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The 2000 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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International Olympic Committee (IOC) address - Chateau de Vidy, CH-1007 Lausanne, Switzerland telephone - [41] (21) 621 61 11 FAX - [41] (21) 621 62 16, 621 63 54 established - 23 June 1894 aim - to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic games: 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia; 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, United States; 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece National Olympic Committees - (199 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Yemen, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization

International Organization for Migration (IOM) note - established as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in November 1980; current name adopted 14 November 1989 address - 17 route des Morillons, CP 71, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 717 91 11 FAX - [41] (22) 798 61 50 established - 5 December 1951 aim - to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration members - (69) Albania, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mali, Morocco, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Slovakia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia observers - (47) Afghanistan, Algeria, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Estonia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Madagascar, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Namibia, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) address - CP 56, 1 Rue de Varembe, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 749 01 11 FAX - [41] (22) 733 34 30 established - NA February 1947 aim - to promote the development of international standards with a view to facilitating international exchange of goods and services and to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity members - (88 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia and Montenegro, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe correspondent members - (35) Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Brunei, Cote d'Ivoire, El Salvador, Estonia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Malta, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Qatar, Seychelles, Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE subscriber members - (9) Benin, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Grenada, Guyana, Namibia, Saint Lucia

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM) address - International Conference of the Red Cross, 19 Avenue de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 734 60 01 FAX - [41] (22) 733 20 57 established - NA 1928 aim - to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS; formerly League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or LORCS) in peacetime National Societies - (175 countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) address - Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 730 6039 FAX - [41] (22) 733 7256, 730 5939 established - 17 May 1865 set up as the International Telegraph Union; 9 December 1932 adopted present name effective - 1 January 1934 affiliated with the UN - 15 November 1947 aim - to deal with world telecommunications issues; a UN specialized agency members - (188) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat) address - Intelsat, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008-3098, US telephone - [1] (202) 944 7500 FAX - [1] (202) 944 7890 established - 20 August 1964 set up as the Telecommunications Satellite Consortium; 12 February 1973 adopted present name aim - to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications satellite system members - (143) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe nonsignatory users - (42) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Belize, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cook Islands, Cuba, Djibouti, Eritrea, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Kiribati, North Korea, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Moldova, Nauru, Niue, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Suriname, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu

Islamic Development Bank (IDB) address - P. O. Box 5925, Jeddah 21432, Saudi Arabia telephone - [966] (2) 6361400 FAX - [966] (2) 6366871 established - 15 December 1973 by declaration of intent effective - 12 August 1974 aim - to promote Islamic economic aid and social development members - (51 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

Latin American Economic System (LAES) note - also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA) address - SELA, Avenida Francisco de Miranda, Torre Europa, Piso 4, Chacaito, Apartado de Correos 17035, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela telephone - [58] (2) 905 5111 FAX - [58] (2) 951 6953, 951 7246 established - 17 October 1975 aim - to promote economic and social development through regional cooperation members - (28) Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (21) Andean Promotion Corporation, China, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, EEC, Guatemala, Honduras, IADB, Inter-American Institute for Agricultural Cooperation, Italy, Nicaragua, OAS, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, UN Development Program, UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) note - also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI) address - Calle Cebollati 1461, Casilla de Correo 577, 11000 Montevideo, Uruguay telephone - [598] (2) 400 11 21, 409 59 15 FAX - [598] (2) 409 06 49 established - 12 August 1980 effective - 18 March 1981 aim - to promote freer regional trade members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (21) China, Commission of the European Communities, Corporacion Andina de Fomento, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Italy, Latin America Economic System, Nicaragua, Organization of American States, Panama, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

League of Arab States (LAS) see Arab League (AL)

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) see International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)

least developed countries (LLDCs)

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially identified by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant economic growth, per capita GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low literacy rates; also known as the undeveloped countries; the 42 LLDCs are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Yemen

less developed countries (LDCs) the bottom group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); mainly countries and dependent areas with low levels of output, living standards, and technology; per capita GDPs are generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group also includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes, areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the advanced developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers), least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income countries, newly industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World, underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries; the 172 LDCs are: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - similar to the new International Monetary Fund (IMF) term "developing countries" which adds Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey but omits in its recently published statistics American Samoa, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey, Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Isle of Man, Martinique, Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara

