance [Steinsvimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party [Sverrir HERMANNSSON]; People's Party (Social Democratic Party) or SDP [Sighvatyr BJORGIVINSSON]; Progressive Party (liberal) or PP [Halldor ASGRIMSSON]; The Alliance (includes People's Alliance or PA, Social Democratic Party or SVP, People's Movement, Women's List) [Ossur SKARPHEDINSSON]; Women's List or WL [Kristin ASTGEIRSDOTTIR]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jon-Baldvin HANNIBALSSON

chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653

FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara J. GRIFFITHS

embassy: Laufasvegur 21, Reykjavik

mailing address: US Embassy, PSC 1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340

telephone: [354] 5629100

FAX: [354] 5629118

Flag description: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Iceland Economy

Economy - overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, yet with an extensive welfare system, low unemployment, and remarkably even distribution of income. In the absence of other natural resources (except for abundant hydrothermal and geothermal power), the economy depends heavily on the fishing industry, which provides 70% of export earnings and employs 12% of the work force. The economy remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to drops in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon. The center-right government plans to continue its policies of reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The government remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders' concern about losing control over their fishing resources. Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, and new developments in software production, biotechnology, and financial services are taking place. The tourism sector is also expanding, with the recent trends in ecotourism and whale watching. Growth has been remarkably steady over the past five years at 4%-5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.85 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15% (includes fishing 13%)

industry: 21%

services: 64% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 159,000 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5.1%, fishing and fish processing 11.8%, manufacturing 12.9%, construction 10.7%, other services 59.5% (1999)

Unemployment rate: 2.7% (January 2001)

Budget: revenues: $3.5 billion

expenditures: $3.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $467 million (1999)

Industries: fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production, geothermal power; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 7.069 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.07%

hydro: 84.64%

nuclear: 0%

other: 15.29% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.574 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, turnips; cattle, sheep; fish

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