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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Imports - partners: China (including Hong Kong) 49%, UK 15%, Netherlands 11.6%, Brazil 10%, Senegal 10% (1997)

Debt - external: $440 million (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $45.4 million (1995)

Currency: dalasi (GMD)

Currency code: GMD

Exchange rates: dalasi per US dollar - 15.000 (January 2001), 12.729 (3d quarter 1999), 11.395 (1999), 10.643 (1998), 10.200 (1997), 9.789 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Gambia, The Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,900 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 5,624 (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate; a packet switched data network is available

domestic: adequate network of microwave radio relay and open wire

international: microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 5, shortwave 0 (2000)

Radios: 196,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government-owned) (1997)

Televisions: 5,000 (2000)

Internet country code: .gm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2001)

Internet users: 5,000 (2001)



Gambia, The Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,700 km

paved: 956 km

unpaved: 1,744 km (1996)

Waterways: 400 km

Ports and harbors: Banjul

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Gambia, The Military

Military branches: Army (includes marine unit), National Police, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 316,873 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 159,764 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.6 million (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96/97)



Gambia, The Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Gaza Strip



Gaza Strip Introduction

Background: The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements (the DOP), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993, provided for a transitional period not exceeding five years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Under the DOP, Israel agreed to transfer certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, which includes the Palestinian Legislative Council elected in January 1996, as part of the interim self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho took place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area and in additional areas of the West Bank pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28 September 1995 Interim Agreement, the Israel-PLO 15 January 1997 Protocol Concerning Redeployment in Hebron, the Israel-PLO 23 October 1998 Wye River Memorandum, and the 4 September 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Agreement. The DOP provides that Israel will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external security and for internal security and public order of settlements and Israeli citizens. Permanent status is to be determined through direct negotiations, which resumed in September 1999 after a three-year hiatus. An intifadah broke out in September 2000; the resulting widespread violence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel's military response, and instability in the Palestinian Authority are undermining progress toward a permanent settlement.



Gaza Strip Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Israel

Geographic coordinates: 31 25 N, 34 20 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 360 sq km

land: 360 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 62 km

border countries: Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda) 105 m

Natural resources: arable land, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 39%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 11%

other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 120 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts

Environment - current issues: desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne disease; soil degradation

Geography - note: there are 25 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Gaza Strip (August 2000 est.)



Gaza Strip People

Population: 1,178,119 (July 2001 est.)

note: in addition, there are some 6,900 Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip (August 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 49.89% (male 301,288; female 286,481)

15-64 years: 47.32% (male 283,274; female 274,189)

65 years and over: 2.79% (male 14,121; female 18,766) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.01% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 42.48 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.21 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.01 years

male: 69.76 years

female: 72.32 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.42 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: NA

adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Palestinian Arab and other 99.4%, Jewish 0.6%

Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 98.7%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.6%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians), English (widely understood)

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Gaza Strip Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Gaza Strip

local long form: none

local short form: Qita Ghazzah



Gaza Strip Economy

Economy - overview: Economic output in the Gaza Strip - which comes under the responsibility of the Palestinian Authority since the Cairo Agreement of May 1994 - declined perhaps one-third between 1992 and 1996. The downturn was largely the result of Israeli closure policies - the imposition of generalized border closures in response to security incidents in Israel - which disrupted previously established labor and commodity market relationships between Israel and the WBGS (West Bank and Gaza Strip). The most serious negative social effect of this downturn was the emergence of high unemployment; unemployment in the WBGS during the 1980s was generally under 5%; by 1995 it had risen to over 20%. Since 1997 Israel's use of comprehensive closures has decreased and, in 1998, Israel implemented new policies to reduce the impact of closures and other security procedures on the movement of Palestinian goods and labor. These changes fueled an almost three-year long economic recovery in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; real GDP grew by 5% in 1998 and 6% in 1999. Recovery was upended in the last quarter of 2000 with the outbreak of Palestinian violence, which triggered tight Israeli closures of Palestinian self-rule areas and a severe disruption of trade and labor movements.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.11 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -7.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 9%

industry: 28%

services: 63% (1999 est., includes West Bank)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (includes West Bank) (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: services 66%, industry 21%, agriculture 13% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 40% (includes West Bank) (yearend 2000)

Budget: revenues: $1.6 billion

expenditures: $1.73 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA

note: includes West Bank (1999 est.)

