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The 2001 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.21% (male 3,802,397; female 3,773,455)

15-64 years: 51.57% (male 4,343,518; female 4,110,805)

65 years and over: 2.22% (male 180,463; female 182,583) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.51% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 40.38 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 16.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

note: after Liberia's civil war started in 1990, more than 350,000 refugees fled to Cote d'Ivoire; by the end of 1999 most Liberian refugees were assumed to have returned

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 93.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.93 years

male: 43.58 years

female: 46.33 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 10.76% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 760,000 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 72,000 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ivorian(s)

adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic groups: Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (1998)

Religions: Christian 34%, Muslim 27%, no religion 21%, animist 15%, other 3% (1998)

note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 48.5%

male: 57%

female: 40%



Cote d'Ivoire Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire

conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire

local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

local short form: Cote d'Ivoire

former: Ivory Coast

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

Capital: Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular - departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula

note: Cote d'Ivoire may have a new administrative structure consisting of 58 departments; the following additional departments have been reported but not yet confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN); Adiake', Ale'pe', Dabon, Grand Bassam, Jacqueville, Tiebissou, Toulepleu, Bocanda

Independence: 7 August (1960) (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 August (1960)

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last time 27 July 1998

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 October 2000); note - took power following a popular overthrow of the interim leader Gen. Robert GUEI who had claimed a dubious victory in presidential elections; Gen. GUEI himself had assumed power on 25 December 1999, following a military coup against the government of former President Henri Konan BEDIE

head of government: Prime Minister and Minister of Planning and Development Affi N'GUESSAN (since 27 October 2000) appointed by the president

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 26 October 2000 (next is scheduled to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other 2.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats; members are elected in single- and multi-district elections by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: elections last held 10 December 2000 with by-elections on 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FPI 96, PDCI-RDA 94, RDR 5, PIT 4, other 2, independents 22, vacant 2

note: a Senate is scheduled to be created in the next full election in 2005

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire-African Democratic Rally or PDCI-RDA [Aime Henri Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Henriette DAGRI-DIABATE]; Union for Democracy and Peace [Gen. Robert GUEI]; over 20 smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Youssouf BAMBA

chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George MU

embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan

mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01

telephone: [225] 20 21 09 79

FAX: [225] 20 22 32 59

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France



Cote d'Ivoire Economy

Economy - overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and to weather conditions. Despite government attempts to diversify the economy, it is still largely dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly 68% of the population. After several years of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994, due to the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc and improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples and rubber, limited trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous external financing and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and France. Moreover, government adherence to donor-mandated reforms led to a jump in growth to 5% annually in 1996-99. Growth was negative in 2000 because of the difficulty of meeting the conditions of international donors, continued low prices of key exports, and post-coup instability. In 2001-02, a moderate rebound in the cocoa market could boost growth back above 3%; however, political instability could impede growth again.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 32%

industry: 18%

services: 50% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 28.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 68% agricultural (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13% in urban areas (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.5 billion

expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $420 million (2000 est.)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity

Industrial production growth rate: 15% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.06 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 75.37%

hydro: 24.63%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 3.183 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 593 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber

Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: cocoa 33%, coffee, tropical woods, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish (1999)

Exports - partners: France 15%, US 8%, Netherlands 7%, Germany 6%, Italy 6% (1999)

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: food, consumer goods; capital goods, fuel, transport equipment

Imports - partners: France 26%, Nigeria 10%, China 7%, Italy 5%, Germany 4% (1999)

Debt - external: $13.9 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $1 billion (1996 est.)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Currency code: XOF

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cote d'Ivoire Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 219,283 (31 December 1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 322,500 (May 2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: well developed by African standards but operating well below capacity

domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables (June 1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.26 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 14 (1999)

Televisions: 900,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ci

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)

Internet users: 20,000 (2000)



Cote d'Ivoire Transportation

Railways: total: 660 km

narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track

note: an additional 600 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso, ending at Kaya, north of Ouagadougou (2000)

Highways: total: 50,400 km

paved: 4,889 km

unpaved: 45,511 km (1996)

Waterways: 980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons)

Ports and harbors: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,200 GRT/1,500 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)

Airports: 36 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 29

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 9 (2000 est.)



