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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated



Equatorial Guinea People

Population: 486,060 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.56% (male 103,909; female 102,946)

15-64 years: 53.68% (male 124,808; female 136,088)

65 years and over: 3.76% (male 8,178; female 10,131) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.46% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 37.72 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.11 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 92.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.95 years

male: 51.89 years

female: 56.07 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.88 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.51% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,100 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 120 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)

adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices

Languages: Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 78.5%

male: 89.6%

female: 68.1% (1995 est.)



Equatorial Guinea Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea

conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea

local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial

local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial

former: Spanish Guinea

Government type: republic

Capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: approved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended January 1995

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)

head of government: Prime Minister Candido Muatetema RIVAS (since 26 February 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Miguel OYONO NDONG (since NA January 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Demetrio Elo NDONG NZE FUMU (since NA January 1998)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term; election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2003); prime minister and vice prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected with 98% of popular vote in elections marred by widespread fraud

Legislative branch: unicameral House of People's Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - PDGE 80%, UP 6%, CPDS 5%; seats by party - PDGE 75, UP 4 and CPDS 1

note: opposition parties have refused to take up their seats in the House to protest widespread irregularities in the 1999 legislative elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido Miko ABOGO]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE (ruling party) [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Miguel Esono EMAN]; Popular Union or UP [Andres Moises Bda ADA]; Progressive Democratic Alliance or ADP [Victorino Bolekia BONAY, mayor of Malabo]; Union of Independent Democrats of UDI [Daniel OYONO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Teodoro BIYOGO NSUEA

chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700

FAX: [1] (202) 528-5252

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES; note - the US does not have an embassy in Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US relations with Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon; the US State Department is considering opening a Consulate Agency in Malabo

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)



Equatorial Guinea Economy

Economy - overview: The discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years. Forestry, farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP. Subsistence farming predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of the government's gross corruption and mismanagement. Businesses, for the most part, are owned by government officials and their family members. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. The country responded favorably to the devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994. Boosts in production and high world oil prices stimulated growth in 2000, with oil accounting for 90% of greatly increased exports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $960 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 12% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20%

industry: 60%

services: 20% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $47 million

expenditures: $43 million, including capital expenditures of $7 million (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity - production: 21 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 85.71%

hydro: 14.29%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 19.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber

Exports: $860 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, timber, cocoa

Exports - partners: US 62%, Spain 17%, China 9%, France 3%, Japan 3%, (1997)

Imports: $300 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods and equipment

Imports - partners: US 35%, France 15%, Spain 10%, Cameroon 10%, UK 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $290 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $33.8 million (1995)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Currency code: XAF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Equatorial Guinea Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: poor system with adequate government services

domestic: NA

international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 180,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .gq

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Equatorial Guinea Transportation

Railways: total: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,880 km

paved: 0 km

unpaved: 2,880 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine: total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 26,035 GRT/27,927 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7, combination bulk 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Equatorial Guinea Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force, National Police

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 108,973 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 55,347 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.6% (FY97/98)



Equatorial Guinea Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: tripartite maritime boundary and economic zone dispute with Cameroon and Nigeria is currently before the ICJ; maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

======================================================================

@Eritrea



Eritrea Introduction

Background: Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A two and a half year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices on 12 December 2000.



Eritrea Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 121,320 sq km

land: 121,320 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 1,630 km

border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: near Kulul within the Denakil depression -75 m

highest point: Soira 3,018 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 49%

forests and woodland: 6%

other: 32% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts; locust swarms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993



Eritrea People

Population: 4,298,269 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.85% (male 922,691; female 918,916)

15-64 years: 53.87% (male 1,147,927; female 1,167,705)

65 years and over: 3.28% (male 71,232; female 69,798) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.84% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 42.52 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 12.07 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: according to the UNHCR, about 150,000 Eritrean refugees in Sudan have registered for voluntary repatriation, following the restoration of diplomatic relations between Eritrea and Sudan in January 2000