London Suppliers Group see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

low-income countries another term for those less developed countries with below-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)

Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur) see Southern Cone Common Market

middle-income countries another term for those less developed countries with above-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)

Near Abroad Russian term for the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in which 25 million ethnic Russians live and in which Moscow has expressed a strong national security interest; the 14 countries are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

newly industrializing countries (NICs) former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

newly industrializing economies (NIEs) that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has experienced particularly rapid industrialization of their economies; formerly known as the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced developing countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan), and Brazil

Nonaligned Movement (NAM) address - Permanent Representative of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations, 333 East 38th Street, 9th floor, New York, NY 10016, US telephone - [1] (212) 213 5583 FAX - [1] (212) 692 2498 established - 1-6 September 1961 aim - to establish political and military cooperation apart from the traditional East or West blocs members - (113 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (16) Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Ukraine, Uruguay guests - (28) Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

Nordic Council (NC) address - Store Strandstraede 18, PB 3043, DK-1021 Kobenhavn K, Denmark telephone - [45] 33 96 04 00 FAX - [45] 33 11 18 70 established - 16 March 1952 effective - 12 February 1953 aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental cooperation members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden observers - (3) the Sami (Lapp) local parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) address - Fabianinkatu 34, P. O. Box 249, FIN-00171 Helsinki, Finland telephone - [358] (0) 18001 FAX - [358] (0) 1800210 established - 4 December 1975 effective - 1 June 1976 aim - to promote economic cooperation and development members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden

North a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located in the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of the South; see developed countries (DCs)

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) see Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) address - B-1110 Brussels, Belgium telephone - [32] (2) 707 4111 FAX - [32] (2) 707 4579 established - 4 April 1949 aim - to promote mutual defense and cooperation members - (19) Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) note - also known as OECD Nuclear Energy Agency address - AEN/NEA, Le Seine St. Germain, 12 Boulevard des Iles, F-92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France telephone - [33] (1) 45 24 10 10 FAX - [33] (1) 45 24 11 10 established - 1 February 1958 aim - to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; associated with OECD members - (27) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) note - also known as the London Suppliers Group or the London Group address - c/o Permanent Mission of Japan to the International Organizations in Vienna, Andromeda Tower, 23rd floor, Donau City Strasse 6, A-1220 Vienna, Austria telephone - [43] (1) 260 6300 FAX - [43] (1) 263 6749 established - NA 1974 effective - NA 1975 aim - to establish guidelines for exports of nuclear materials, processing equipment for uranium enrichment, and technical information to countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability members - (35) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US observer - (1) European Commission (a policy-planning body for the EU)

Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL) see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) address - 2 Rue Andre Pascal, F-75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France telephone - [33] (1) 45 24 82 00 FAX - [33] (1) 45 24 85 00, 45 24 81 76, 45 24 18 15 established - 14 December 1960 effective - 30 September 1961 aim - to promote economic cooperation and development members - (29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US special member - (1) EU

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) note - formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) established 3 July 1975 address - Karntner Ring 5-7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria telephone - [43] (1) 514 36-190 FAX - [43] (1) 514 36-96 established - 1 January 1995 aim - to foster the implementation of human rights, fundamental freedoms, democracy, and the rule of law; to act as an instrument of early warning, conflict prevention and crisis management; and to serve as a framework for conventional arms control and confidence building measures members - (55) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (suspended) partners for cooperation - (8) Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Morocco, Tunisia

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) address - Johan de Wittlaan 32, NL-2517 JR The Hague, Netherlands telephone - [31] (70) 416 33 00 FAX - [31] (70) 360 09 44 established - 29 April 1997 aim - to enforce the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction; to provide a forum for consultation and cooperation among the signatories of the Convention members - (169) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Organization of African Unity (OAU) address - P. O. Box 3243, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia telephone - [251] (1) 517700 FAX - [251] (1) 512622, 517844 established - 25 May 1963 aim - to promote unity and cooperation among African states members - (54) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco (temporarily suspended), Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Organization of American States (OAS) address - corner of 17th Street and Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006, US telephone - [1] (202) 458 3000 FAX - [1] (202) 458 3967 established - 14 April 1890 as the International Union of American Republics; 30 April 1948 adopted present charter effective - 13 December 1951 aim - to promote regional peace and security as well as economic and social development members - (35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (45) Algeria, Angola, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, Yemen

