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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 2 kommunes*; Arhus, Bornholm, Fredericksberg*, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavns*, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg

note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part of the Kingdom of Denmark and are self-governing administrative divisions

Independence: first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June is generally viewed as the National Day

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 May 1968)

head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25 January 1993)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by Parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 11 March 1998 (next to be held by March 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - progovernment parties: Social Democratic Party 65, Socialist People's Party 13, Social Liberal Party 7, Red-Green Unity List 5; opposition: Liberal Party 43, Conservative Party 17, Danish People's Party 13, Center Democratic Party 8, Christian People's Party 4, Progress Party 4; seats by party as of 1 January 2001: government coalition parties - Social Democrats 63, Social Liberals 7; pro-government parties - Socialist People's Party 13, Unity List 5; opposition - Liberals 42, Conservatives 16, Danish People's Party 13, Center Democrats 8, Christian People's Party 4, Progress Party 4 (now named Freedom 2000); does not include the 4 overseas seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch for life)

Political parties and leaders: Center Democratic Party [Mimi JAKOBSEN]; Christian People's Party [Jann SJURSEN]; Conservative Party (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party) [Bendt BENDTSEN]; Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Progress Party (now named Freedom 2000) [Kim BEHNKE]; Social Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN]; Social Liberal Party (sometimes called the Radical Left) [Marianne JELVED, leader; Johannes LEBECH, chairman]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN]; Red-Green Unity List (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Denmark, Socialist Workers' Party) [collective leadership]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ulrik Andreas FEDERSPIEL

chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300

FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stuart BERNSTEIN

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen

mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716

telephone: [45] 35 55 31 44

FAX: [45] 35 38 96 16

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden



Denmark Economy

Economy - overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has a comfortable balance of payments surplus. The center-left coalition government has reduced the formerly high unemployment rate and attained a budget surplus as well as followed the previous government's policies of maintaining low inflation and a stable currency. The coalition has lowered marginal income tax rates and raised environmental taxes thus maintaining overall tax revenues. Problems of bottlenecks, and longer term demographic changes reducing the labor force, are being addressed through labor market reforms. The government has been successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency) of the European Monetary Union (EMU), but Denmark, in a September 2000 referendum, reconfirmed its decision not to join the 11 other EU members in the euro. Even so, the Danish currency remains pegged to the euro.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $136.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,500 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 25%

services: 72% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 24% (2000 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.856 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 79%, industry 17%, agriculture 4% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.3% (2000)

Budget: revenues: $52.9 billion

expenditures: $51.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (2001 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products, shipbuilding, windmills

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 37.885 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 88.4%

hydro: 0.07%

nuclear: 0%

other: 11.53% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 32.916 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 7.28 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 4.963 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; pork and beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $50.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, chemicals, furniture, ships, windmills

Exports - partners: EU 66.5% (Germany 20.1%, Sweden 11.7%, UK 9.6%, France 5.3%, Netherlands 4.7%), Norway 5.8%, US 5.4% (1999)

Imports: $43.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners: EU 72.1% (Germany 21.6%, Sweden 12.4%, UK 8.0%, Netherlands 8.0%, France 5.8%), Norway 4.2%, US 4.5% (1999)

Debt - external: $21.7 billion (2000)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.63 billion (1999)

Currency: Danish krone (DKK)

Currency code: DKK

Exchange rates: Danish kroner per US dollar - 7.951 (January 2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996); note - the Danes rejected the Euro in a 28 September 2000 referendum

Fiscal year: calendar year



Denmark Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.785 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,444,016 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services

domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems

international: 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 6.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (plus 51 repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 3.121 million (1997)

Internet country code: .dk

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (2000)

Internet users: 2.3 million (2000)



Denmark Transportation

Railways: total: 2,859 km (508 km privately owned and operated)

standard gauge: 2,859 km 1.435-m gauge (600 km electrified; 760 km double track) (1998)

Highways: total: 71,474 km

paved: 71,474 km (including 880 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km

Ports and harbors: Abenra, Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Kolding, Odense, Roenne (Bornholm), Vejle

Merchant marine: total: 342 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,073,489 GRT/8,027,002 DWT

ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 128, chemical tanker 27, container 76, liquefied gas 26, livestock carrier 6, petroleum tanker 22, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Finland 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 119 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 28

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 91

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 83 (2000 est.)