Cote d'Ivoire Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard (includes Presidential Guard), Sapeur-Pompier (Military Fire Group)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,851,432 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,010,862 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 188,411 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $94 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY96)



Cote d'Ivoire Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US, and for Latin American cocaine destined for Europe

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@Croatia



Croatia Introduction

Background: In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became an independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.



Croatia Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 56,542 sq km

land: 56,414 sq km

water: 128 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 2,028 km

border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Yugoslavia 266 km, Slovenia 501 km

Coastline: 5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 21%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 20%

forests and woodland: 38%

other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits



Croatia People

Population: 4,334,142 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.16% (male 403,722; female 383,151)

15-64 years: 66.61% (male 1,452,872; female 1,434,086)

65 years and over: 15.23% (male 245,727; female 414,584) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.82 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 11.41 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 13.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.9 years

male: 70.28 years

female: 77.73 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.94 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 350 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Croat(s)

adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78.1%, Serb 12.2%, Bosniak 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, Czech 0.4%, Albanian 0.3%, Montenegrin 0.3%, Roma 0.2%, others 6.6% (1991)

Religions: Roman Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8% (1991)

Languages: Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 99%

female: 95% (1991 est.)



Croatia Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Croatia

conventional short form: Croatia

local long form: Republika Hrvatska

local short form: Hrvatska

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular), 1 city (grad -singular)*: Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Republic Day/Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since 27 January 2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since 27 January 2000), Zeljka ANTUNOVIC (since 27 January 2000), Slavko LINIC (since 27 January 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the House of Representatives

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister nominated by the president in line with the balance of power in the Assembly

election results: Stjepan MESIC elected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA (HSLS) 44%

note: government coalition - SDP, HSLS, HSS, LP, HNS, IDS

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House of Counties or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats, 63 directly elected by popular vote, 5 appointed by the president; members serve four-year terms; note - House of Counties to be abolished in 2001) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (151 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: House of Counties - last held 13 April 1997; House of Representatives - last held 2-3 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: House of Counties - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - HDZ 42, HSLS/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2, SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note - in some districts certain parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - HDZ 46, SDP 44, HSLS 24, HSS 17, HSP/HKDU 5, IDS 4, HNS 2, independents 4, minority representatives 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Croatian Coast and Mountains Department or PGS [Luciano SUSANJ]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VESELICA]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Dobroslav PARAGA]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LP [leader NA]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]

note: the Social Democratic Party or SDP and the Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition as did the HSS, HNS, LP, and IDS, which together defeated the Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ in the 2000 lower house parliamentary election

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan GRDESIC

chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899

FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence G. ROSSIN

embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, 100000 Zagreb

mailing address: use street address

telephone: [385] (1) 455-55-00

FAX: [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)



Croatia Economy

Economy - overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee and displaced population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties. Stepped-up Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help bolster the economy. The economy emerged from its mild recession in 2000 with tourism the main factor. Massive unemployment remains a key negative element. The government's failure to press the economic reforms needed to spur growth is largely the result of coalition politics and public resistance, particularly from the trade unions, to measures that would cut jobs, wages, or social benefits.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.9 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.2% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%

industry: 19%

services: 71% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 4% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 1.68 million (October 2000)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 22% (October 2000)

Budget: revenues: $6 billion

expenditures: $4.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2000)

Electricity - production: 10.96 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 40.89%

hydro: 59%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.11% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 13.643 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 1 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 4.45 billion kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soy beans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products

Exports: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners: Italy 18%, Germany 15.7%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 12.8%, Slovenia 10.6%, Austria 6.2% (1999)

Imports: $7.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Germany 18.5%, Italy 15.9%, Russia 8.6%, Slovenia 7.9%, Austria 7.1% (1999)

Debt - external: $9.9 billion (December 1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: kuna (HRK)

Currency code: HRK

Exchange rates: kuna per US dollar - 8.089 (January 2001), 8.277 (2000), 7.112 (1999), 6.362 (1998), 6.101 (1997), 5.434 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Croatia Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.488 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 187,000 (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk

international: digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)

Radios: 1.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: 1.22 million (1997)

Internet country code: .hr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2000)

Internet users: 100,000 (1999)



Croatia Transportation

Railways: total: 2,296 km

standard gauge: 2,296 km 1.435-m gauge (983 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total: 27,840 km

paved: 23,497 km (including 330 km of expressways)

unpaved: 4,343 km (1998)

Waterways: 785 km

note: (perennially navigable; large sections of Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris)

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar

Merchant marine: total: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 631,853 GRT/969,739 DWT

ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 5, container 3, multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 3 (2000 est.)