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) address - P. O. Box 20501, Safat 13066, Kuwait telephone - [965] 4844500 FAX - [965] 4815747 established - 9 January 1968 aim - to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry members - (10) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) address - OECS, P. O. Box 179, Morne Fortune, Castries, Saint Lucia telephone - [1] (758) 45 22537, 45 22538 FAX - [1] (758) 45 31628 established - 18 June 1981 effective - 4 July 1981 aim - to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation members - (7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines associate members - (2) Anguilla, British Virgin Islands

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) address - Obere Donaustrasse 93, A-1020 Vienna, Austria telephone - [43] (1) 21 11 20 FAX - [43] (1) 216 43 20 established - 14 September 1960 aim - to coordinate petroleum policies members - (11) Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) address - 6 km Makkah Al-Mukarramah Road, P. O. Box 178, Jeddah 21411, Saudi Arabia telephone - [966] (2) 680-0800 FAX - [966] (2) 687-6568 established - 22-25 September 1969 aim - to promote Islamic solidarity in economic, social, cultural, and political affairs members - (52 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (4) Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, Moro National Liberation Front of the Philippines, "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

Pacific Community note - formerly known as the South Pacific Commission (SPC) address - BP D5, 98848 Noumea CEDEX, New Caledonia telephone - [687] 26 20 00 FAX - [687] 26 38 18 established - 6 February 1947 effective - 29 July 1948 aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters members - (26) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna

Paris Club see Group of 10

Partnership for Peace (PFP) address - NATO Office of Information and Press, B-1110 Brussels, Belgium telephone - [32] (2) 728 44 15 FAX - [32] (2) 728 45 79 established - 10-11 January 1994 aim - to expand and intensify political and military cooperation throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and build relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation and commitment to democratic principles that underpin NATO; program under the auspices of NATO members - (27) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) address - Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, NL-2517 KJ The Hague, Netherlands telephone - [31] (70) 302 42 42 FAX - [31] (70) 302 41 67 established - 29 July 1899 aim - to facilitate the settlement of international disputes members - (86) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zaire, Zimbabwe

Population Commission see Commission on Population and Development

Rio Group (RG) note - formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established in December 1986 address - Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Edificio AYFRA, Piso 10, Pdte Franco y Ayolas, Asuncion, Paraguay telephone - [595] (21) 448409, 493872 FAX - [595] (21) 450911, 493910 established - NA 1988 aim - to consult on regional Latin American issues members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Second World another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states of the USSR and Eastern Europe, with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; the term is fading from use; see centrally planned economies

Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) see Pacific Community

Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA) see Latin American Economic System (LAES)

Social Commission see Commission for Social Development

socialist countries

in general, countries in which the government owns and plans the use of the major factors of production; note - the term is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for communist countries

South a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the North; see less developed countries (LDCs)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) address - P. O. Box 4222, Kathmandu, Nepal telephone - [977] (1) 221785, 226350, 221792, 228029 FAX - [977] (1) 227033, 223991 established - 8 December 1985 aim - to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

South Pacific Commission (SPC) see Pacific Community (SPC)

South Pacific Forum (SPF) address - c/o Forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road, Private Mail Bag, Suva, Fiji telephone - [679] 312 600, 303 106 FAX - [679] 301 102, 305 573 established - 5 August 1971 aim - to promote regional cooperation in political matters members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (Sparteca) address - c/o forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road GPO Box 856, Suva, Fiji telephone - [679] 312 600, 303 106 FAX - [679] 302 204 established - NA 1981 aim - to redress unequal trade relationships of Australia and New Zealand with small island economies in the Pacific region members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Southern African Customs Union (SACU) address - Director of Customs and Excise, Ministry of Finance, Private Bag 13295, Windhoek, Namibia established - 11 December 1969 aim - to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters members - (5) Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland