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by Israel

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by Israel

Agriculture - products: olives, citrus, vegetables; beef, dairy products

Exports: $682 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.) (includes West Bank)

Exports - commodities: citrus, flowers

Exports - partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1998 est.) (includes West Bank)

Imports - commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials

Imports - partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Debt - external: $108 million (1997 est.) (includes West Bank)

Economic aid - recipient: $121 million disbursed (2000) (includes West Bank)

Currency: new Israeli shekel (ILS)

Currency code: ILS

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels per US dollar - 4.0810 (December 2000), 4.0773 (2000), 4.1397 (1999), 3.8001 (1998), 3.4494 (1997), 3.1917 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Gaza Strip Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 95,729 (total for Gaza Strip and West Bank) (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: rudimentary telephone services provided by an open wire system

international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA; note - most Palestinian households have radios (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (operated by the Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation) (1997)

Televisions: NA; note - most Palestinian households have televisions (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

Internet users: 23,520 (1999) (includes West Bank)



Gaza Strip Transportation

Railways: total: NA km; note - one line, abandoned and in disrepair, little trackage remains

Highways: total: NA km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km

note: small, poorly developed road network

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Gaza

Airports: 2

note: includes Gaza International Airport that opened on 24 November 1998 as part of agreements stipulated in the September 1995 Oslo II Accord and the 23 October 1998 Wye River Memorandum (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Gaza Strip Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Gaza Strip Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation

======================================================================

@Georgia



Georgia Introduction

Background: Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Russian troops remain garrisoned at four military bases and as peacekeepers in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia (but are scheduled to withdraw from two of the bases by July 2001). Despite a badly degraded transportation network - brought on by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages - the country continues to move toward a market economy and greater integration with Western institutions.



Georgia Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total: 69,700 sq km

land: 69,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 1,461 km

border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use: arable land: 9%

permanent crops: 4%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 34%

other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Georgia People

Population: 4,989,285 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.59% (male 498,575; female 478,663)

15-64 years: 67.91% (male 1,632,338; female 1,755,910)

65 years and over: 12.5% (male 241,824; female 381,975) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.59% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.18 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.58 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.57 years

male: 61.04 years

female: 68.28 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Georgian(s)

adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages: Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%

note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 100%

female: 98% (1989 est.)



Georgia Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Georgia

local long form: none

local short form: Sak'art'velo

former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 53 rayons (raionebi, singular - raioni), 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abashis, Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi), Adigenis, Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi), Akhalgoris, Akhalk'alak'is, Akhalts'ikhis, Akhmetis, Ambrolauris, Aspindzis, Baghdat'is, Bolnisis, Borjomis, Chiat'ura*, Ch'khorotsqus, Ch'okhatauris, Dedop'listsqaros, Dmanisis, Dushet'is, Gardabanis, Gori*, Goris, Gurjaanis, Javis, K'arelis, Kaspis, Kharagaulis, Khashuris, Khobis, Khonis, K'ut'aisi*, Lagodekhis, Lanch'khut'is, Lentekhis, Marneulis, Martvilis, Mestiis, Mts'khet'is, Ninotsmindis, Onis, Ozurget'is, P'ot'i*, Qazbegis, Qvarlis, Rust'avi*, Sach'kheris, Sagarejos, Samtrediis, Senakis, Sighnaghis, T'bilisi*, T'elavis, T'erjolis, T'et'ritsqaros, T'ianet'is, Tqibuli*, Ts'ageris, Tsalenjikhis, Tsalkis, Tsqaltubo*, Vanis, Zestap'onis, Zugdidi*, Zugdidis