Denmark Military

Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,292,619 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,106,094 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 29,212 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.47 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY99)



Denmark Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); dispute with Iceland over the Faroe Islands fisheries median line boundary within 200 NM; disputes with Iceland, the UK, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM

======================================================================

@Djibouti



Djibouti Introduction

Background: The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. A peace accord in 1994 ended a three-year uprising by Afars rebels.



Djibouti Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 22,000 sq km

land: 21,980 sq km

water: 20 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 508 km

border countries: Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m

highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use: arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 9%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland



Djibouti People

Population: 460,700 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.58% (male 98,314; female 97,859)

15-64 years: 54.58% (male 132,619; female 118,841)

65 years and over: 2.84% (male 6,787; female 6,280) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.66 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 14.66 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.21 years

male: 49.37 years

female: 53.1 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.72 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.75% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 37,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Djiboutian(s)

adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 46.2%

male: 60.3%

female: 32.7% (1995 est.)



Djibouti Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti

conventional short form: Djibouti

former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Government type: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved by referendum 4 September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President GUELLEH Ismail Omar (since 8 May 1999);

head of government: Prime Minister DILLEITA Mohamed Dilleita (since 4 March 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 9 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: GUELLEH Ismail Omar elected president; percent of vote - GUELLEH Ismail Omar 74.4%, IDRIS Moussa Ahmed 25.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held 19 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - RPP 65; note - RPP (the ruling party) dominated the election

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP (governing party) [Ismail Omar GELLEH]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy or FRUD and affiliates; Movement for Unity and Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine

chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270

FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald YAMAMOTO

embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti

mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti

telephone: [253] 35 39 95

FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center



Djibouti Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of 40% to 50% continues to be a major problem. Inflation is not a concern, however, because of the fixed tie of the franc to the US dollar. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last seven years because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors. The year 2001 will see only small growth as port activity should decrease now that Ethiopia has more trade route options.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $574 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%

industry: 22%

services: 75% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 282,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services 14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 50% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $133 million

expenditures: $187 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 180 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 167.4 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports: $260 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)

Exports - partners: Somalia 53%, Yemen 23%, Ethiopia 5%, (1998)

Imports: $440 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products

Imports - partners: France 13%, Ethiopia 12%, Italy 9%, Saudi Arabia 6%, UK 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $356 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $106.3 million (1995)

Currency: Djiboutian franc (DJF)

Currency code: DJF

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs per US dollar - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Djibouti Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 203 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country

domestic: microwave radio relay network

international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles, Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 52,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 5 low-power repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 28,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .dj

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: 1,000 (2000)



Djibouti Transportation

Railways: total: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge

note: Djibouti and Ethiopia plan to revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals by 2003

Highways: total: 2,890 km

paved: 364 km

unpaved: 2,526 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 12 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)



Djibouti Military

Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 108,038 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 63,589 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $23 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.5% (FY97)



Djibouti Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

======================================================================

@Dominica



Dominica Introduction

Background: Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be colonized by Europeans, due chiefly to the fierce resistance of the native Caribs. France ceded possession to Great Britain in 1763, which made the island a colony in 1805. In 1980, two years after independence, Dominica's fortunes improved when a corrupt and tyrannical administration was replaced by that of Mary Eugenia CHARLES, the first female prime minister in the Caribbean, who remained in office for 15 years.



Dominica Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 15 25 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 754 sq km

land: 754 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, arable land

Land use: arable land: 9%

permanent crops: 13%

permanent pastures: 3%

forests and woodland: 67%

other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements



Dominica People

Population: 70,786 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.72% (male 10,300; female 10,027)

15-64 years: 63.45% (male 23,056; female 21,855)

65 years and over: 7.83% (male 2,267; female 3,281) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.98% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 17.81 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.19 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -20.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.6 years

male: 70.74 years

female: 76.61 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.03 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Dominican(s)

adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 94%

male: 94%

female: 94% (1970 est.)