Southern African Development Community (SADC) note - evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) address - Private Bag 0095, Gaborone, Botswana telephone - [267] (31) 351863, 351864, 351865 FAX - [267] (31) 372848 established - 17 August 1992 aim - to promote regional economic development and integration members - (14) Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) or Southern Common Market note - also known as Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur) address - Rincon 575 Piso 12, 11000 Montevideo, Uruguay telephone - [598] (2) 9164590 FAX - [598] (2) 9164591 established - 26 March 1991 aim - to increase regional economic cooperation members - (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay associate member - (2) Bolivia, Chile

Statistical Commission address - Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, DC-2 Building, Room 2963, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 9851 established - 21 June 1946 aim - to deal with development and standardization of national statistics of interest to the UN, as part of the Economic and Social Council organization members - (24) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

Third World another term for the less developed countries; the term is obsolescent; see less developed countries (LDCs)

underdeveloped countries

refers to those less developed countries with the potential for above-average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs)

undeveloped countries

refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with little prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries (LLDCs)

Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)

United Nations (UN) address - United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 26 June 1945 effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to maintain international peace and security and to promote cooperation involving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems members - (187 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - all UN members are represented in the General Assembly; Tuvalu will become a member in 2000 observers - (2 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See, Switzerland, Palestine Liberation Organization

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) successor to original UNAVEM and UNAVEM II; established 20 December 1988; renewed for third time 8 February 1995; aim was to assist the parties in restoring peace and achieving national reconciliation in Angola on the basis of the Peace Accords, the Lusaka Protocol, and relevant Security Council resolutions; established by the UN Security Council; members Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Fiji, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Jordan, Mongolia, Mali, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Sweden, Tanzania, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe; disbanded 30 June 1997

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) established 5 October 1993 to support and provide safe conditions for displaced persons and human rights monitors, and to assist in training a new national police force; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Fiji, Germany, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Jordan, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Senegal, Switzerland, Tunisia, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe; terminated 8 March 1996

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN International Children's Emergency Fund address - UNICEF House, Three United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 326 7000 FAX - [1] (212) 888 7465, 888 7454 established - 11 December 1946 aim - to help establish child health and welfare services members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Office for Special Political Affairs, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 28 November 1997 aim - to support the professionalization of the Haitian National Police; established by UN Security Council members - (11) Argentina, Benin, Canada, France, India, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, US

United Nations Civilian Police Support Group in Croatia established 19 December 1997 to monitor the Croatian police with respect to the return of displaced persons; members were Argentina, Austria, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Nepal, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Tunisia, Ukraine, US; disbanded 15 October 1998

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) address - UNCTAD, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 917 12 34, 907 12 34 FAX - [41] (22) 907 00 57, 907 00 43 established - 30 December 1964 aim - to promote international trade members - (188) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga

United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO) established 31 March 1995 to separate Croatian and Krajina Serb forces; to monitor demilitarization of the Prevlaka Peninsula; to maintain a presence on Croatia's international borders; to monitor and report the crossing of military personnel, equipment, supplies and weapons; to facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance; to aid refugees and displaced persons; to protect ethnic minorities; and to clear mines; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded January 1996

United Nations Development Program (UNDP) address - One United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 906 5788, 906 5000 FAX - [1] (212) 906 5365 established - 22 November 1965 aim - to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social development members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, United Nations, Room S-3260E, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 31 May 1974 aim - to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council members - (5) Austria, Canada, Japan, Poland, Slovakia

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) address - 7 place de Fontenoy, F-75352 Paris 07SP, France telephone - [33] (1) 45 68 10 00 FAX - [33] (1) 45 67 16 90 established - 16 November 1945 effective - 4 November 1946 aim - to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture members - (186) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members - (4) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Macau, Netherlands Antilles