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 is the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992; Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992; Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE reelected president; percent of vote - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 80%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%, IWSG 7.8%, all other parties received less than 7% each; seats by party - CUG 130, AGUR 58, IWSG 15, Abkhaz deputies 12, independents 17, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's recommendation); Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG [Eduard SHEVARDNADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; Socialist Party or SPG [Temur GAMTSEMLIDZE]; Union for "Revival" Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; United Republican Party or URP [Nodar NATADZE, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Georgian refugees from Abkhazia (Abkhaz faction in Georgian Parliament); separatist elements in the breakaway region of Abkhazia; supporters of the late ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA remain a source of opposition

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE

chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390

FAX: [1] (202) 393-4537

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth S. YALOWITZ

embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [995] (32) 989-967/68

FAX: [995] (32) 933-759

Flag description: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below



Georgia Economy

Economy - overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 1995, increasing GDP growth and slashing inflation. The Georgian economy continues to experience large budget deficits due to a failure to collect tax revenues. Georgia also still suffers from energy shortages; it privatized the distribution network in 1998, and deliveries are steadily improving. The country is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery on the development of an international transportation corridor through the key Black Sea ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. The growing trade deficit, continuing problems with tax evasion and corruption, and political uncertainties cloud the short-term economic picture.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $22.8 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 32%

industry: 23%

services: 45% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 3.08 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture 40%, services 40% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14.9% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $437 million

expenditures: $626 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (1999)

Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, electric locomotives, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes, chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 7.975 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 20.38%

hydro: 79.62%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 7.117 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 850 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 550 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes; livestock

Exports: $372 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery and metals; chemicals; fuel reexports; textiles

Exports - partners: Russia 19%, Turkey 16%, Azerbaijan 8%, Armenia 6% (1999)

Imports: $898 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts, transport equipment

Imports - partners: EU 22%, Russia 19%, Turkey 12%, US 12% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.9 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $212.7 million (1995)

Currency: lari (GEL)

Currency code: GEL

Exchange rates: lari per US dollar - 1.9798 (December 2000), 1.9762 (2000), 2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 (1998), 1.2975 (1997), 1.2628 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Georgia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 620,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 30,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available

international: Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 2.57 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ge

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Georgia Transportation

Railways: total: 1,583 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines

broad gauge: 1,583 km 1.520-m gauge (1993)

Highways: total: 33,900 km

paved: 29,500 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

unpaved: 4,400 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine: total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 131,316 GRT/190,289 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 25, chemical tanker 2, container 2, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 31 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 16

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Transportation - note: transportation network is in poor condition resulting from ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair



Georgia Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,296,199 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,024,574 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 41,561 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $23 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.59% (FY00)

Military - note: a CIS peacekeeping force consisting of Russian troops is deployed in the Abkhazia region of Georgia together with a UN military observer group; a Russian peacekeeping battalion is deployed in South Ossetia



Georgia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia

======================================================================

@Germany



Germany Introduction

Background: As Western Europe's richest and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the country in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries formed a common European currency, the euro.



Germany Geography

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 357,021 sq km

land: 349,223 sq km

water: 7,798 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total: 3,618 km

border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 135 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m

highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land

Land use: arable land: 33%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 15%

forests and woodland: 31%

other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment - current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government currently attempting to define mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea



Germany People

Population: 83,029,536 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.57% (male 6,635,328; female 6,289,994)

15-64 years: 67.82% (male 28,619,237; female 27,691,698)

65 years and over: 16.61% (male 5,336,664; female 8,456,615) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.27% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.61 years

male: 74.47 years

female: 80.92 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 37,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 600 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: German(s)

adjective: German

Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek, Polish, Spanish)

Religions: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 1.7%, unaffiliated or other 26.3%

Languages: German

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1977 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Germany Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany

conventional short form: Germany

local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland

former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Berlin

Administrative divisions: 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991

National holiday: Unity Day, 3 October (1990)

Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Johannes RAU (since 1 July 1999)

head of government: Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October 1998)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor

elections: president elected for a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23 May 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held in the fall of 2002)

election results: Johannes RAU elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - 57.6%; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly - 52.7%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (656 seats usually, but 669 for the 1998 term; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)

elections: Federal Assembly - last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held by the fall of 2002); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election

election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 40.9%, Alliance '90/Greens 6.7%, CDU/CSU 35.1%, FDP 6.2%, PDS 5.1%; seats by party - SPD 298, Alliance '90/Greens 47, CDU/CSU 245, FDP 43, PDS 36; Federal Council - current composition - votes by party - SPD-led states 26, CDU-led states 28, grand coalitions 15

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance '90/Greens [Renate KUENAST and Fritz KUHN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman]; note - Wolfgang GERHARDT will probably be replaced by Guido WESTERWELLE in May 2001; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gabi ZIMMER]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG

chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 298-8141

FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

consulate(s): Wellington (America Samoa)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John C. KORNBLUM (was due to resign on 20 January 2001)

embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin

mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265

telephone: [49] (30) 238-5174

FAX: [49] (30) 238-6290

consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold



Germany Economy

Economy - overview: Germany possesses the world's third most technologically powerful economy after the US and Japan, but structural market rigidities - including the substantial non-wage costs of hiring new workers - have made unemployment a long-term, not just a cyclical, problem. Germany's aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy remains a costly long-term problem, with annual transfers from western Germany amounting to roughly $70 billion. Growth picked up to 3% in 2000, largely due to recovering global demand; newly passed business and income tax cuts are expected to keep growth strong in 2001. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are transforming the German economy to meet the challenges of European economic integration and globalization in general.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.936 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1.2%

industry: 30.4%

services: 68.4% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 40.5 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%, services 63.8% (1999)

Unemployment rate: 9.9% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $996 billion

expenditures: $1.036 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.7% (2000)

Electricity - production: 531.377 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 63.29%

hydro: 3.59%

nuclear: 30.3%

other: 2.82% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 495.181 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 39.5 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 40.5 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry

Exports: $578 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles

Exports - partners: EU 55.3% (France 11.3%, UK 8.3%, Italy 7.3%, Netherlands 6.3%, Belgium/Luxembourg 5.1%), US 10.1%, Japan 2.0% (1999)

Imports: $505 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals

Imports - partners: EU 52.2% (France 10.5%, Netherlands 7.6%, Italy 7.4%, UK 6.9%, Belgium/Luxembourg 5.6%), US 8.1%, Japan 4.9% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)

Currency: deutsche mark (DEM); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Germany at a fixed rate of 1.95583 deutsche marks per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: DEM; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69 (January 1999), 1.7597 (1998), 1.7341 (1997), 1.5048 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Germany Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 45.2 million (1997)

note: 46.5 million main lines were installed by yearend 1998

Telephones - mobile cellular: 15.318 million (April 1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part

domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

international: satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean region); 7 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication centers; tropospheric scatter links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 51, FM 767, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 77.8 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 51.4 million (1998)

Internet country code: .de

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 123 (2000)

Internet users: 18 million (2000)



Germany Transportation

Railways: total: 40,826 km including at least 14,253 km electrified and 14,768 km double- or multiple-tracked (1998)

note: since privatization in 1994, Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer publishes details of the tracks it owns; in addition to the DBAG system there are 102 privately owned railway companies which own an approximate 3,000 km to 4,000 km of the total tracks

Highways: total: 656,140 km

paved: 650,891 km (including 11,400 km of expressways)

unpaved: 5,249 km (all-weather) (1998 est.)

Waterways: 7,500 km

note: major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart

Merchant marine: total: 457 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,414,724 GRT/7,952,776 DWT

ships by type: cargo 169, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 243, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 7 (2000 est.)

Airports: 613 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 322

over 3,047 m: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 55

1,524 to 2,437 m: 67

914 to 1,523 m: 63

under 914 m: 124 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 291

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 53

under 914 m: 225 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 59 (2000 est.)



