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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Fijian(s)

adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: Fijian 51% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 44%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%

note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91.6%

male: 93.8%

female: 89.3% (1995 est.)



Fiji Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands

conventional short form: Fiji

Government type: republic

note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, second Monday of October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990; amended 25 July 1997 to allow nonethnic Fijians greater say in government and to make multiparty government mandatory; entered into force 28 July 1998; note - the May 1999 election was the first test of the amended constitution and introduced open voting - not racially prescribed - for the first time at the national level

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: note: armed ethnic Fijian terrorists, led by George SPEIGHT stormed the Parliament building on 19 May 2000; ethnic Indo-Fijian Prime Minister Mahendra CHAUDHRY and his government were held hostage for 56 days; following the attempted coup, the Commander of the Fiji Military Forces, naval Commodore Frank BAINIMARAMA declared martial law and dissolved the government on 29 May 2000; an interim government, headed by interim Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE, was appointed to serve until a new constitution was initiated and subsequent elections held; in November 2000, Fiji's High Court upheld the 1997 constitution and ruled that Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA remained the president; Justice Anthony GATES concluded that MARA should recall the pre-May 19th Parliament and appoint a prime minister to form a new government; the Fiji Court of Appeals upheld GATES' decision on 1 March 2001; it ruled that the 1997 constitution had not been abrogated, Parliament had not been dissolved, only prorogued for six months, and that the presidency remained vacant since MARA's resignation took effect 15 December 2000; President Ratu Josefa ILOILO reinstated QARASE's interim government as the caretaker government and elections were scheduled for August 2001; approximately 23 fluid political parties are currently jockeying for power

chief of state: President Ratu Josefa ILOILO (since NA 2000); Vice President Jope SENILOLI (since NA 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since NA 2000); Deputy Prime Minister Epeli NAILATIKAU (since NA 2000)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament; note -there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly system

elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ratu Josefa ILOILO elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - NA%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (32 seats; 14 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs, nine appointed by the prime minister, eight appointed by the leader of the opposition, and one appointed by the council of Rotuma) and the House of Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved for ethnic Indians, three reserved for other ethnic groups, one reserved for the council of Rotuma constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji, and 25 open; members serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 11 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2004)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Fiji Labor Party 37, others 34

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; Fijian Nationalist Federation Party or NFP [Singh RAKKA]; Fijian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fijian) [Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA]; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indian) [Jai Ram REDDY]; United General Party or UGP [David PICKERING]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Salaseini Lelelvawalu VOSAILAGI

chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320

FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Osman M. SIDDIQUE

embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva

mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva

telephone: [679] 314466

FAX: [679] 300081

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove



Fiji Economy

Economy - overview: Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports and a growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Roughly 300,000 tourists visit each year, including thousands of Americans following the start of regularly scheduled non-stop air service from Los Angeles. Fiji's growth slowed in 1997 because the sugar industry suffered from low world prices and rent disputes between farmers and landowners. Drought in 1998 further damaged the sugar industry, but its recovery in 1999 contributed to robust GDP growth. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain property rights. The political turmoil in Fiji has had a severe impact with the economy shrinking by 8% in 1999 and over 7,000 people losing their jobs. The interim government's 2001 budget is an attempt to attract foreign investment and restart economic activity. The government's ability to manage the budget and fulfill predictions of 4% growth for 2001 will depend on a return to stability, a regaining of investor confidence, and the absence of international sanctions (which could cripple Fiji's sugar and textile industry).

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16%

industry: 30%

services: 54% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 235,000

Labor force - by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $610 million

expenditures: $501 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1995)

Electricity - production: 510 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 17.65%

hydro: 82.35%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 474.3 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish

Exports: $537 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish

Exports - partners: Australia 33.1%, US 14.8%, UK 13.8%, other Pacific island countries 8.8%, NZ 4.5%, Japan 4.5% (1999)

Imports: $653 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: Australia 41.9%, US 14%, NZ 13.3%, Japan 4.8%, Taiwan 1.9% (1999)

Debt - external: $193 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $40.3 million (1995)

Currency: Fijian dollar (FJD)