Dominica Government

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica

conventional short form: Dominica

Government type: parliamentary democracy; republic within the Commonwealth

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vernon Lordon SHAW (since 6 October 1998)

head of government: Prime Minister Pierre CHARLES (since 1 October 2000); note - assumed post after death of Roosevelt DOUGLAS

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Vernon Lordon SHAW elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9 appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 31 January 2000 (next to be held by NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party -DLP 11, UWP 8, DFP 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the Court of Appeal and the High Court (located in Saint Lucia; one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles SAVARIN]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Pierre CHARLES]; United Workers Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (resident in Dominica)

chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781

FAX: [1] (202) 364-6791

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Dominica; US interests are served by the embassy in Bridgetown, Barbados

Flag description: green, with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)



Dominica Economy

Economy - overview: The economy depends on agriculture and is highly vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms. Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 21% of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The subsequent recovery has been fueled by increases in construction, soap production, and tourist arrivals. The government is attempting to develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $290 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21%

industry: 16%

services: 63% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 25,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $72 million

expenditures: $79.9 million, including capital expenditures of $11.5 million (FY97/98)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 62 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 48.39%

hydro: 51.61%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 57.7 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts, cocoa; forest and fishery potential not exploited

Exports: $60.7 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges

Exports - partners: Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: $126 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: US 41%, Caricom countries 25%, UK 13%, Netherlands, Canada (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $108.9 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $24.4 million (1995)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Dominica Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 461 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: fully automatic network

international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 46,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (however, there is one cable television company) (1997)

Televisions: 6,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .dm

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: 2,000 (2000)



Dominica Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 750 km

paved: 375 km

unpaved: 375 km (2001)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)



Dominica Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%



Dominica Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; minor cannabis producer; banking industry is vulnerable to money laundering

======================================================================

@Dominican Republic



Dominican Republic Introduction

Background: A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative, rule for much of the 20th century was brought to an end in 1996 when free and open elections ushered in a new government.



Dominican Republic Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 48,730 sq km

land: 48,380 sq km

water: 350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: total: 275 km

border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 6 NM

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m

highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use: arable land: 21%

permanent crops: 9%

permanent pastures: 43%

forests and woodland: 12%

other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)



Dominican Republic People

Population: 8,581,477 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.11% (male 1,495,477; female 1,431,406)

15-64 years: 60.99% (male 2,664,679; female 2,569,398)

65 years and over: 4.9% (male 199,240; female 221,277) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.77 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.44 years

male: 71.34 years

female: 75.64 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,900 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dominican(s)

adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 82.1%

male: 82%

female: 82.2% (1995 est.)



Dominican Republic Government

Country name: conventional long form: Dominican Republic

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republica Dominicana

local short form: none

Government type: representative democracy

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age

note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch: chief of state: President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros ORTIZ-BOSCH (since 16 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros ORTIZ-BOSCH (since 16 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2004)

election results: Raphael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez elected president; percent of vote - Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (PRD) 49.87%, Danilo MEDINA (PLD) 24.95%, Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 24.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (149 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 24, PLD 3, PRSC 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 83, PLD 49, PRSC 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are elected by a Council made up of members of the legislative and executive branches with the president presiding)

Political parties and leaders: Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hatuey DE CAMPS]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto Bienvenido SALADIN-SELIN

chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280

FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s): Houston, Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles T. MANATT

embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo

mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500

telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171

FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the cross



Dominican Republic Economy

Economy - overview: The Dominican economy experienced dramatic growth over the last decade, even though the economy was hit hard by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Although the country has long been viewed primarily as an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, in recent years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in tourism and free trade zones. The country suffers from marked income inequality; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GNP, while the richest ten percent enjoy 40% of national income. In December 2000, the new MEJIA administration passed broad new tax legislation which it hopes will provide enough revenue to offset rising oil prices and to service foreign debt.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $48.3 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.3%

industry: 32.2%

services: 56.5% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 25% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 39.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.3 million - 2.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: services and government 58.7%, industry 24.3%, agriculture 17% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.8% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.3 billion

expenditures: $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $867 million (1999 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 7.29 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 87.19%

hydro: 12.4%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.41% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 6.78 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs

Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, meats

Exports - partners: US 66.1%, Netherlands 7.8%, Canada 7.6%, Russia 7.4%, UK 4.5% (1999 est.)