Germany Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force, Medical Corps, Border Police, Coast Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 20,851,022 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 17,760,412 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 482,318 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $32.8 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY98)



Germany Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs

======================================================================

@Ghana



Ghana Introduction

Background: Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. He was succeeded by John KUFUOR.



Ghana Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 238,540 sq km

land: 230,020 sq km

water: 8,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total: 2,093 km

border countries: Burkina Faso 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 7%

permanent pastures: 22%

forests and woodland: 35%

other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts

Environment - current issues: recent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)



Ghana People

Population: 19,894,014

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.18% (male 4,123,317; female 4,068,786)

15-64 years: 55.35% (male 5,455,577; female 5,555,278)

65 years and over: 3.47% (male 328,809; female 362,247) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.79% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.95 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.26 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 56.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.24 years

male: 55.86 years

female: 58.66 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.6% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 340,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 33,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ghanaian(s)

adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups: black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%

Languages: English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 64.5%

male: 75.9%

female: 53.5% (1995 est.)



Ghana Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ghana

conventional short form: Ghana

former: Gold Coast

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April 1992

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 and 28 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)

election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR elected president in runoff; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 56.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (200 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NPP 100, NDC 92, PNC 3, CPP 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kobena KOOMSON

chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520

FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn D. ROBINSON

embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra

mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra

telephone: [233] (21) 775348

FAX: [233] (21) 776008

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band



Ghana Economy

Economy - overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 36% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. In 1995-97, Ghana made mixed progress under a three-year structural adjustment program in cooperation with the IMF. On the minus side, public sector wage increases and regional peacekeeping commitments have led to continued inflationary deficit financing, depreciation of the cedi, and rising public discontent with Ghana's austerity measures. Political uncertainty and a depressed cocoa market led to disappointing growth in 2000. A rebound in the cocoa market should push growth over 4% in 2001-02.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $37.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 36%

industry: 25%

services: 39% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 31.4% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 26.1% (1997)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 9 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry 15%, services 25% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.39 billion

expenditures: $1.47 billion, including capital expenditures of $370 million (1996 est.)

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 5.466 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 26.82%

hydro: 73.18%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 5.573 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 400 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 890 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds

Exports - partners: Togo, UK, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, US, France (1998)

Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: UK, Nigeria, US, Germany, Italy, Spain (1998)

Debt - external: $7 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $477.3 million (1995)

Currency: cedi (GHC)

Currency code: GHC

Exchange rates: cedis per US dollar - 6,895.77 (January 2001), 5,321.68 (2000), 2,647.32 (1999), 2,314.15 (1998), 2,050.17 (1997), 1,637.23 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Ghana Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 200,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 30,000 (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway

domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed

international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 18, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 4.4 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1999)

Televisions: 1.73 million (1997)

Internet country code: .gh

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Ghana Transportation

Railways: total: 953 km (undergoing major rehabilitation)

narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (32 km double track) (1997 est.)

Highways: total: 39,409 km

paved: 11,653 km (including 30 km of expressways)

unpaved: 27,756 km (1997)

Waterways: 1,293 km

note: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

Pipelines: 0 km

Ports and harbors: Takoradi, Tema

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,484 GRT/18,583 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 4 (2000 est.)

Airports: 12 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Ghana Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, Palace Guard, Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,890,483 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,713,584 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 213,237 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $53 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.7% (FY99)



Ghana Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US

======================================================================

@Gibraltar



Gibraltar Introduction

Background: Strategically important, Gibraltar was ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a 1967 referendum, Gibraltarians ignored Spanish pressure and voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency.