Currency code: FJD

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars per US dollar - 2.1814 (January 2001), 2.1286 (2000), 1.9696 (1999), 1.9868 (1998), 1.4437 (1997), 1.4033 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Fiji Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 72,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 5,200 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center

domestic: NA

international: access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 500,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 21,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .fj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 7,500 (2000)



Fiji Transportation

Railways: total: 597 km; note - belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation

narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 3,440 km

paved: 1,692 km

unpaved: 1,748 km (1996)

Waterways: 203 km

note: 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors: Lambasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,870 GRT/14,787 DWT

ships by type: chemical tanker 2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 27 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 24

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 19 (2000 est.)



Fiji Military

Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes ground and naval forces)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 227,599 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 125,238 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 9,471 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $24 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY98)



Fiji Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Finland



Finland Introduction

Background: Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and by Russia from 1809, Finland finally won its independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend off invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany. In the subsequent half century, the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.



Finland Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 337,030 sq km

land: 305,470 sq km

water: 31,560 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total: 2,628 km

border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 NM)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use: arable land: 8%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 76%

other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain



Finland People

Population: 5,175,783 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 474,967; female 456,584)

15-64 years: 66.97% (male 1,750,660; female 1,715,358)

65 years and over: 15.03% (male 300,569; female 477,645) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.16% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 10.69 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.75 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.58 years

male: 73.92 years

female: 81.36 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Sami 0.11%, Roma 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%

Languages: Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100% (1980 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Finland Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen Tasavalta

local short form: Suomi

Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority party by the president after parliamentary elections

election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esco AHO (Kesk) 48.4%

note: government coalition - SDP, Kok, Leftist Alliance (People's Democratic Union and Democratic Alternative), SFP, and Green Union

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 21 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 22.9%, Kesk 22.5%, Kok 21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.9%, SFP 5.1%, Green Union 7.2%, SKL 4.2%; seats by party - SDP 51, Kesk 48, Kok 46, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 20, SFP 11, Green Union 11, SKL 10, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk [Esko AHO]; Finnish Christian Union or SKL [C. P. Bjarne KALLIS]; Green Union [Satu HASSI]; Leftist Alliance (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Suvi-Anne SIIMES]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Sauli NIINISTO]; Reform Group [Risto KUISMA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Jan-Erik ENESTAM]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist Workers Party [Timo LAHDENMAKI]; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Communist Party-Unity [Yrjo HAKANEN]; Finnish Pensioners Party

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jaakko Tapani LAAJAVA

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Carol VAN VOORST

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, FIN-00140, Helsinki

mailing address: APO AE 09723

telephone: [358] (9) 171931

FAX: [358] (9) 174681

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Finland Economy

Economy - overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling more than one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the euro monetary system (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2001 will be bolstered by strong private consumption, yet may be 1 or 2 points lower than in 2000, largely because of a weakening in export demand.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $118.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 29%

services: 67.5% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.6 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: public services 32%, industry 22%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, agriculture and forestry 8%, transport and communications 8%, construction 6%

Unemployment rate: 9.8% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $36.1 billion

expenditures: $31 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 7.5% (2000)

Electricity - production: 75.792 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 41.88%

hydro: 16.77%

nuclear: 28.82%

other: 12.53% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 81.611 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 232 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 11.356 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

Exports: $44.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp

Exports - partners: EU 58% (Germany 13%, Sweden 10%, UK 9%, France 5%, Netherlands 4%), US 8%, Russia, Japan (1999)

Imports: $32.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Imports - partners: EU 60% (Germany 15%, Sweden 11%, UK 7%), US 8%, Russia 7%, Japan 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $379 million (1997)

Currency: markka (FIM); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Finland at a fixed rate of 5.94573 markkaa per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: FIM; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); markkaa per US dollar - 5.3441 (1998), 5.1914 (1997), 4.5936 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Finland Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.861 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,162,574 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: modern system with excellent service

domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular net provide domestic needs

international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 7.7 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 130 (plus 385 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.2 million (1997)

Internet country code: .fi

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 23 (2000)

Internet users: 2.27 million (2000)



Finland Transportation

Railways: total: 5,865 km

broad gauge: 5,865 km 1.524-m gauge (2,192 km electrified; 480 km double or multiple track) (1998)

Highways: total: 77,796 km

paved: 49,789 km (including 444 km of expressways)

unpaved: 28,042 km (1999)

Waterways: 6,675 km

note: includes Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for large ships

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine: total: 98 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,172,808 GRT/1,138,175 DWT

ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 5, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 11, railcar carrier 1, roll on/roll off 37, short-sea passenger 11 (2000 est.)