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.18 years

male: 53.73 years

female: 58.71 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.87 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.87% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Eritrean(s)

adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: 25%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Eritrea Government

Country name: conventional long form: State of Eritrea

conventional short form: Eritrea

local long form: Hagere Ertra

local short form: Ertra

former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Government type: transitional government

note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections have now been scheduled to take place in December 2001

Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular - awraja); Akale Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye

note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, became effective in 1997; the new provinces, the names of which had not been recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for recognition by the US Government, pending acceptable definition of the boundaries, were: Anseba, Debub, Debubawi Keyih Bahri, Gash-Barka, Maakel, and Semanawi Keyih Bahri; more recently, it has been reported that these provinces have been redesignated regions and renamed Southern Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Anseba, Gash-Barka, Southern, and Central

Independence: 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 May (1993)

Constitution: the transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993, was replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 May 1997, but not yet implemented

Legal system: operates on the basis of transitional laws that incorporate pre-independence statutes of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, revised Ethiopian laws, customary laws, and post independence enacted laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority

elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 8 June 1993 (next tentatively scheduled for December 2001)

election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term limits not established)

elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections to a National Assembly are held; only 75 members will be elected to the National Assembly - the other 75 will be members of the Central Committee of the PFDJ; parliamentary elections are now scheduled for NA December 2001

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; 10 provincial courts; 29 district courts

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS Afworki, PETROS Solomon]; note - the National Assembly has appointed a committee to draft a law on political parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ; Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean Liberation Front-Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC [Ahmed NASSER]; Eritrean Liberation Front-United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said NAWD]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Asmerom

chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991

FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William D. CLARKE

embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara

mailing address: P. O. Box 211, Asmara

telephone: [291] (1) 120004

FAX: [291] (1) 127584

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle



Eritrea Economy

Economy - overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993, Eritrea faced the economic problems of a small, desperately poor country. The economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, with 80% of the population involved in farming and herding. The small industrial sector consists mainly of light industries with outmoded technologies. Domestic output (GDP) is substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come from custom duties and taxes on income and sales. Road construction is a top domestic priority. In the long term, Eritrea may benefit from the development of offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. Eritrea's economic future depends on its ability to master fundamental social and economic problems, e.g., by reducing illiteracy, promoting job creation, expanding technical training, attracting foreign investment, and streamlining the bureaucracy. Eritrea's agriculture over the last two years was severely weakened by war and drought, and many farmlands must wait to be demined. Another major difficulty is the ports, which prior to the war were Ethiopia's preferred outlets but since have seen trade dry up.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $710 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16%

industry: 27%

services: 57% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and services 20%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $283.9 million

expenditures: $351.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 165 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 153.5 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh NA kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh NA kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish

Exports: $26 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures

Exports - partners: Sudan 27.2%, Ethiopia 26.5%, Japan 13.2%, UAE 7.3%, Italy 5.3% (1998)

Imports: $560 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods

Imports - partners: Italy 17.4%, UAE 16.2%, Germany 5.7%, UK 4.5%, Korea 4.4% (1998)

Debt - external: $281 million (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $77 million (1999)

Currency: nakfa (ERN)

Currency code: ERN

Exchange rates: nakfa per US dollar = 9.5 (January 2000), 7.6 (January 1999), 7.2 (March 1998 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Eritrea Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 23,578 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: very inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system

international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 2 (2000)

Radios: 345,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (2000)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .er

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (2000)

Internet users: 500 (2000)



Eritrea Transportation

Railways: total: 317 km

narrow gauge: 317 km 0.950-m gauge (1999)

note: links Ak'ordat and Asmara with the port of Massawa; nonoperational since 1978 except for about a 5 km stretch that was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and of the rolling stock is under way

Highways: total: 3,850 km

paved: 810 km

unpaved: 3,040 km (2000)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine: total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,069 GRT/19,549 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 20 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Eritrea Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $160 million (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 29.4% (2000 est.)