Imports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 25.7%, Venezuela 9.2%, Mexico 4%, Japan 3%, Panama 2.6% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $4.7 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $239.6 million (1995)

Currency: Dominican peso (DOP)

Currency code: DOP

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos per US dollar - 16.888 (January 2001), 16.415 (2000), 16.033 (1999), 15.267 (1998), 14.265 (1997), 13.775 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Dominican Republic Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 709,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 130,149 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network

international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 1.44 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1997)

Televisions: 770,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .do

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 24 (2000)

Internet users: 25,000 (1999)



Dominican Republic Transportation

Railways: total: 757 km

standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)

narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominican Republic Government Railway)

note: 240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (2000)

Highways: total: 12,600 km

paved: 6,224 km

unpaved: 6,376 km (1996)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 29 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 13

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 16

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)



Dominican Republic Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,281,035 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,430,776 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 87,404 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $180 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY98)



Dominican Republic Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada

======================================================================

@Ecuador



Ecuador Introduction

Background: The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.



Ecuador Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 283,560 sq km

land: 276,840 sq km

water: 6,720 sq km

note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries: total: 2,010 km

border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands

territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 6%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 18%

forests and woodland: 56%

other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world



Ecuador People

Population: 13,183,978 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.8% (male 2,398,801; female 2,320,537)

15-64 years: 59.81% (male 3,900,193; female 3,984,797)

65 years and over: 4.39% (male 269,372; female 310,278) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 25.99 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 5.44 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.33 years

male: 68.52 years

female: 74.28 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 19,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,400 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.1%

male: 92%

female: 88.2% (1995 est.)



Ecuador Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form: Ecuador

local long form: Republica del Ecuador

local short form: Ecuador

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch: chief of state: President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28 January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of candidates submitted by President NABOA; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January 2000) selected president following coup that deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since 28 January 2000) elected by National Congress from a slate of candidates submitted by President NABOA; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: results of the last election prior to the coup were: Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote - 51%

note: a military-indigenous coup toppled democratically elected President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the military quickly handed power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on 22 January; National Congress then elected a new vice president from a slate of candidates submitted by NOBOA; the new administration is scheduled to complete the remainder of MAHAUD's term, due to expire in January 2003

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (121 seats; 79 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to serve four-year terms; 42 members are popularly elected by province - two per province - for four-year terms)

elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Sixto DURAN Ballen]; Independent National Movement or MIN [leader NA]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Rafael PANDAM]; Popular Democracy or DP [Ramiro RIVERA]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [leader NA]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Antonio VARGAS]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]

International organization participation: CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI

chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gwen C. CLARE

embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito

mailing address: APO AA 34039

telephone: [593] (2) 562-890

FAX: [593] (2) 502-052

consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms



Ecuador Economy

Economy - overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. In recent years, growth has been uneven due to ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector collapse, which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a 70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999, which eventually forced a desperate government to "dollarize" the currency regime in 2000. The move stabilized the currency, but did not stave off the ouster of the government. The new president, Gustavo NOBOA has yet to complete negotiations for a long sought IMF accord. He will find it difficult to push through the reforms necessary to make "dollarization" work in the long run.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $37.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14%

industry: 36%

services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 33.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 96% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13%; note - widespread underemployment (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: planned $5.1 billion (not including revenue from potential privatizations)

expenditures: $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 10.065 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29.51%

hydro: 70.49%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 9.386 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 25 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: $5.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa, cut flowers, fish

Exports - partners: US 37%, Colombia 5%, Italy 5%, Chile 5%, Peru 4% (1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials, fuels; consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 30%, Colombia 13%, Venezuela 6%, Japan 5%, Venezuela 6%, Mexico 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $15 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $695.7 million (1995)

Currency: US dollar (USD)

Currency code: USD

Exchange rates: sucres per US dollar - 25,000 (January 2001), 24,988.4 (2000), 11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996)

note: on 7 January 2000, the government passed a decree "dollarizing" the economy; on 13 March 2000, the National Congress approved a new exchange system whereby the US dollar is adopted as the main legal tender in Ecuador for all purposes; on 20 March 2000, the Central Bank of Ecuador started to exchange sucres for US dollars at a fixed rate of 25,000 sucres per US dollar; since 30 April 2000, all transactions are denominated in US dollars

Fiscal year: calendar year



Ecuador Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 899,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 160,061 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 392, FM 27, shortwave 29 (1998)