Airports: 159 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 69

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 26

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 90

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 84 (2000 est.)



Finland Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,251,700 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,033,188 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 33,883 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.8 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY98)



Finland Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@France



France Introduction

Background: Although ultimately a victor in World Wars I and II, France suffered extensive losses in its empire, wealth, manpower, and rank as a dominant nation-state. Nevertheless, France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. Since 1958, it has constructed a presidential democracy resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier parliamentary democracies. In recent years, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the advent of the euro in January 1999. Presently, France is at the forefront of European states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to advance the creation of a more unified and capable European defense and security apparatus.



France Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 547,030 sq km

land: 545,630 sq km

water: 1,400 sq km

note: includes only metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas administrative divisions

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: total: 2,889 km

border countries: Andorra 56.6 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM (does not apply to the Mediterranean)

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m

highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, potash, timber, fish

Land use: arable land: 33%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 20%

forests and woodland: 27%

other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 16,300 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding; avalanches

Environment - current issues: some forest damage from acid rain (major forest damage occurred as a result of severe December 1999 windstorm); air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest West European nation



France People

Population: 59,551,227 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.68% (male 5,698,604; female 5,426,838)

15-64 years: 65.19% (male 19,424,018; female 19,399,588)

65 years and over: 16.13% (male 3,900,579; female 5,701,600) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.37% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.1 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 9.09 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.9 years

male: 75.01 years

female: 83.01 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.44% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers) 3%, unaffiliated 4%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (1980 est.)



France Government

Country name: conventional long form: French Republic

conventional short form: France

local long form: Republique Francaise

local short form: France

Government type: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes

note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the overseas territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)

head of government: Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 June 1997)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the suggestion of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 23 April and 7 May 1995 (next to be held by May 2002); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president

election results: Jacques CHIRAC elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC (RPR) 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN (PS) 47.36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (321 seats - 296 for metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a single-member majoritarian system to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held September 2001); National Assembly - last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR 99, UDC 52, DL 47, PS 78, PCF 16, other 29; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PS 245, RPR 140, UDF 109, PCF 37, PRS 13, MEI 8, MDC 7, LDI-MPF 1, FN 1, various left 9, various right 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat

Political parties and leaders: Citizens Movement or MdC [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT]; French Communist Party or PCF [Robert HUE]; Independent Ecological Movement or MEI [Antoine WAECHTER]; Left Radical Party or PRG (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG) [Jean-Michel BAYLET]; Liberal Democracy or DL (originally Republican Party or PR) [Alain MADELIN]; Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DEVILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Michelle ALLIOT-MARIE]; Socialist Party or PS [Francois HOLLANDE]; Union for French Democracy or UDF (coalition of UDC, FD, RRRS, PPDF) [Francois BAYROU]; Union of the Center or UDC [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); independent labor union or Force Ouvriere, 1 million members (est.); independent white-collar union or Confederation Generale des Cadres, 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais) or CNPF or Patronat; Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, about 800,000 members (est.)

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francois V. BUJON DE L'ESTANG

chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Howard H. LEACH; Charge d'Affaires Douglas L. McELHANEY

embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08

mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777

telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22

FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83

consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, Luxembourg, and Netherlands; the official flag for all French dependent areas