Eritrea Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: as a result of the 12 December 2000 peace agreement ending a two-year war with Ethiopia, the UN will administer a 25-km wide temporary security zone within Eritrea until a joint boundary commission delimits and demarcates a final boundary

======================================================================

@Estonia



Estonia Introduction

Background: After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.



Estonia Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 45,226 sq km

land: 43,211 sq km

water: 2,015 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries: total: 633 km

border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land

Land use: arable land: 25%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 11%

forests and woodland: 44%

other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment - current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol



Estonia People

Population: 1,423,316 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.08% (male 123,997; female 119,166)

15-64 years: 68.14% (male 466,823; female 503,032)

65 years and over: 14.78% (male 68,802; female 141,496) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.55% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 8.7 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 13.48 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.73 years

male: 63.72 years

female: 76.05 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.1%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.8% (1998)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish

Languages: Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, English, Finnish, other

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (1998 est.)



Estonia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 6 September 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 29 March 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held August-September 1996 (next to be held in the fall of 2001); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Lennart MERI reelected president by an electoral assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennart MERI 61%, Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Union of Pro Patria (Fatherland League) 18, Reform Party 18, Moderates 17, Country People's Party (Agrarians) 7, Coalition Party 7, UPPE 6

Judicial branch: National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Christian People's Party [Aldo VINKEL]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOBEL, chairman]; Estonian Democratic Party (formerly Estonian Blue Party) [Jaan LAAS]; Estonian Independence Party [leader NA]; Estonian National Democratic Party or ENDP [leader NA]; Estonian Pensioners and Families Party [Mai TREIAL]; Estonian Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN]; Estonian Republican Party [leader NA]; Estonian Social-Democratic Labor Party [Tiit TOOMSALU]; Estonian Rural People's Union (1999 merger of Estonian Country People's Party and the Estonian Rural Union) [Arvo SIRENDI]; Party of Consolidation Today [leader NA]; People's Party Moderates (1999 merger of People's Party and Moderates) [Andres TARAND]; Reform Party or RE [Siim KALLAS, chairman]; Russian Party in Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV]; Russian Unity Party [Igor SEDASHEV]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Mart LAAR, chairman]; United People's Party or UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON

chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Melissa WELLS

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8134

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white



Estonia Economy

Economy - overview: In 2000, Estonia rebounded from the Russian financial crisis by scaling back its budget and reorienting trade away from Russian markets into EU member states. After GDP shrank 1.1% in 1999, the economy made a strong recovery in 2000, with growth estimated at 6.4% - the highest in Central and Eastern Europe. Estonia joined the World Trade Organization in November 1999 - the second Baltic state to join - and continues its EU accession talks. For 2001, Estonians predict GDP to grow around 6%, inflation of between 4.2%-5.3%, and a balanced budget. Substantial gains were made in completing privatization of Estonia's few remaining large, state-owned companies in 2000, and this momentum is expected to continue in 2001. Estonia hopes to join the EU during the next round of enlargement tentatively set for 2004.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $14.7 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.4% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.6%

industry: 30.7%

services: 65.7% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 8.9% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.2%

highest 10%: 28.5% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 785,500 (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.7% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.37 billion

expenditures: $1.37 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 7.782 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.72%

hydro: 0.09%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.19% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.807 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 530 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment 24%, wood products 20%, textiles 17%, food products 9%, metals, chemical products (1999)

Exports - partners: Finland 19.4%, Sweden 18.8%, Russia 9.2%, Latvia 8.7%, Germany 7.5%, US 2.5% (1999)

Imports: $4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 31%, chemical products 13%, foodstuffs 11%, metal products 8%, textiles 8% (1999)

Imports - partners: Finland 22.8%, Russia 13.5%, Sweden 9.3%, Germany 9.3%, Japan 4.7% (1999)

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $137.3 million (1995)

Currency: Estonian kroon (EEK)

Currency code: EEK

Exchange rates: krooni per US dollar - 16.663 (January 2001), 16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997), 12.034 (1996); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year