Gibraltar Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 36 11 N, 5 22 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 6.5 sq km

land: 6.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 1.2 km

border countries: Spain 1.2 km

Coastline: 12 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: limited natural freshwater resources; large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater

Geography - note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea



Gibraltar People

Population: 27,649 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.73% (male 2,652; female 2,528)

15-64 years: 66.33% (male 9,473; female 8,866)

65 years and over: 14.94% (male 1,733; female 2,397) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.24% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.25 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.82 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.09 years

male: 76.23 years

female: 82.1 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Gibraltarian(s)

adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese

Religions: Roman Catholic 76.9%, Church of England 6.9%, Muslim 6.9%, Jewish 2.3%, none or other 7% (1991)

Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: above 80%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Gibraltar Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Gibraltar

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Gibraltar

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, second Monday of March

Constitution: 30 May 1969

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects who have been residents six months or more

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and Commander-in-Chief David DURIE (since 5 April 2000); note - DURIE was appointed in February 2000 but took office in April 2000

head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 15 elected members of the House of Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister; note - there is also a Gibraltar Council that advises the governor

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (18 seats - 15 elected by popular vote, one appointed for the Speaker, and two ex officio members; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 10 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 58%, GSLP 41%; seats by party - GSD 8, GSLP 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Housewives Association

International organization participation: Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band



Gibraltar Economy

Economy - overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 11% to the local economy. The financial sector accounts for 20% of GDP; tourism (almost 6 million visitors in 1998), shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,500 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1998)

Labor force: 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 40%, agriculture NEGL%

Unemployment rate: 13.5% (1996)

Budget: revenues: $307 million

expenditures: $284 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, ship-building and repairing; support to large UK naval and air bases; tobacco, mineral water, beer, canned fish

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 95 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 88.4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: none

Exports: $81.1 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%

Exports - partners: UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, Germany

Imports: $492 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs

Imports - partners: UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Gibraltar pound (GIP)

Currency code: GIP

Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds per US dollar - 0.6764 (January 2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996); note - the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Gibraltar Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,620 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities

domestic: automatic exchange facilities

international: radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .gi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Gibraltar Transportation

Railways: total: NA km; 1.000-m gauge system in dockyard area only

Highways: total: 46.25 km

paved: 46.25 km

unpaved: 0 km (2001)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: 0 km

Ports and harbors: Gibraltar

Merchant marine: total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 669,056 GRT/1,003,809 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 15, chemical tanker 6, container 7, multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Gibraltar Military

Military branches: British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Gibraltar Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: source of friction between Spain and the UK

======================================================================

@Glorioso Islands



Glorioso Islands Introduction

Background: A French possession since 1892, the Glorioso Islands are composed of two lushly vegetated islands (Ile Glorieuse and Ile du Lys) and three rock islets. A military garrison operates a weather and radio station on Ile Glorieuse.



Glorioso Islands Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 S, 47 20 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 5 sq km

land: 5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South Rock

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low and flat

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 12 m

Natural resources: guano, coconuts

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA



Glorioso Islands People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: there is a small French military garrison (July 2001 est.)



Glorioso Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Glorioso Islands

local long form: none

local short form: Iles Glorieuses

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (possession of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Glorioso Islands Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Glorioso Islands Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station



Glorioso Islands Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Glorioso Islands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Glorioso Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

======================================================================

@Greece



Greece Introduction

Background: Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship, which in 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country, lasted seven years. Democratic elections in 1974 and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy; Greece joined the European Community or EC in 1981 (which became the EU in 1992).



Greece Geography

Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 131,940 sq km

land: 130,800 sq km

water: 1,140 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries: total: 1,210 km

border countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 6 NM

Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m

Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble, hydropower potential

Land use: arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 8%

permanent pastures: 41%

forests and woodland: 20%

other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution; water pollution

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands



Greece People

Population: 10,623,835 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.98% (male 820,219; female 771,466)

15-64 years: 67.3% (male 3,580,535; female 3,569,755)

65 years and over: 17.72% (male 834,234; female 1,047,626) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.21% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.83 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.73 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.59 years

male: 76.03 years

female: 81.32 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.33 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.16% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 8,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Greek(s)

adjective: Greek

Ethnic groups: Greek 98%, other 2%

note: the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

Languages: Greek 99% (official), English, French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95%

male: 98%

female: 93% (1991 est.)