Airports: 67 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 22

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 45

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 36 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Croatia Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,085,877 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 859,621 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 30,037 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $575 million (2000)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (2000)



Croatia Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Croatia and Italy made progress toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from World War II over property and ethnic minority rights; progress with Slovenia on discussions of adjustments to land boundary, but problems remain in defining maritime boundary in Gulf of Piran; Croatia and Yugoslavia are negotiating the status of the strategically important Prevlaka Peninsula, which is currently under a UN military observer mission (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

======================================================================

@Cuba



Cuba Introduction

Background: Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule has held the country together since. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. The country is now slowly recovering from a severe economic recession in 1990, following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies, worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Havana portrays its difficulties as the result of the US embargo in place since 1961. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, or falsified visas - is a continuing problem. Some 3,000 Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2000; the US Coast Guard interdicted only about 35% of these.



Cuba Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 110,860 sq km

land: 110,860 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 29 km

border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km

note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land

Land use: arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 7%

permanent pastures: 27%

forests and woodland: 24%

other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common

Environment - current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: largest country in Caribbean



Cuba People

Population: 11,184,023 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.99% (male 1,205,159; female 1,142,070)

15-64 years: 69.14% (male 3,876,432; female 3,855,878)

65 years and over: 9.87% (male 511,589; female 592,895) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.37% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 12.36 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.33 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.41 years

male: 74.02 years

female: 78.94 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.03% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,950 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 120 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Cuban(s)

adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.7%

male: 96.2%

female: 95.3% (1995 est.)

People - note: illicit migration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; some 3,000 Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2000; the US Coast Guard interdicted about 35% of these migrants; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US; some 2,400 Cubans arrived overland via the southwest border and direct flights to Miami



Cuba Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cuba

conventional short form: Cuba

local long form: Republica de Cuba

local short form: Cuba

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1868); note - 10 October 1868 is the date of independence from Spain, 20 May 1902 is the date of independence from US administration

Constitution: 24 February 1976, amended July 1992

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly; note - there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National Assembly

elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next election unscheduled)

election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held in 2003)

election results: percent of vote - PCC 94.39%; seats - PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Vicki HUDDLESTON; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center; design influenced by the US flag



Cuba Economy

Economy - overview: The government, the primary player in the economy, has undertaken limited reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity, increase enterprise efficiency, and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services, but prioritizing of political control makes extensive reforms unlikely. Living standards for the average Cuban, without access to dollars, remain at a depressed level compared with 1990. The liberalized farmers' markets introduced in 1994, sell above-quota production at market prices, expand legal consumption alternatives, and reduce black market prices. Income taxes and increased regulations introduced since 1996 have sharply reduced the number of legally self-employed from a high of 208,000 in January 1996. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP declined by 35% during 1989-93 as a result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. The slide in GDP came to a halt in 1994 when Cuba reported growth in GDP of 0.7%. Cuba reported that GDP increased by 2.5% in 1995 and 7.8% in 1996, before slowing down in 1997 and 1998 to 2.5% and 1.2% respectively. Growth recovered with a 6.2% increase in GDP in 1999 and a 5.6% increase in 2000. Much of Cuba's recovery can be attributed to tourism revenues and foreign investment. Growth in 2001 should continue at the same level as the government balances the need for economic loosening against its concern for firm political control.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19.2 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.6% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7%

industry: 37%

services: 56% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.3 million (2000 est.)

note: state sector 75%, non-state sector 25% (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 25%, industry 24%, services 51% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.5 billion

expenditures: $14.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction, services, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 14.358 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 94.2%

hydro: 0.7%

nuclear: 0%

other: 5.1% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 13.353 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee

Exports - partners: Russia 23%, Netherlands 23%, Canada 13% (1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals, semifinished goods, transport equipment, consumer goods

Imports - partners: Spain 18%, Venezuela 13%, Canada 8% (1999)

Debt - external: $11.1 billion (convertible currency, 1999); another $15 billion -$20 billion owed to Russia (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $68.2 million (1997 est.)