Estonia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 476,078 (yearend 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 475,000 (yearend 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services available throughout most of the country; about 150,000 unfilled subscriber requests

domestic: local - the Ministry of Transport and Communications is expanding cellular telephone services to form rural networks; intercity - highly developed fiber-optic backbone (double loop) system presently serving at least 16 major cities (1998)

international: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (all AM stations inactive since July 1998), FM 82, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.01 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 31 (plus five repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: 605,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ee

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 28 (2000)

Internet users: 309,000 (2000)



Estonia Transportation

Railways: total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines

broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 30,300 km

paved: 29,200 km (including 75 km of expressways); note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather

unpaved: 1,100 km (2000)

Waterways: 320 km (perennially navigable)

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine: total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,460 GRT/219,727 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 19, combination bulk 1, container 5, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 6 (2000 est.)

Airports: 32 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 6 (2000 est.)



Estonia Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard, Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 359,677 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 282,418 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 11,164 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $70 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)



Estonia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been signed nor ratified by Russia as of February 2001

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; synthetic drug production growing, trafficked to Russia, Baltics, Finland

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@Ethiopia



Ethiopia Introduction

Background: Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule, one exception being the Italian occupation of 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A two and a half year border war with Eritrea that ended with a peace treaty on 12 December 2000 has strengthened the ruling coalition, but has hurt the nation's economy.



Ethiopia Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,127,127 sq km

land: 1,119,683 sq km

water: 7,444 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,311 km

border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Denakil Depression -125 m

highest point: Ras Dejen 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 1%

permanent pastures: 40%

forests and woodland: 25%

other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993



Ethiopia People

Population: 65,891,874

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.18% (male 15,647,675; female 15,442,348)

15-64 years: 50.03% (male 16,584,765; female 16,378,060)

65 years and over: 2.79% (male 834,825; female 1,004,201) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.7% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 44.68 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 17.84 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan for refuge from war and famine in earlier years is expected to continue for several years; small numbers of Sudanese and Somali refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.68 years

male: 43.88 years

female: 45.51 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 10.63% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3 million (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 280,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s)

adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 35.5%

male: 45.5%

female: 25.3% (1995 est.)



Ethiopia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

conventional short form: Ethiopia

local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik

local short form: Ityop'iya

former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa

abbreviation: FDRE

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader): Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa); Afar; Amara, Binshangul Gumuz; Dire Dawa*; Gambela Hizboch; Hareri Hizb; Oromiya; Sumale; Tigray; YeDebub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region)

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)

Constitution: ratified December 1994; effective 22 August 1995

Legal system: currently transitional mix of national and regional courts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)

head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)

cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives

elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term; election last held NA June 1995 (next to be held NA May 2001); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections

election results: NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - NA%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or upper chamber (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 14 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2005)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - OPDO 177, ANDM 134, TPLF 38, WGGPDO 27, EPRDF 19, SPDO 18, GNDM 15, KSPDO 10, ANDP 8, GPRDF 7, SOPDM 7, BGPDUF 6, BMPDO 5, KAT 4, other regional political groupings 22, independents 8; note - 43 seats unconfirmed

note: irregularities and violence at a number of polling stations necessitated the rescheduling of voting in certain constituencies; voting postponed in Somali regional state because of severe drought

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)