France Economy

Economy - overview: France is in the midst of transition, from an economy that featured extensive government ownership and intervention to one that relies more on market mechanisms. The government remains dominant in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries, but it has been relaxing its control since the mid-1980s. The Socialist-led government has sold off part of its holdings in France Telecom, Air France, Thales, Thomson Multimedia, and the European Aerospace and Defense Company (EADS). The telecommunications sector is gradually being opened to competition. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare. The government has done little to cut generous unemployment and retirement benefits which impose a heavy tax burden and discourage hiring. It has also shied from measures that would dramatically increase the use of stock options and retirement investment plans; such measures would boost the stock market and fast-growing IT firms as well as ease the burden on the pension system, but would disproportionately benefit the rich. In addition to the tax burden, the reduction of the work week to 35-hours has drawn criticism for lowering the competitiveness of French companies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.448 trillion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,400 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.3%

industry: 26.1%

services: 70.6% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25.1% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 25 million (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: services 71%, industry 25%, agriculture 4% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 9.7% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $210 billion

expenditures: $240 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 497.26 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 9.69%

hydro: 14.39%

nuclear: 75.43%

other: 0.49% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 398.752 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 68.7 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 5 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $325 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages

Exports - partners: EU 63% (Germany 16%, UK 10%, Spain 9%, Italy 9%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8%), US 8% (1999)

Imports: $320 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals

Imports - partners: EU 62% (Germany 16%, Belgium-Luxembourg 11%, Italy 9%, UK 8%), US 7% (2000 est.)

Debt - external: $106 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $6.3 billion (1997)

Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in France at a fixed rate of 6.55957 French francs per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002

Currency code: FRF; EUR

Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



France Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 34.86 million (yearend 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 11.078 million (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed

domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM about 3,500 (this figure is an approximation and includes many repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 55.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 584 (plus 9,676 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 34.8 million (1997)

Internet country code: .fr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 62 (2000)

Internet users: 9 million (2000)



France Transportation

Railways: total: 31,939 km (31,939 km are operated by French National Railways (SNCF); 14,176 km of SNCF routes are electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-tracked)

standard gauge: 31,840 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 99 km 1.000-m gauge (1998)

Highways: total: 892,900 km

paved: 892,900 km (including 9,900 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways: 14,932 km (6,969 km heavily traveled)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km

Ports and harbors: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen, Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine: total: 46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 942,333 GRT/1,304,754 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 4, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 1, container 1, liquefied gas 3, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 475 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 268

over 3,047 m: 14

2,438 to 3,047 m: 30

1,524 to 2,437 m: 94

914 to 1,523 m: 72

under 914 m: 58 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 207

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 73

under 914 m: 130 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 3 (2000 est.)



France Military

Military branches: Army (includes Marines), Navy (includes Naval Air), Air Force (includes Air Defense), National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 14,573,199 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 12,127,793 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 390,064 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39.831 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY97)



France Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and French Guiana; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France and Vanuatu

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics

======================================================================

@French Guiana



French Guiana Introduction

Background: First settled by the French in 1604, French Guiana was the site of notorious penal settlements until 1951. The European Space Agency launches its communication satellites from Kourou.



French Guiana Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 91,000 sq km

land: 89,150 sq km

water: 1,850 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,183 km

border countries: Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 90%

other: 10% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe thunderstorms; flooding

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: mostly an unsettled wilderness



French Guiana People

Population: 177,562 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.47% (male 27,669; female 26,428)

15-64 years: 64.05% (male 61,457; female 52,266)

65 years and over: 5.48% (male 4,937; female 4,805) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.74% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 22.02 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.77 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.18 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.3 years

male: 72.97 years

female: 79.79 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.17 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)

adjective: French Guianese

Ethnic groups: black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 83%

male: 84%

female: 82% (1982 est.)



French Guiana Government

Country name: conventional long form: Department of Guiana

conventional short form: French Guiana

local long form: none

local short form: Guyane

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Dominique VIAN (since NA January 1997)

head of government: President of the General Council Andre LECANTE (since NA March 1998); President of the Regional Council Antoine KARAM (since 22 March 1992)

cabinet: NA

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; presidents of the General and Regional Councils are appointed by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and a unicameral Regional Council or Conseil Regional (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections: General Council - last held NA March 2000 (next to be held NA 2006); Regional Council - last held 15 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Regional Council - percent of vote by party - PS 28.28%, various left parties 22.56%, RPR 15.91%, independents 8.6%, Walwari Committee 6%; seats by party - PS 11, various left parties 9, RPR 6, independents 3, Walwari Committee 2

note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on 27 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2007); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; 2 seats were elected to the French National Assembly on 25 May - 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1, PSG 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel (highest local court based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party or PSG [Antoine KARAM]; Guyana Democratic Forces or FDG [Georges OTHILY]; Rally for the Republic or RPR [Roland HO-WEN-SZE]; Socialist Party or PS [Pierre RIBARDIERE] (may be a subset of PSG); Walwari Committee [Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