Currency: Cuban peso (CUP)

Currency code: CUP

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos per US dollar - 1.0000 (nonconvertible, official rate, for international transactions, pegged to the US dollar); convertible peso sold for domestic use at a rate of 1.00 US dollar per 22 pesos by the Government of Cuba (January 2001)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cuba Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 473,031 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,994 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA

domestic: principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la Juventud; 2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old, US-built; the other newer, Soviet-built); both analog and digital mobile cellular service established

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 169, FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3.9 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 58 (1997)

Televisions: 2.64 million (1997)

Internet country code: .cu

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (2001)

Internet users: 60,000 (2000)



Cuba Transportation

Railways: total: 11,969 km

standard gauge: 4,807 km 1.435-m gauge (147 km electrified)

note: in addition to the 4,807 km of standard gauge track in public use, 7,162 km of track is in private use by sugar plantations; about 90% of the private use track is standard gauge and the rest is narrow gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 60,858 km

paved: 29,820 km (including 638 km of expressway)

unpaved: 31,038 km (1997)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine: total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 54,821 GRT/78,062 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 5 (2000 est.)

Airports: 171 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 77

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 35 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 94

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 63 (2000 est.)



Cuba Military

Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); the Border Guard (TGF) is controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,090,633

females age 15-49: 3,029,274 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,911,160

females age 15-49: 1,867,958 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 79,562

females: 85,650 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 4% (FY95 est.)

Military - note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993



Cuba Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for cocaine bound for the US and Europe; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

======================================================================

@Cyprus



Cyprus Introduction

Background: Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish Cypriot minority. In 1974, a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the government was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", but it is recognized only by Turkey. UN-led talks on the status of Cyprus resumed in December 1999 to prepare the ground for meaningful negotiations leading to a comprehensive settlement.



Cyprus Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot area)

land: 9,240 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use: arable land: 12%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 0%

forests and woodland: 13%

other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment - current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants



Cyprus People

Population: 762,887 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.95% (male 89,532; female 85,518)

15-64 years: 66.26% (male 255,368; female 250,140)

65 years and over: 10.79% (male 35,864; female 46,465) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.59% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 13.08 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 7.65 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.89 years

male: 74.6 years

female: 79.3 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.93 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 400 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish Cypriot area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94%

male: 98%

female: 91% (1987 est.)



Cyprus Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Government type: republic

note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a federation (Greek Cypriot position) or confederation (Turkish Cypriot position)

Capital: Nicosia

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriot area celebrates 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot

head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003)

election results: Glafcos CLERIDES reelected president; percent of vote - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%

note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections last held 15 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2005); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president after the other contender withdrew; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area

Legislative branch: unicameral - Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Greek Cypriot area: last held 27 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2006); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2003)

election results: Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 20, DISY 19, DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 4; Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKP 15.4%, CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by party - UBP 24, DP 13, TKP 7, CTP 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the Supreme Council of Judicature)

note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; Social Democrats Movement or KISOS (formerly United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK) [Vassos LYSSARIDIS]; United Democrats Movement or EDE (formerly Free Democrats Movement or KED) [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Democratic Party or DP [Salih COSAR]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Izzet IZCAN]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)

International organization participation: Australia Group, C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS

chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772

FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710

consulate(s) general: New York

note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Ahmet ERDENGIZ; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. BANDLER

embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, 2407 Nicosia

mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836

telephone: [357] (2) 776400

FAX: [357] (2) 780944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field



Cyprus Economy

Economy - overview: Economic affairs are affected by the division of the country. The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly susceptible to external shocks. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals, caused by political instability on the island and fluctuations in economic conditions in Western Europe. Economic policy is focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish sector, water shortage is a growing problem, and several desalination plants are planned. The Turkish Cypriot economy has about one-fifth the population and one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. It remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to tourism, education, industry, etc.

GDP: Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $830 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: 4.2% (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 4.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $5,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 6.3%, industry 22.4%, services 71.3% (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture 11.8%, industry 20.5%, services 67.7% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): Greek Cypriot area: 4.2% (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 58% (1999 est.)