Political parties and leaders: Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [leader NA]; All-Amhara People's Organization or AAPO [KEGNAZ MATCH Neguea Tibeb]; Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM [TEFERA Walwa]; Bench Madji People's Democratic Organization or BMPDO [leader NA]; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [leader NA]; Coalition of Alternative Forces for Peace and Democracy or CAFPD [Kifle TIGNEH Abate and BEYENE Petros]; Ethiopian Democratic Unity Party or EDUP [Lt. Gen. TESFAYE Gebre Kidan]; Ethiopian National Democratic Party or ENDP [FEKADU Gedamu]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of the ANDM, OPDO, and TPLF); Gedeyo People's Revolutionary Democratic Movement or GPRDF [leader NA]; Gurange Nationalities Democratic Movement or GNDM [leader NA]; Kafa Shaka People's Democratic Organization or KSPDO [leader NA]; Kembata, Alabaa, and Tembaro or KAT [leader NA]; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa Gudina]; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO [KUMA Demeksa]; Sidama People's Democratic Organization or SPDO [leader NA]; South Omo People's Democratic Movement or SOPDM [leader NA]; Tigrai People's Liberation Front or TPLF [MELES Zenawi]; Walayta, Gamo, Gofa, Dawro, Konta People's Democratic Organization or WGGPDO [leader NA]; dozens of small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnically based groups have formed since the defeat of the former MENGISTU regime in 1991, including several Islamic militant groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200

FAX: [1] (202) 686-9857

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tibor P. NAGY, Jr.

embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa

mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa

telephone: [251] (1) 550666

FAX: [251] (1) 551328

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors



Ethiopia Economy

Economy - overview: Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought and poor cultivation practices, and as many as 4.6 million people need food assistance annually. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy, and Ethiopia earned $267 million in 1999 by exporting 105,000 metric tons. According to current estimates, coffee contributes 10% of Ethiopia's GDP. More than 15 million people (25% of the population) derive their livelihood from the coffee sector. Other exports include live animals, hides, gold, and qat. In December 1999, Ethiopia signed a $1.4 billion joint venture deal to develop a huge natural gas field in the Somali Regional State. The war with Eritrea forced the government to spend scarce resources on the military and to scale back ambitious development plans. Foreign investment has declined significantly. Government taxes imposed in late 1999 to raise money for the war depressed an already weak economy. The war forced the government to improve roads and other parts of the previously neglected infrastructure, but only certain regions of the nation benefited. Recovery from the war is mostly contingent on natural factors. A drought has continued into the end of 2000 and food relief is expected to be needed through mid-2001 at least. Ethiopia may receive Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief by the end of the year.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 45%

industry: 12%

services: 43% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 33.7% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $1 billion

expenditures: $1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415 million (FY96/97)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.625 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 3.08%

hydro: 96.92%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 1.511 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $460 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: coffee, gold, leather products, oilseeds, qat

Exports - partners: Germany 16%, Japan 13%, Djibouti 10%, Saudi Arabia 7% (1999 est.)

Imports: $1.25 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 28%, Italy 10%, Russia 7%, US 6% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $10 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $367 million (FY95/96)

Currency: birr (ETB)

Currency code: ETB

Exchange rates: birr per US dollar (end of period) - 8.3140 (December 2000), 8.3140 (2000), 8.1340 (1999), 7.5030 (1998), 6.8640 (1997), 6.4260 (1996)

note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July



Ethiopia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 157,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate for government use

domestic: open wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service

international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 11.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1999)

Televisions: 320,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .et

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 7,200 (1999)



Ethiopia Transportation

Railways: total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals; since May 1998 Ethiopia has expended considerable effort to repair and maintain the lines

Highways: total: 24,145 km

paved: 3,290 km

unpaved: 20,855 km (1998)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was by agreement with Eritrea using the ports of Assab and Massawa; since the border dispute with Eritrea flared, Ethiopia has used the port of Djibouti for nearly all of its imports

Merchant marine: total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 85,382 GRT/108,526 DWT

ships by type: cargo 6, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 86 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 74

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 35

under 914 m: 20 (2000 est.)



Ethiopia Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police, Militia

note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the independence of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in Eritrean possession and ships which belonged to the former Ethiopian Navy and based at Djibouti have been sold

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 14,537,884 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 7,581,815 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 703,625 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $138 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY98/99)



Ethiopia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; as a result of the 12 December 2000 peace agreement ending a two year war with Eritrea, the UN will administer a 25-km wide temporary security zone within Eritrea until a joint boundary commission delimits and demarcates a final boundary; dispute over alignment of boundary with Eritrea led to armed conflict in 1998; a peace accord signed in December 2000 provides for UN-assisted arbitration and demarcation of the border

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia

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@Europa Island



Europa Island Introduction

Background: A French possession since 1897, the island is heavily wooded; it is the site of a small military garrison that staffs a weather station.