French Guiana Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry which provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops is limited to the coastal area, where the population is largely concentrated; rice and manioc are the major crops. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly among younger workers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1992)

Labor force: 58,800 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

Unemployment rate: 21.4% (1998)

Budget: revenues: $225 million

expenditures: $390 million, including capital expenditures of $105 million (1996)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 440 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 409.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, manioc (tapioca), sugar, cocoa, vegetables, bananas; cattle, pigs, poultry

Exports: $155 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: shrimp, timber, gold, rum, rosewood essence, clothing

Exports - partners: France 62%, Switzerland 7%, US 2% (1997)

Imports: $625 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: food (grains, processed meat), machinery and transport equipment, fuels and chemicals

Imports - partners: France 52%, US 14%, Trinidad and Tobago 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $1.2 billion (1988)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

Currency code: FRF; EUR

Exchange rates: Euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



French Guiana Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 47,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: fair open wire and microwave radio relay system

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 14 (including 6 repeaters), shortwave 6 (including 5 repeaters) (1998)

Radios: 104,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus eight low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 30,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .gf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



French Guiana Transportation

Railways: 0 km (1995)

Highways: total: 1,817 km

paved: 817 km

unpaved: 1,000 km (1998)

Waterways: 3,300 km navigable by native craft

note: 460 km navigable by small oceangoing vessels and coastal and river steamers

Ports and harbors: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 11 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 5 (2000 est.)



French Guiana Military

Military branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 49,495 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 32,052 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



French Guiana Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe

======================================================================

@French Polynesia



French Polynesia Introduction

Background: The French annexed various Polynesian island groups during the 19th century. In September 1995, France stirred up widespread protests by resuming nuclear testing on the Mururoa atoll after a three-year moratorium. The tests were suspended in January 1996.



French Polynesia Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from South America to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 140 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 4,167 sq km (118 islands and atolls)

land: 3,660 sq km

water: 507 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Orohena 2,241 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 6%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 31%

other: 57% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru



French Polynesia People

Population: 253,506 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.74% (male 38,473; female 36,925)

15-64 years: 65.17% (male 86,128; female 79,076)

65 years and over: 5.09% (male 6,481; female 6,423) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.72% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 18.6 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.45 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.01 years

male: 72.67 years

female: 77.46 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: French Polynesian(s)

adjective: French Polynesian

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4%

Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

Literacy: definition: age 14 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 98%

female: 98% (1977 est.)



French Polynesia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia

conventional short form: French Polynesia

local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise

local short form: Polynesie Francaise

former: French Colony of Oceania

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1946

Government type: NA

Capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent

note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French Polynesia

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

National holiday: Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Paul RONCIERE (since NA 1994)

head of government: President of the Territorial Government of French Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 4 April 1991); President of the Territorial Assembly Justin ARAPARI (since 13 May 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the Territorial Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Government and the president of the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblee Territoriale (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 12 May 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 22, Independent Front for the Liberation of Polynesia 10, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4

note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA September 1998); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UC 1; two seats were elected to the French National Assembly on 25 May - 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Court of the First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law or Tribunal Administratif

Political parties and leaders: Centrist Union or UC [leader NA]; Independent Front for the Liberation of Polynesia (Tavini Huiraatira) [Oscar TEMARU]; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON]; People's Rally for the Republic (Tahoeraa Huiraatira) [Gaston FLOSSE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag description: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white band; centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the upper half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave pattern; the French flag is used for official occasions



French Polynesia Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about one-fourth of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings. The small manufacturing sector primarily processes agricultural products. The territory benefited from a five-year (1994-98) development agreement with France aimed principally at creating new jobs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,800 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%

industry: 18%

services: 78% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994)