Greece Government

Country name: conventional long form: Hellenic Republic

conventional short form: Greece

local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia

local short form: Ellas or Ellada

former: Kingdom of Greece

Government type: parliamentary republic; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions: 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos)and 1 autonomous region*; Ayion Oros* (Mt. Athos), Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Drama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Irakleion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkyra, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos

Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March (1821)

Constitution: 11 June 1975; amended March 1986

Legal system: based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Konstandinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since 10 March 1995)

head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos SIMITIS (since 19 January 1996)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 8 February 2000 (next to be held by NA March 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Konstandinos STEPHANOPOULOS reelected president; percent of Parliament vote - 90%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: elections last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held by NA April 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - PASOK 43.8%, ND 42.7%, KKE 5.5%, Coalition of the Left and Progress 3.2%; seats by party - PASOK 158, ND 125, KKE 11, Coalition of the Left and Progress 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Nikolaos KONSTANDOPOULOS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Konstandinos SIMITIS]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, G- 6, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alexandros PHILON

chancery: 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 939-5824

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston, and New Orleans

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador R. Nicholas BURNS

embassy: 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens

mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108

telephone: [30] (1) 721-2951

FAX: [30] (1) 645-6282

consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki

Flag description: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country



Greece Economy

Economy - overview: Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the public sector accounting for about half of GDP. Tourism is a key industry, providing a large portion of GDP and foreign exchange earnings. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 4% of GDP. The economy has improved steadily over the last few years, as the government has tightened policy in the run-up to Greece's entry into the EU's Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 2001. In particular, Greece has cut its budget deficit to below 1% of GDP and tightened monetary policy, with the result that inflation fell from 20% in 1990 to 3.1% in 2000. Major challenges remaining include the reduction of unemployment and further restructuring of the economy, including the privatization of some leading state enterprises. Growth, 3.8% in 2000, may fall off to 3%-3.5% in 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $181.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,200 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8.3%

industry: 27.3%

services: 64.4% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 25.3% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.32 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 21%, agriculture 20%, services 59% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.3% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $45 billion

expenditures: $47.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: tourism; food and tobacco processing, textiles; chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 46.432 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 89.6%

hydro: 9.72%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.68% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 43.343 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1.65 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 1.811 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products

Exports: $15.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, food and beverages, petroleum products

Exports - partners: EU 49% (Germany 15%, Italy 13%, UK 6%), US 6% (1999)

Imports: $33.9 billion (c.i.f., 2000)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, foodstuffs, fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners: EU 66% (Italy 15%, Germany 15%, France 9%, UK 6%) (1999)

Debt - external: $57 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $5.4 billion from EU (1997 est.)

Currency: drachma (GRD); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Greece (which entered the European Monetary Union on 1 January 2001) at a fixed rate of 340.750 drachmae per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: GRD; EUR

Exchange rates: drachmae per US dollar - 380.21 (December 2000), 365.40 (2000), 305.65 (1999), 295.53 (1998), 273.06 (1997), 240.71 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Greece Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5.431 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 937,700 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service

domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands

international: tropospheric scatter; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 88, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 5.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 36 (plus 1,341 low-power repeaters); also two stations in the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (1995)

Televisions: 2.54 million (1997)

Internet country code: .gr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 27 (2000)

Internet users: 1.33 million (1999)



Greece Transportation

Railways: total: 2,548 km

standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (36 km electrified; 23 km double track)

narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (a rack-type railway for steep grades)

Highways: total: 117,000 km

paved: 107,406 km (including 470 km of expressways)

unpaved: 9,594 km (1996)

Waterways: 80 km

note: system consists of three coastal canals including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Peiraiefs (Piraeus) by 325 km; there are also three unconnected rivers

Pipelines: crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandroupolis, Elefsis, Irakleion (Crete), Kavala, Kerkyra, Chalkis, Igoumenitsa, Lavrion, Patrai, Peiraiefs (Piraeus), Thessaloniki, Volos

Merchant marine: total: 780 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,564,988 GRT/44,761,916 DWT

ships by type: bulk 272, cargo 55, chemical tanker 22, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 51, liquefied gas 5, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 14, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 255, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 20, short-sea passenger 63, specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: South Korea 1, UK 4 (2000 est.)