Labor force: Greek Cypriot area: 291,000; Turkish Cypriot area: 86,300 (2000)

Labor force - by occupation: Greek Cypriot area: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: services 56.4%, industry 22.8%, agriculture 20.8% (1998)

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.6% (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 6% (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: Greek Cypriot area - $2.9 billion (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot area - $294 million (2000 est.)

expenditures: Greek Cypriot area - $3.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $324 million (2000 est.); Turkish Cypriot $495 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (2000 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: 2.2% (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: -0.3% (1999)

Electricity - production: 2.951 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 2.744 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables

Exports: Greek Cypriot area: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: $51.1 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, textiles

Exports - partners: Greek Cypriot area: UK 17.3%, Greece 9.7%, Russia 7.0%, Lebanon 5.2% (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 51%, UK 31%, other EU 16.5% (1999)

Imports: Greek Cypriot area: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: $402 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery; Turkish Cypriot area: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery

Imports - partners: Greek Cypriot area: UK 11.2%, US 10.6%, Italy 8.8%, Greece 8.2%, Germany 6.7% (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 58.6%, UK 12.5%, other EU 13% (1999)

Debt - external: Greek Cypriot area: $NA; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: Greek Cypriot area - $17 million (1998); Turkish Cypriot area - $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans (1990-97) that are usually forgiven

Currency: Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish lira (TRL)

Currency code: CYP; TRL

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.6146 (January 2001), 0.6208 (2000), 0.5423 (1999), 0.5170 (1998), 0.5135 (1997), 0.4663 (1996); Turkish liras per US dollar - 677,621 (December 2000), 625,219 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997), 81,405 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Cyprus Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: Greek Cypriot area: 405,000 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: 83,162 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot areas

domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay

international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: AM 7, FM 60, shortwave 1 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 56,450 (1994)

Television broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: 4 (plus 225 low-power repeaters) (September 1995); Turkish Cypriot area: 4 (plus 5 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 52,300 (1994)

Internet country code: .cy

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)

Internet users: 80,000 (2000)



Cyprus Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: Greek Cypriot area: 10,663 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km (1996 est.)

paved: Greek Cypriot area: 6,249 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 1,370 km (1996 est.)

unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,414 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 980 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos, Vasilikos

Merchant marine: total: 1,328 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,905,542 GRT/36,312,219 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 431, cargo 438, chemical tanker 23, combination bulk 36, combination ore/oil 4, container 140, liquefied gas 6, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 40, roll on/roll off 42, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 3

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Austria 8, Belgium 7, China 10, Cuba 10, Denmark 2, Germany 79, Greece 385, Hong Kong 9, Croatia 2, India 5, Iran 1, Israel 4, Italy 2, Japan 19, South Korea 3, Latvia 10, Lithuania 1, Monaco 1, Netherlands 13, Norway 11, Poland 9, Portugal 3, Russia 42, Singapore 1, Spain 5, Sudan 2, Sweden 3, Switzerland 2, UAE 6, UK 8, Ukraine 2, US 9, Venezuela 2 (2000 est.)

Airports: 15 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 7 (2000 est.)



Cyprus Military

Military branches: Greek Cypriot area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval elements), Hellenic Forces Contingent on Cyprus (ELDYK), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), Turkish mainland army units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 198,275 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 136,147 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 6,616 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $370 million (FY00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.2% (FY00)



Cyprus Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally recognized Cypriot Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are two UK sovereign base areas mostly within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well

======================================================================

@Czech Republic



Czech Republic Introduction

Background: After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks.



Czech Republic Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 78,866 sq km

land: 77,276 sq km

water: 1,590 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 1,881 km

border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Elbe River 115 m

highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber

Land use: arable land: 41%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 11%

forests and woodland: 34%

other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe



Czech Republic People

Population: 10,264,212 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.09% (male 847,219; female 804,731)

15-64 years: 69.99% (male 3,592,984; female 3,590,802)

65 years and over: 13.92% (male 549,538; female 878,938) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.07% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 9.11 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.81 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.73 years

male: 71.23 years

female: 78.43 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,200 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups: Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech

Literacy: definition: NA

total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%



Czech Republic Government

Country name: conventional long form: Czech Republic

conventional short form: Czech Republic

local long form: Ceska Republika

local short form: Ceska Republika

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Brnensky, Budejovicky, Jihlavsky, Karlovarsky, Kralovehradecky, Liberecky, Olomoucky, Ostravsky, Pardubicky, Plzensky, Praha*, Stredocesky, Ustecky, Zlinsky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday: Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17 July 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 22 July 1998), Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 22 July 1998), Jan KAVAN (since 8 December 1999)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL received 47 of 81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the Chamber of Deputies (second round of voting)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 12 and 19 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 19-20 June 1998 (next to be held by NA June 2002)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - KDU-CSL 28, ODS 22, CSSD 15, ODA 7, US 4, KSCM 3, independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 32.3%, ODS 27.7%, KSCM 11%, KDU-CSL 9.0%, US 8.6%; seats by party - CSSD 74, ODS 63, KSCM 24, KDU-CSL 20, US 18, CSNS 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term