Europa Island Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 28 sq km

land: 28 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low and flat

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 100%

other: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary



Europa Island People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants

note: there is a small French military garrison (July 2001 est.)



Europa Island Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Europa Island

local long form: none

local short form: Ile Europa

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Legal system: the laws of France, where applicable, apply

Flag description: the flag of France is used



Europa Island Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity



Europa Island Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station



Europa Island Transportation

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Europa Island Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France



Europa Island Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

======================================================================

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Introduction

Background: Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592, the first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later in 1690, and the first settlement (French) was not established until 1764. The colony was turned over to Spain two years later and the islands have since been the subject of a territorial dispute, first between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. The UK asserted its claim to the islands by establishing a naval garrison there in 1833. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 12,173 sq km

land: 12,173 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 99%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 1% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) People

Population: 2,895 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA%

15-64 years: NA%

65 years and over: NA%

Population growth rate: 2.43% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Falkland Islander(s)

adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic groups: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: English



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina

Government type: NA

Capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

head of government: Governor Donald LAMONT (since NA May 1999); Chief Executive A. M. GURR (since NA); Financial Secretary D. F. HOWATT (since NA)

cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats - 2 ex officio, 8 elected by popular vote, members serve four-year terms) presided over by the governor

elections: last held 9 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2001)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions)

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Economy

Economy - overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of economic activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support the island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of the fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $52 million (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1% (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,000 (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1998)

Labor force: 1,100 (est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding and fishing)

Unemployment rate: full employment; labor shortage

Budget: revenues: $66.2 million

expenditures: $67.9 million, including capital expenditures of $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)

Industries: wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 12 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 11.2 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products

Exports: $7.6 million (1995)

Exports - commodities: wool, hides, meat

Exports - partners: UK, Japan, Chile, NZ

Imports: $24.7 million (1995)

Imports - commodities: fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing

Imports - partners: UK, Japan, Chile, NZ

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $1.7 million (1995)

Currency: Falkland pound (FKP)

Currency code: FKP

Exchange rates: Falkland pounds per US dollar - 0.6764 (January 2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service) (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .fk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: NA



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 440 km

paved: 50 km

unpaved: 390 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Stanley

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 5 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Military

Military branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Argentina

======================================================================

@Faroe Islands



Faroe Islands Introduction

Background: The population of the Faroe Islands is largely descended from Viking settlers who arrived in the 9th century. The islands have been connected politically to Denmark since the 14th century. A high degree of self-government was attained in 1948.



Faroe Islands Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 1,399 sq km

land: 1,399 sq km

water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams)

Area - comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,117 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

territorial sea: 3 NM

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish, whales, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 94% (1996)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands



Faroe Islands People

Population: 45,661 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.62% (male 5,193; female 5,136)

15-64 years: 63.64% (male 15,463; female 13,596)

65 years and over: 13.74% (male 2,802; female 3,471) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.64 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.59 years

male: 75.12 years

female: 82.06 years

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Faroese (singular and plural)

adjective: Faroese

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%

note: similar to Denmark proper



Faroe Islands Government

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Faroe Islands

local long form: none

local short form: Foroyar

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1948

Government type: NA

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 49 municipalities

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Olaifest, 29 July

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Ms. Vibeke LARSEN, chief administrative officer (since NA)

head of government: Prime Minister Anfinn KALLSBERG (since 15 May 1998)

cabinet: Landsstyri appointed by the prime minister

elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held no later than April 2002)

election results: Anfinn KALLSBERG elected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - 52.8%

note: coalition of People's Party, Republican Party and Home Rule Party

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis from the seven constituencies to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held not later than April 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.8%, People's Party 21.3%, Social Democratic Party 21.9%, Union Party 18%, Home Rue Party 7.7%, Center Party 4.1%; seats by party - Republican Party 8, People's Party 8, Social Democratic Party 7, Union Party 6, Home Rule Party 2, Center Party 1

note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on 11 March 1998 (next to be held not later than March 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Social Democratic Party 1, People's Party 1