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) address - P. O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya telephone - [254] (2) 230800, 520600, 621234, 623292 FAX - [254] (2) 226890, 623927, 623692 established - 15 December 1972 aim - to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations General Assembly address - see United Nations established - 26 June 1945 effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to function as the primary deliberative organ of the UN members - (185) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) address - UNHCR Headquarters, Case Postale 2500, Depot, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 739 81 11 FAX - [41] (22) 731 95 46 established - 3 December 1949 effective - 1 January 1951 aim - to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find permanent solutions to refugee problems members - (53) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) address - Vienna International Center, P. O. Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria telephone - [43] (1) 211 310 FAX - [43] (1) 23 21 56 established - 17 November 1966 effective - 1 January 1967 aim - UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development especially among the members members - (168) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) address - Palais des Nations, Bureau 1070, CH-1211, Geneva 10, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 798-58-50, 798-84-00 FAX - [41] (22) 733-13-83 established - 11 December 1963 adoption of the resolution establishing the Institute effective - 24 March 1965 aim - to help the UN become more effective through training and research members (Board of Trustees) - (19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Cameroon, Chile, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, Thailand; note - the UN Secretary General can appoint up to 30 members

United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 10 June 1999 aim - to promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo; to perform basic civilian administrative functions; to support the reconstruction of key infrastructure and humanitarian and disaster relief members - (49) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Malawi, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine UK, US, Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 19 March 1978 aim - to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces, and assist in reestablishing Lebanese authority in southern Lebanon; established by the UN Security Council members - (9) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, India, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Poland

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 9 April 1991 aim - to observe and monitor the demilitarized zone established between Iraq and Kuwait; established by the UN Security Council members - (33) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) address - P. O. Box 68, Rawalpindi, Pakistan telephone - [92] (51) 564 298 FAX - [92] (51) 567 897, 565 861 established - 24 January 1949 aim - to observe the 1949 India-Pakistan cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council members - (8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, South Korea, Sweden, Uruguay

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 29 April 1991 aim - to supervise the cease-fire and conduct a referendum in Western Sahara; established by the UN Security Council members - (29) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, India, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, South Korea, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Togo, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718 established - 21 December 1995 aim - to establish an International Police Task Force (IPTF) to implement the Dayton Peace Agreement in Bosnia and Herzegovina members - (44) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) established 23 September 1993; aim was to assist in implementing the agreement to transfer power back into the civilian government; established by the UN Security Council; became the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) 28 June 1996 with the aim to assist in the professionalization of the Haitian National Police; members were Algeria, Canada, France, India, Mali, Pakistan, Togo, US; disbanded 31 July 1997

United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) established NA April 1998 to provide security in the capital as the government undertakes the necessary reforms to provide its own security; to provide training to civilian police; members were Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon Canada, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, France, Gabon, Mali, Portugal, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia; was disbanded 15 February 2000

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963-1234 FAX - [1] (212) 758-2718 established - 22 October 1999 aim - to cooperate with the Government of Sierra Leone and the other parties to the Peace Agreement in the implementation of the agreement; to monitor the military and security situation in Sierra Leone; to monitor the disarmament and demobilization of combatants and members of the Civil Defense Forces (CFD); to assist in monitoring respect for international humanitarian law members - (30) Bangladesh, Bolivia, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, The Gambia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Thailand, Tanzania, UK, Uruguay, Zambia

United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718 established - 1 February 1996 aim - to monitor the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula members - (24) Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718 established - 16 December 1994 aim - to monitor and investigate violations of the cease-fire of 17 September 1994 between Tajikistan and the Tajik opposition and to assist in the political negotiation process; established by the UN Security Council members - (13) Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Nepal, Nigeria, Poland, Ukraine, Uruguay

United Nations Monitoring and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC) note - formerly known as United Nations Special Commission for the Elimination of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction (UNSCOM) address - c/o United Nations, Room S-3120H, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 3018 FAX - [1] (212) 963 3922 established - NA December 1999 aim - to identify, account for, and eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and the capacity to produce them members - (22) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, UK, US, Venezuela

United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) established 1 July 1997 to assist in implementation of peace agreement; oversee normalization of state administration throughout National territory; established by UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Egypt, India, Jordan, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe; terminated 26 February 1999

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) established 20 May 1991 to verify cease-fire arrangements and to monitor the maintenance of public order pending the organization of a new National Civil Police; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Guyana, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela; disbanded April 1995