Political parties and leaders: Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jan KASAL, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Daniel KROUPA, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jan SULA, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Karel KUEHNL, chairman]; Quad Coalition [Cyril SVOBODA, chairman] (includes KDU-CSL, US, ODA, DEU); Republicans of Miroslav SLADEK or RMS [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions [Richard FALBR]

International organization participation: ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alexsandr VONDRA

chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven J. COFFEY

embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [420] (2) 5753-0663

FAX: [420] (2) 5753-0583

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)



Czech Republic Economy

Economy - overview: Basically one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. The economy grew about 2.5% in 2000 and should achieve somewhat higher growth in 2001. Growth is led by exports to the EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could be future problems. Unemployment is down to 8.7% as job creation continues in the rebounding economy; inflation is up to 3.8% but still moderate. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in preparations for accession, which will give further impetus and direction to structural reform. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications and energy privatization will add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $132.4 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,900 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.7%

industry: 41.8%

services: 54.5% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.3%

highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 5.203 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5%, industry 40%, services 55% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $16.7 billion

expenditures: $18 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (2000)

Electricity - production: 67.642 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 77.8%

hydro: 3.43%

nuclear: 18.77%

other: 0% (2000)

Electricity - consumption: 52.898 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 18.744 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 8.735 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry

Exports: $28.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 44%, other manufactured goods 40%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7% (1999)

Exports - partners: Germany 43%, Slovakia 8.4%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 5.6%, France 4% (1999)

Imports: $31.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 42%, other manufactured goods 33%, chemicals 12%, raw materials and fuels 10% (1999)

Imports - partners: Germany 37.5%, Slovakia 6.7%, Austria 6.2%, Italy 5.9%, France 5.4% (1999)

Debt - external: $21.3 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)

Currency code: CZK

Exchange rates: koruny per US dollar - 37.425 (January 2001), 38.598 (2000), 34.569 (1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997), 27.145 (1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Czech Republic Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.869 million (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.346 million (2000)

Telephone system: general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous

domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar

Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)

Radios: 3,159,134 (December 2000)

Television broadcast stations: 150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)

Televisions: 3,405,834 (December 2000)

Internet country code: .cz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): more than 300 (2000)

Internet users: 900,000 (2000)



Czech Republic Transportation

Railways: total: 9,444 km

standard gauge: 9,350 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2,843 km electrified; 1,929 km double track)

narrow gauge: 94 km 0.760-m narrow gauge (2000)

Highways: total: 55,432 km

paved: 55,432 km (including 499 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (2000)

Waterways: 303 km

note: (the Labe (Elbe) is the principal river) (2000)

Pipelines: natural gas 3,550 km (2000)

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Airports: 114 (2000 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 43

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 16 (2000 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 71

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 42 (2000 est.)

Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)



Czech Republic Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense, Railroad Units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,653,456 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,024,070 (2001 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 69,393 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.2 billion (FY01)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY01)



Czech Republic Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech Republic over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic consumption - especially of locally produced synthetic drugs - on the rise

======================================================================

@Denmark



Denmark Introduction

Background: Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the political and economic integration of Europe. So far, however, the country has opted out of some aspects of the European Union's Maastricht Treaty, including the economic and monetary system (EMU) and issues concerning certain internal affairs.



Denmark Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaeland and Fyn)

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 43,094 sq km

land: 42,394 sq km

water: 700 sq km

note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaeland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 68 km

border countries: Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m

highest point: Yding Skovhoej 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, stone, gravel and sand

Land use: arable land: 60%

permanent crops: 0%

permanent pastures: 5%

forests and woodland: 10%

other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen



Denmark People

Population: 5,352,815 (July 2001 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.59% (male 510,826; female 484,385)

15-64 years: 66.56% (male 1,804,617; female 1,758,019)

65 years and over: 14.85% (male 331,906; female 463,062) (2001 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.3% (2001 est.)

Birth rate: 11.96 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2001 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.72 years

male: 74.12 years

female: 79.47 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.17% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,300 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dane(s)

adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, Muslims 2%

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)

note: English is the predominant second language

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: NA%

female: NA%



Denmark Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark

conventional short form: Denmark

local long form: Kongeriget Danmark

local short form: Danmark

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