Labor force: 70,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 13%, industry 19%, services 68% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1 billion

expenditures: $900 million, including capital expenditures of $185 million (1996)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 430 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 51.16%

hydro: 48.84%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 399.9 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits; poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports: $205 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: cultured pearls 50%, coconut products, mother-of-pearl, vanilla, shark meat (1997)

Exports - partners: Japan 62%, US 21% (1999)

Imports: $749 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, equipment

Imports - partners: France 53%, US 13%, Australia 10% (1999)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $367 million (1997)

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (XPF)

Currency code: XPF

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (XPF) per US dollar - 127.11 (January 2001), 129.44 (2000), 111.93 (1999), 107.25 (1998), 106.11 (1997), 93.00 (1996); note - pegged at the rate of 119.25 XPF to the euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



French Polynesia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 52,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 5,427 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 128,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (plus 17 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 40,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .pf

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



French Polynesia Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 792 km

paved: 264 km

unpaved: 528 km (2000)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,240 GRT/7,765 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 45 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 32

over 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)



French Polynesia Military

Military branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



French Polynesia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands



French Southern and Antarctic Lands Introduction

Background: The Southern Lands consist of two archipelagos, Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen, and two volcanic islands, Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul. They contain no permanent inhabitants and are visited only by researchers studying the native fauna. The Antarctic portion consists of "Adelie Land," a thin slice of the Antarctic continent discovered and claimed by the French in 1840.



French Southern and Antarctic Lands Geography

Location: south of Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note - French Southern and Antarctic Lands includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, along with the French-claimed sector of Antarctica, "Adelie Land"; the US does not recognize the French claim to "Adelie Land"

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 S, 67 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total: 7,781 sq km

land: 7,781 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen; excludes "Adelie Land" claim of about 500,000 sq km in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Delaware

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM from Iles Kerguelen only

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Ross on Iles Kerguelen 1,850 m

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: islands component is widely scattered across remote locations in the southern Indian Ocean



French Southern and Antarctic Lands People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants (July 2001 est.)

note: in 1997, there were about 100 researchers whose numbers vary from winter (July) to summer (January)



French Southern and Antarctic Lands Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands

conventional short form: French Southern and Antarctic Lands

local long form: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

local short form: Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1955; administered from Paris by High Commissioner of the Republic Brigitte GIRARDIN (since 25 March 1998), assisted by Secretary General Jean-Yves HERMOSO (since NA)

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes "Adelie Land" claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used



French Southern and Antarctic Lands Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fish catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to France and Reunion.



French Southern and Antarctic Lands Communications

Internet country code: .tf



French Southern and Antarctic Lands Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: total: 74 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,024,194 GRT/5,255,703 DWT

ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 5, chemical tanker 9, container 11, liquefied gas 7, petroleum tanker 23, roll on/roll off 12

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: France 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: none



French Southern and Antarctic Lands Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

French Southern and Antarctic Lands Transnational Issues Top of Page

Disputes - international: "Adelie Land" claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US

======================================================================

@Gabon



Gabon Introduction

Background: Ruled by autocratic presidents since independence from France in 1960, Gabon introduced a multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and for reforms of governmental institutions. A small population, abundant natural resources, and foreign private investment have helped make Gabon one of the more prosperous black African countries.



Gabon Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator, between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 11 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 267,667 sq km

land: 257,667 sq km

water: 10,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: total: 2,551 km

border countries: Cameroon 298 km, Republic of the Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

Natural resources: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 1%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 18%

forests and woodland: 77%

other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; poaching

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Gabon People

Population: 1,221,175

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.29% (male 203,677; female 202,833)

15-64 years: 60.77% (male 373,828; female 368,282)

65 years and over: 5.94% (male 35,867; female 36,688) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 27.42 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 17.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 94.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.59 years

male: 48.47 years

female: 50.75 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.16% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 23,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)

adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic groups: Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke), other Africans and Europeans 154,000, including 10,700 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationality

Religions: Christian 55%-75%, animist, Muslim less than 1%

Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 63.2%

male: 73.7%

female: 53.3% (1995 est.)