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 24 August 1993 aim - to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement, to monitor weapons exclusion zone, and to supervise CIS peacekeeping force for Abkhazia; established by the UN Security Council members - (22) Albania, Austria, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Jordan, South Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay

United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) established 22 September 1993 to assist in the implementation of the peace agreement; established by the UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Pakistan; disbanded September 1997

United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) established 1993 for six months to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border to verify that no military assistance reaches Rwanda across the border; established by the UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Hungary, Netherlands, Senegal, Slovakia, Zimbabwe; subsumed by UNAMIR

United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ) established 16 December 1992 to supervise the cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, US, Uruguay, Zambia; shut down operations 31 January 1995

United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II) established 24 April 1992 to facilitate an immediate cessation of hostilities, to maintain a cease-fire in order to promote a political settlement, and to provide urgent humanitarian assistance; established by the UN Security Council; members were Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, India, Ireland, Malaysia, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Romania, Zimbabwe; UN peacekeepers left Somalia on 1 March 1995; some UN personnel remain in Somalia engaged in humanitarian work

United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 30 November 1999 aim - to establish contacts with the signatories to the cease-fire agreement and to plan for the observation of the cease-fire and disengagement of forces members - (24) Algeria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Canada, Egypt, France, Ghana, India, Italy, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nepal, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, UK, Tanzania, Uruguay, Zambia

United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) address - Chief of Mission, P. O. Box 1642, Nicosia, Cyprus telephone - [357] (2) 359 700 FAX - [357] (2) 359 753 established - 4 March 1964 aim - to serve as a peacekeeping force between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus; established by the UN Security Council members - (10) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Netherlands, Slovenia, UK

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) note - acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for Population Activities address - 220 East 42nd Street, 19th Floor, Room DN-1901, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 297 5000 FAX - [1] (212) 557 6416 established - NA July 1967 aim - to assist both developed and developing countries to deal with their population problems members - (34) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) established 31 March 1995; to monitor border activity in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; members were Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, US; mandate ended 25 March 1999

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) established 28 February 1992; to create conditions for peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the "Yugoslav" crisis; established by the UN Security Council; members were Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded December 1995; replaced by the Implementation Force (IFOR), which has been replaced by the Stabilization Force (SFOR)

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) address - P. O. Box 700, Vienna International Center, A-1400 Vienna, Austria established - 8 December 1949 aim - to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees members - (10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, UK, US

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) address - Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 798 84 00, 798 58 50 FAX - [41] (22) 740 07 91 established - NA 1963 aim - to conduct research into the problems of economic development during different phases of economic growth members - no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of a chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 10 individual members

United Nations Secretariat address - see United Nations established - 26 June 1945 effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a Secretary General is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council members - the UN Secretary General and staff

United Nations Security Council address - c/o United Nations, Room S-3520A, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 758 2718 established - 26 June 1945 effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to maintain international peace and security permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly; Argentina (1999-2000), Bangladesh (2000-01), Canada (1999-2000), Jamaica (2000-01), Malaysia (1999-2000), Mali (2000-01), Namibia (1999-2000), Netherlands (1999-2000), Tunisia (2000-01), Ukraine (2000-01)

United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) address - c/o Department of Peace-keeping Operations, Room S-3260E, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, US telephone - [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX - [1] (212) 963 4879 established - 25 October 1999 aim - to provide security throughout the territory of East Timor; to establish an effective administration; to ensure the coordination and delivery of humanitarian assistance; to support capacity-building for self-government members - (27) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Ghana, Ireland, Jordan, Malaysia, Mozambique, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, UK, US, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) established 12 November 1995; aim to facilitate and supervise the Basic Agreement between the government of the Republic of Croatia and the local Serbian community that will lead to a peaceful integration of that region into the national state of Croatia; members were Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, NZ, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russian, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US; disbanded 15 January 1998; a UN Civilian Police Support Group was established in December 1997 as follow-on mission to UNTAES; the support group will continue to monitor the Croatian police in the Danube region, particularly in connection with the return of displaced people