Radios: 4.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (including one station on the Galapagos Islands) (1997)

Televisions: 1.55 million (1997)

Internet country code: .ec

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (2000)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Ecuador Transportation

Railways: total: 965 km

narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 43,197 km

paved: 8,165 km

unpaved: 35,032 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine: total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 233,312 GRT/385,784 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 22, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 180 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 59

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 19 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 121

914 to 1,523 m: 32

under 914 m: 89 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Ecuador Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,382,567 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,280,899 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 132,978 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY98)



Ecuador Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for cocaine and derivatives of coca originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

======================================================================

@Egypt



Egypt Introduction

Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.



Egypt Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km

land: 995,450 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,689 km

border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 0%

other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees



Egypt People

Population: 69,536,644 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.59% (male 12,313,585; female 11,739,072)

15-64 years: 61.6% (male 21,614,284; female 21,217,978)

65 years and over: 3.81% (male 1,160,967; female 1,490,758) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.69% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 24.89 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.69 years

male: 61.62 years

female: 65.85 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s)

adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 51.4%

male: 63.6%

female: 38.8% (1995 est.)



Egypt Government

Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt

conventional short form: Egypt

local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

local short form: Misr

former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)

elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA)

election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP 88%, independents 8%, opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398, NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Nasserist Arab Democratic Party or Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader] - governing party; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or NWP [No'man GOMA]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [leader NA]

note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY

chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400

FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER

embassy: 5 Latin America St., Garden City, Cairo

mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900

telephone: [20] (2) 795-7371

FAX: [20] (2) 797-2000

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band



Egypt Economy

Economy - overview: A series of IMF arrangements - along with massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in the Gulf war coalition - helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic performance during the 1990s. Sound fiscal and monetary policies through the mid-1990s helped to tame inflation, slash budget deficits, and build up foreign reserves, while structural reforms such as privatization and new business legislation prompted increased foreign investment. By mid-1998, however, the pace of structural reform slackened, and lower combined hard currency earnings resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and sporadic US dollar shortages. External payments were not in crisis, but Cairo's attempts to curb demand for foreign exchange convinced some investors and currency traders that government financial operations lacked transparency and coordination. Monetary pressures have since eased, however, with the 1999-2000 higher oil prices, a rebound in tourism, and a series of mini-devaluations of the pound. The development of a gas export market is a major plus factor in future growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $247 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17%

industry: 32%

services: 51% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 22.9% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.4%

highest 10%: 25% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000)

Labor force: 19.9 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, services 49%, industry 22% (FY99)

Unemployment rate: 11.5% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $22.6 billion

expenditures: $26.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 64.685 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 76.59%

hydro: 23.41%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 60.157 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Exports: $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 35%, Middle East 17%, Afro-Asian countries 14%, US 12% (1999)

Imports: $17 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - partners: EU 36%, US 14%, Afro-Asian countries 14%, Middle East 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $31 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)

Currency: Egyptian pound (EGP)

Currency code: EGP

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US dollar - market rate - 3.8400 (January 2001), 3.6900 (2000), 3.4050 (1999), 3.3880 (1998), 3.3880 (1997), 3.3880 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Egypt Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,971,500 (December 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 380,000 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available

domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 20.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 98 (September 1995)

Televisions: 7.7 million (1997)

Internet country code: .eg

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)

Internet users: 300,000 (2000)



Egypt Transportation

Railways: total: 4,955 km

standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km double track) (2000)

Highways: total: 64,000 km

paved: 50,000 km

unpaved: 14,000 km (1996)

Waterways: 3,500 km

note: including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine: total: 181 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,336,678 GRT/1,982,220 DWT

ships by type: bulk 23, cargo 61, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 61, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 90 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 69

over 3,047 m: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 35

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 3 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 10 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 2 (2000 est.)



Egypt Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 18,562,994 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 12,020,059 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 712,983 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.04 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.1% (FY99/00)



Egypt Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Egypt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers

======================================================================

@El Salvador



El Salvador Introduction

Background: El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost the lives of some 75,000 people, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.