Gabon Government

Country name: conventional long form: Gabonese Republic

conventional short form: Gabon

local long form: Republique Gabonaise

local short form: Gabon

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990)

Capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Founding of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG), 12 March (1968)

Constitution: adopted 14 March 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Francois NTOUTOUME-EMANE (since 23 January 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: President El Hadj Omar BONGO reelected; percent of vote - El Hadj Omar BONGO 66.6%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 16.5%, Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE 13.4%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (91 seats) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats); members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms

elections: National Assembly - last held 15 and 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA December 2001); Senate - last held 26 January and 9 February 1997 (next to be held in January 2002)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PDG 89, PGP 9, RNB 6, CLR 3, UPG 2, USG 2, independents 4, others 5; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PDG 53, RNB 20, PGP 4, ADERE 3, RDP 1, CLR 1, independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three chambers - Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts

Political parties and leaders: African Forum for Reconstruction or FAR [Leon MBOU-YEMBI]; Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG, former sole party [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA, secretary general]; Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Pierre-Louis AGONDJO-OKAWE, president]; Gabonese People's Union or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU]; Gabonese Socialist Union or USG [Serge MBA BEKALE]; National Rally of Woodcutters (Bucherons) or RNB [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Pierre EMBONI]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA

chancery: Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 797-1000

FAX: [1] (202) 332-0668

consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James V. LEDESMA

embassy: Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville

mailing address: B. P. 4000, Libreville

telephone: [241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04, 74 34 92

FAX: [241] 74 55 07

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue



Gabon Economy

Economy - overview: Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of most nations of sub-Saharan Africa. This has supported a sharp decline in extreme poverty; yet because of high income inequality a large proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector now accounts for 50% of GDP. Gabon continues to face fluctuating prices for its oil, timber, manganese, and uranium exports. Despite the abundance of natural wealth, the economy is hobbled by poor fiscal management. In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed to settle arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of rescheduling agreements with official and private creditors. Devaluation of its Francophone currency by 50% on 12 January 1994 sparked a one-time inflationary surge, to 35%; the rate dropped to 6% in 1996. The IMF provided a one-year standby arrangement in 1994-95, a three-year Enhanced Financing Facility (EFF) at near commercial rates beginning in late 1995, and stand-by credit of $119 million in October 2000. Those agreements mandate progress in privatization and fiscal discipline. France provided additional financial support in January 1997 after Gabon had met IMF targets for mid-1996. In 1997, an IMF mission to Gabon criticized the government for overspending on off-budget items, overborrowing from the central bank, and slipping on its schedule for privatization and administrative reform. The rebound of oil prices in 1999-2000 helped growth, but drops in production hampered Gabon from fully realizing potential gains. An expected decline in oil output may lead to contraction in GDP in 2001-02.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%

industry: 60%

services: 30% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 600,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 60%, services and government 25%, industry and commerce 15%

Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.5 billion

expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $302 million (1996 est.)

Industries: food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood; cement; petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, uranium, and gold mining; chemicals; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1995)

Electricity - production: 1.02 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29.9%

hydro: 70.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 948.6 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber; cattle; okoume (a tropical softwood); fish

Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil 75%, timber, manganese, uranium (1998)

Exports - partners: US 47%, France 19%, China 8%, Japan 1.3% (1999)

Imports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, petroleum products, construction materials

Imports - partners: France 64%, US 4%, UK 2%, Netherlands 2%, (1999)

Debt - external: $3.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $331 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Gabon Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 37,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 9,500 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 7, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 208,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus five low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 63,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ga

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2000)



Gabon Transportation

Railways: total: 649 km (Gabon State Railways or OCTRA)

standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge; single track (1994)

Highways: total: 7,670 km

paved: 629 km (including 30 km of expressways)

unpaved: 7,041 km (1996)

Waterways: 1,600 km (perennially navigable)

Pipelines: crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km

Ports and harbors: Cap Lopez, Kango, Lambarene, Libreville, Mayumba, Owendo, Port-Gentil

Airports: 59 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 10

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 49

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 17

under 914 m: 24 (2000 est.)