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) established by the UN Security Council on 28 February 1992 to contribute to the restoration and maintenance of peace and to the holding of free elections; disbanded sometime after the UN-supervised election in May 1993; members were Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) address - Government House, P. O. Box 490, Jerusalem 91004, Israel telephone - [972] (2) 673 4223 FAX - [972] (2) 673 5282, 673 4223 extension 400 established - NA June 1948 aim - to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; currently supports timely deployment of reinforcements to other peacekeeping operations in the region as needed; initially established by the UN Security Council members - (22) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, US

United Nations Trusteeship Council established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, to supervise the administration of the 11 UN trust territories; members were China, France, Russia, UK, US; it formally suspended operations 1 November 1995 after the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) became the Republic of Palau, a constitutional government in free association with the US; the Trusteeship Council was not dissolved

United Nations University (UNU) address - 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan telephone - [81] (3) 3499 2811 FAX - [81] (3) 3499 2828 established - 3 December 1973 aim - to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival and to train scholars members - (38 associated institutes in 32 countries) Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Philippines, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Venezuela

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) established on 20 January 1997; to verify fulfillment of cease-fire provisions; established by UN Security Council; members were Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Columbia, Ecuador, Germany, Italy, Norway, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Venezuela; mandate terminated in May 1997

Universal Postal Union (UPU) address - Bureau International de l'UPU, Weltpoststrasse 4, CH-3000 Berne 15, Switzerland telephone - [41] (31) 350 31 11 FAX - [41] (31) 350 31 10 established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947 effective - 1 July 1948 aim - to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized agency members - (189) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas Territories of the UK, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe

Warsaw Pact (WP) established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR; earlier members included GDR and Albania

West African Development Bank (WADB) note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD); is a financial institution of WAEMU address - 68 Avenue de la Liberation, BP 1172, Lome, Togo telephone - [228] 21 59 06, 21 42 44, 21 01 13 FAX - [228] 21 52 67, 21 72 69 established - 14 November 1973 aim - to promote regional economic development and integration regional members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo international/nonregional members - (5) African Development Bank, Belgium, European Investment Bank, France, Germany

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) note - also known as Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA) address - Commission de l'UEMOA, 01 BP 543, Ouadgadougou, Burkina Faso telephone - [226] 31 88 73 through 76 FAX - [226] 31 88 72 established - 1 August 1994 aim - to increase competitiveness of members' economic markets; to create a common market members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo

West African Economic Community (CEAO) note - acronym from Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest established on 3 June 1972 to promote regional economic development; its members were Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal; it was disbanded in 1994

Western European Union (WEU) address - Rue de la Regence 4, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium telephone - [32] (2) 500 44 11 FAX - [32] (2) 511 32 70 established - 23 October 1954 effective - 6 May 1955 aim - to provide mutual defense and to move toward political unification members - (10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK associate members - (6) Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Turkey associate partners - (7) Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia observers - (5) Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden

World Bank see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

World Bank Group includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance Corporation (IFC)

World Confederation of Labor (WCL) address - Rue de Treves 33, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium telephone - [32] (2) 230 62 95 FAX - [32] (2) 230 87 22 established - 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968 aim - to promote the trade union movement members - (99 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Court see International Court of Justice (ICJ)

World Customs Organization (WCO) see Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) address - Branicka 112, 14701 Prague 4, Czech Republic telephone - [42] (2) 44 46 21 40, 44 46 20 85, 44 46 29 61 FAX - [42] (2) 44 46 13 78 established - 3 October 1945 aim - to promote the trade union movement members - (125 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization

World Food Council (WFC) established 17 December 1974; to study world food problems and to recommend solutions; ECOSOC organization; there were 36 members selected on a rotating basis from all regions; subsumed by the World Food Program and Food and Agriculture Organization

World Food Program (WFP) address - Via Cesare Giullio Viola, 68/70 Parco de Medici, I-00148 Rome, Italy telephone - [39] (6) 522821 FAX - [39] (6) 59602348, 52282840 established - 24 November 1961 aim - to provide food aid in support of economic development or disaster relief; an ECOSOC organization members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

World Health Organization (WHO) address - CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland telephone - [41] (22) 791 21 11, 791 32 23 FAX - [41] (22) 791 07 46 established - 22 July 1946 effective - 7 April 1948 aim - to deal with health matters worldwide; a UN specialized agency members - (191) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niue, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members - (2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau

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