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Center Party [Jenis A. RANA]; Home Rule Party [Helena Dam a NEYSTABO]; People's Party [Oli BRECKMANN]; Republican Party [Hogni HOYDAL]; Social Democratic Party [Joannes EIDESGAARD]; Union Party [Edmund JOENSEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: NC, NIB

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Faroe Islands Economy

Economy - overview: The Faroese economy has had a strong performance since 1994, mostly as a result of increasing fish landings and high and stable export prices. Unemployment is falling and there are signs of labor shortages in several sectors. The positive economic development has helped the Faroese Home Rule Government produce increasing budget surpluses which in turn help to reduce the large public debt, most of it owed to Denmark. However, the total dependence on fishing makes the Faroese economy extremely vulnerable, and the present fishing efforts appear in excess of what is required to ensure a sustainable level of fishing in the long term. Oil finds close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits in the immediate Faroese area, which may eventually lay the basis for a more diversified economy and thus less dependence on Denmark and Danish economic assistance. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy (15% of GDP) from Denmark, the Faroese have a standard of living not far below the Danes and other Scandinavians.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $910 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 27%

industry: 11%

services: 62% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (1999)

Labor force: 24,250 (October 2000)

Labor force - by occupation: fishing, fish processing, and manufacturing 33%, construction and private services 33%, public services 34%

Unemployment rate: 1% (October 2000)

Budget: revenues: $488 million

expenditures: $484 million, including capital expenditures of $21 million (1999)

Industries: fishing, fish processing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 170 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 58.82%

hydro: 41.18%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 158.1 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon, other fish

Exports: $471 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 94%, stamps, ships (1999)

Exports - partners: Denmark 32%, UK 21%, France 9%, Germany 7%, Iceland 5%, US 5% (1996)

Imports: $469 million (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 29%, consumer goods 36%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 32%, fuels, fish and salt (1999)

Imports - partners: Denmark 28%, Norway 26%, Germany 7%, UK 6% Sweden 5%, Iceland 4%, US (1999)

Debt - external: $64 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $135 million (annual subsidy from Denmark) (1999)

Currency: Danish krone (DKK)

Currency code: DKK

Exchange rates: Danish kroner per US dollar - 7.951 (January 2001), 8.093 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1966)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Faroe Islands Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 24,851 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 10,761 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: good international communications; good domestic facilities

domestic: digitalization was completed in 1998; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installed

international: satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable to the Shetland Islands, linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland; fiber-optic submarine cable connection to Canada-Europe cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 26,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus 43 low-power repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: 15,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .fo

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 3,000 (2000)



Faroe Islands Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 463 km

paved: 454 km

unpaved: 9 km (1999)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik, Fuglafjorour

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,247 GRT/11,736 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2000 est.)



Faroe Islands Military

Military branches: defense is the responsibility of Denmark; no organized native military forces; only a small Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark



Faroe Islands Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Faroese are considering proposals for full independence

======================================================================

@Fiji



Fiji Introduction

Background: Fiji became independent in 1970, after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). A 1990 constitution favored native Melanesian control of Fiji, but led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. Amendments enacted in 1997 made the constitution more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a coup in May of 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. New elections are scheduled for August 2001.



Fiji Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 18,270 sq km

land: 18,270 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 10%

permanent crops: 4%

permanent pastures: 10%

forests and woodland: 65%

other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited



Fiji People

Population: 844,330 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.92% (male 141,724; female 136,216)

15-64 years: 63.52% (male 268,411; female 267,871)

65 years and over: 3.56% (male 14,007; female 16,101) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.41% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 23.33 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.75 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.25 years

male: 65.83 years

female: 70.78 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.86 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

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