El Salvador Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 21,040 sq km

land: 20,720 sq km

water: 320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 545 km

border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 NM

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land

Land use: arable land: 27%

permanent crops: 8%

permanent pastures: 29%

forests and woodland: 5%

other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes; Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea



El Salvador People

Population: 6,237,662 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.68% (male 1,198,623; female 1,151,584)

15-64 years: 57.27% (male 1,693,865; female 1,878,254)

65 years and over: 5.05% (male 142,345; female 172,991) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.85% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 28.67 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 6.18 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.03 years

male: 66.43 years

female: 73.81 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.34 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.6% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 20,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,300 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Salvadoran(s)

adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 90%, Amerindian 1%, white 9%

Religions: Roman Catholic 86%

note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 71.5%

male: 73.5%

female: 69.8% (1995 est.)



El Salvador Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador

conventional short form: El Salvador

local long form: Republica de El Salvador

local short form: El Salvador

Government type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 23 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: cabinet selected by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2004)

election results: Francisco FLORES Perez elected president; percent of vote - Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN) 29%, Ruben ZAMORA (CDU) 7.5%, other (no individual above 3%) 11.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - ARENA 36.1%, FMLN 35.14%, PCN 8.76%, PDC 7.08%, CD 5.32%, PAN 3.75%, USC 1.47%, PLD 1.29%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 31, PCN 14, PDC 5, CD 3, PAN 1, independent 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Democratic Convergence or CD (includes PSD, MNR, MPSC) [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Fabio CASTILLO]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; National Action Party or PAN [Gustavo Rogelio SALINAS, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Walter ARAUJO]; Social Christian Union or USC (formed by the merger of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC and Unity Movement or MU) [Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez

chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rose M. LIKINS

embassy: Boulevard Santa Elena Final, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador

mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023

telephone: [503] 278-4444

FAX: [503] 278-6011

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band



El Salvador Economy

Economy - overview: El Salvador is a struggling Central American economy which has been suffering from a weak tax collection system, factory closings, the aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch of 1998 and the devastating earthquakes of early 2001, and weak world coffee prices. On the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to single digit levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The trade deficit has been offset by remittances (an estimated $1.6 billion in 2000) from Salvadorans living abroad and by external aid. As of 1 January 2001, the US dollar was made legal tender alongside the colon.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12%

industry: 28%

services: 60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 48% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 38.3% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 2.35 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services 55% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.8 billion

expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 3.641 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 45.65%

hydro: 41.01%

nuclear: 0%

other: 13.34% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.638 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 208 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 460 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products

Exports: $2.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity

Exports - partners: US 63%, Guatemala 11%, Honduras 7%, Costa Rica 4% (1999)

Imports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

Imports - partners: US 52%, Guatemala 9%, Mexico 6%, Costa Rica 3% (1999)

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: total $252 million; $57 million from US (1999 est.)

Currency: Salvadoran colon (SVC); US dollar (USD)

Currency code: SVC; USD

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones per US dollar - 8.755 (fixed rate since 1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year



El Salvador Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 380,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,163 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 2.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1997)

Televisions: 600,000 (1990)

Internet country code: .sv

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (2000)

Internet users: 40,000 (2000)



El Salvador Transportation

Railways: total: 562 km

narrow gauge: 562 km 0.914-m gauge

note: length of route which is operational is reduced to 283 km by disuse and lack of maintainance (2001)

Highways: total: 10,029 km

paved: 1,986 km (including 327 km of expressways)

unpaved: 8,043 km (1997)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none (2000 est.)

Airports: 83 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 79

914 to 1,523 m: 17

under 914 m: 62 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



El Salvador Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,464,898 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 929,263 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 68,103 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $112 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.7% (FY99)



El Salvador Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic drug abuse on the rise

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@Equatorial Guinea



Equatorial Guinea Introduction

Background: Composed of a mainland portion and five inhabited islands, Equatorial Guinea has been ruled by ruthless leaders who have badly mismanaged the economy since independence from 190 years of Spanish rule in 1968. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, the 1996 presidential and 1999 legislative elections were widely seen as being flawed.



Equatorial Guinea Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 28,051 sq km

land: 28,051 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 539 km

border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

Natural resources: oil, petroleum, timber, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use: arable land: 5%

permanent crops: 4%

permanent pastures: 4%

forests and woodland: 46%

other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: violent windstorms, flash floods

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable; desertification

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