Gabon Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Republican Guard (charged with protecting the president and other senior officials), National Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 281,218 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 145,062 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 11,304 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $91 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY96)



Gabon Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

======================================================================

@Gambia, The



Gambia, The Introduction

Background: The Gambia gained its independence from the UK in 1965; it formed a short-lived federation of Senegambia with Senegal between 1982 and 1989. In 1991 the two nations signed a friendship and cooperation treaty. A military coup in 1994 overthrew the president and banned political activity, but a new 1996 constitution and presidential elections, followed by parliamentary balloting in 1997, have completed a nominal return to civilian rule.



Gambia, The Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 16 34 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 11,300 sq km

land: 10,000 sq km

water: 1,300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Delaware

Land boundaries: total: 740 km

border countries: Senegal 740 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 NM

continental shelf: not specified

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia river flanked by some low hills

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 53 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 18%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 9%

forests and woodland: 28%

other: 45% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: drought (rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last 30 years)

Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa



Gambia, The People

Population: 1,411,205 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.22% (male 320,458; female 317,647)

15-64 years: 52.13% (male 364,900; female 370,717)

65 years and over: 2.65% (male 19,660; female 17,823) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.14% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 41.76 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.92 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.59 years

male: 51.65 years

female: 55.58 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.68 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.95% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 13,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,400 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Gambian(s)

adjective: Gambian

Ethnic groups: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%), non-African 1%

Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 47.5%

male: 58.4%

female: 37.1% (2001 est.)



Gambia, The Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia

conventional short form: The Gambia

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Banjul

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, Central River, North Bank, Upper River, Western

Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

Constitution: 24 April 1970; suspended July 1994; rewritten and approved by national referendum 8 August 1996; reestablished in January 1997

Legal system: based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet is appointed by the president

elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the number of terms is not restricted; election last held 26 September 1996 (next to be held NA October 2001)

election results: Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH elected president; percent of vote - Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH 55.8%, Ousainou DARBOE 35.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (49 seats; 45 elected by popular vote, 4 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last popular election held 2 January 1997 (next to be held NA January 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - APRC 33, UDP 7, NRP 2, PDOIS 1, independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH]; National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]

note: in August 1996 the government banned the following from participation in the elections of 1996: People's Progressive Party or PPP [former President Dawda K. JAWARA (in exile)], and two opposition parties - the National Convention Party or NCP [former Vice President Sheriff DIBBA] and the Gambian People's Party or GPP [Hassan Musa CAMARA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John P. BOJANG

chancery: Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399

FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George W. B. HALEY

embassy: Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul

mailing address: P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul

telephone: [220] 392856, 392858, 391970, 391971

FAX: [220] 392475

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green



Gambia, The Economy

Economy - overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a limited agricultural base. About 75% of the population depends on crops and livestock for its livelihood. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of peanuts, fish, and hides. Reexport trade normally constitutes a major segment of economic activity, but a 1999 government-imposed preshipment inspection plan, instability of the Gambian dalasi, and the stable political situation in Senegal have drawn some of the reexport trade away from Banjul. The government's 1998 seizure of the private peanut firm Alimenta eliminated the largest purchaser of Gambian groundnuts; the following two marketing seasons have seen significantly lower prices and sales. A decline in tourism from 1999 to 2000 has also held back growth. Unemployment and underemployment rates are extremely high. Shortrun economic progress remains highly dependent on sustained bilateral and multilateral aid, on responsible government economic management as forwarded by IMF technical help and advice, and on expected growth in the construction sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.5 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21%

industry: 12%

services: 67% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 400,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry, commerce, and services 19%, government 6%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $90.5 million

expenditures: $80.9 million, including capital expenditures of $4.1 million (2001 est.)

Industries: processing peanuts, fish, and hides; tourism; beverages; agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking; clothing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 75 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 69.8 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, sesame, cassava (tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats; forest and fishery resources not fully exploited

Exports: $125.8 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels

Exports - partners: Benelux 59%, Japan 20%, UK 7%, Spain 2% (1999)

Imports: $202.5 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment

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