Airports: 81 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 65

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 15

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 16

under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 16

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Greece Military

Military branches: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard, Police

Military manpower - military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,673,539 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,040,227 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 77,976 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.12 billion (FY99/00 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.91% (FY99/00 est.)



Greece Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Turkey; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia over its name

Illicit drugs: a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece

======================================================================

@Greenland



Greenland Introduction

Background: The world's largest island, about 84% ice-capped, Greenland was granted self-government in 1978 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs.



Greenland Geography

Location: Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada

Geographic coordinates: 72 00 N, 40 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total: 2,175,600 sq km

land: 2,175,600 sq km (341,700 sq km ice-free, 1,833,900 sq km ice-covered) (est.)

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 44,087 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Gunnbjorn 3,700 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 1%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island

Environment - current issues: protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting

Geography - note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap



Greenland People

Population: 56,352 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.69% (male 7,649; female 7,392)

15-64 years: 67.87% (male 20,868; female 17,376)

65 years and over: 5.44% (male 1,385; female 1,682) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.06% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 16.52 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.2 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.37 years

male: 64.82 years

female: 72.01 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 100 (1999)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Greenlander(s)

adjective: Greenlandic

Ethnic groups: Greenlander 88% (Inuit and Greenland-born whites), Danish and others 12% (January 2000)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%

note: similar to Denmark proper



Greenland Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Greenland

local long form: none

local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979

Government type: parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nuuk (Godthab)

Administrative divisions: 3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland), Tunu (Ostgronland), Kitaa (Vestgronland)

note: there are 18 municipalities in Greenland

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979)

note: foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland

National holiday: June 21 (longest day)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Gunnar MARTENS (since NA 1995)

head of government: Prime Minister Jonathan MOTZFELDT (since 19 September 1997)

cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties

elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 16 February 1999 (next to be held NA February 2003)

election results: Jonathan MOTZFELDT reelected prime minister following the 16 February 1999 elections; percent of parliamentary vote - 57.3%

note: government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Landstinget (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 16 February 1999 (next to be held by NA February 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.2%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 22.1%, Atassut Party 25.2%, Candidate's League 12.3%, independent 5.2%; seats by party - Siumut 11, Atassut 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 7, Candidate List 4, independent 1

note: two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 11 March 1998 (next to be held by not later than March 2002); percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.6%, Atassut 35.2%; seats by party - Siumut 1, Atassut 1; Greenlandic representatives are affiliated with Danish political parties (Siamut with Social Democratic Party and Atassut with Liberal Party)

Judicial branch: High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)

Political parties and leaders: Akulliit Party [Bjarne KREUTZMANN]; Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark) [Daniel SKIFTE]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party with no official platform [leader NA]; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Jonathan MOTZFELDT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ICC, NC, NIB

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom half is white



Greenland Economy

Economy - overview: The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 24,500 (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $646 million

expenditures: $629 million, including capital expenditures of $85 million (1999)

Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, furs, small shipyards

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 250 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 41%

hydro: 59%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0%

note: Greenland is shifting its electricity production from fossil fuel to hydroelectric power production (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 232.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish

Exports: $276 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 94%

Exports - partners: EU (mainly Denmark) 85%, Japan 8%, US 2% (1999)

Imports: $400 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products

Imports - partners: EU (mostly Denmark), Norway, US, Canada

Debt - external: $25 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $380 million subsidy from Denmark (1999)

Currency: Danish krone (DKK)

Currency code: DKK

Exchange rates: Danish kroner per US dollar - 7.951 (January 2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Greenland Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 25,617 (end 1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 12,676 (end 1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995

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