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The 2000 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -20% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 50% services: 30% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 42% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.6 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 30% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: -22% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 38.84 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 67.88% hydro: 32.12% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 36.141 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 20 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 40 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $1.5 billion (1999)

Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials

Exports - partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany (1998)

Imports: $3.3 billion (1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials

Imports - partners: Germany, Italy, Russia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1998)

Debt - external: $14.1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras; Montenegro made the German deutsche mark (1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige) legal tender alongside the Yugoslav dinar (1999)

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - official rate: 10.0 (December 1998), 5.85 (December 1997), 5.02 (September 1996), 1.5 (early 1995); black market rate: 14.5 (December 1998), 8.9 (December 1997), 2 to 3 (early 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Serbia and Montenegro:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.017 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 38,552 (1999)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in the principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)

Televisions: 2.75 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999)

@Serbia and Montenegro:Transportation

Railways: total: 4,095 km standard gauge: 4,095 km 1.435-m gauge (1,377 km partially electrified since 1992) note: during to the 1999 Kosovo conflict, the Serbian rail system suffered significant damage due to bridge destruction; many rail bridges have been rebuilt, but the bridge over the Danube at Novi Sad was still down in early 2000; however, a by-pass is available; Montenegrin rail lines remain intact

Highways: total: 48,603 km paved: 28,822 km (including 560 km of expressways) unpaved: 19,781 km (1998 est.) note: because of the 1999 Kosovo conflict, many road bridges were destroyed; since the end of the conflict in June 1999, Serbia has had a rapid reconstruction program to either reconstruct bridges or build by-pass routes

Waterways: 587 km; Danube River runs through Serbia connecting Europe with the Black Sea; in early 2000 the river was obstructed at Novi Sad due to a pontoon bridge; a canal system in north Serbia is available to by-pass damage, however, lock size is limited (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km

Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika

Airports: 48 (Serbia 43, Montenegro 5) (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 19 (Serbia 16, Montenegro 3) over 3,047 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0) 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (Serbia 3, Montenegro 2) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 1) 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0) under 914 m: 5 (Serbia 5, Montenegro 0) (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 29 (Serbia 27, Montenegro 2) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0) 914 to 1,523 m: 13 (Serbia 12, Montenegro 1) under 914 m: 14 (Serbia 13, Montenegro 1) (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

@Serbia and Montenegro:Military

Military branches: Army (including ground forces with border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces)

Military manpower - military age: Serbia - 19 years of age; Montenegro - 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,603,224 (Serbia - 2,424,990; Montenegro - 178,234) (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,089,191 (Serbia - 1,945,422; Montenegro - 143,769) (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 82,553 (Serbia - 76,856; Montenegro - 5,697) (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $911 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.5% (FY99)

@Serbia and Montenegro:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian republic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP); the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to resolve differences in delineation of their border has made no progress so far

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route





SEYCHELLES

@Seychelles:Introduction

Background: A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993.

@Seychelles:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 455 sq km land: 455 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 13% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 11% other: 74% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible

Environment - current issues: water supply depends on catchments to collect rain water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

@Seychelles:People

Population: 79,326 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29% (male 11,499; female 11,338) 15-64 years: 65% (male 25,143; female 26,386) 65 years and over: 6% (male 1,674; female 3,286) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 17.99 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.41 years male: 64.87 years female: 76.12 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Seychellois (singular and plural) adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), French (official), Creole

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 58% male: 56% female: 60% (1971 est.)

@Seychelles:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles conventional short form: Seychelles

Data code: SE

Government type: republic

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe), Grand' Anse (on Praslin), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 18 June (1993) (adoption of the constitution)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003) election results: France Albert RENE reelected president; percent of vote - France Albert RENE (SPPF) 66.7%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 19.5%, Sir James MANCHAM (DP) 13.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (35 seats - 25 elected by popular vote, 10 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least nine percent of the vote; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party (elected) - SPPF 24, DP 1; seats by party (awarded) - SPPF 6, DP 1, UO 3 note: the 10 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the president; Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP ; New Democratic Party ; Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF - the governing party; United Opposition or UO - a coalition of the following parties: Seychelles Party or PS [Wavel RAMKALAWAN], Seychelles Democratic Movement or MSPD , and Seychelles Liberal Party or SLP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church; trade unions

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Walter GEISEL chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017 telephone: (212) 972-1785 FAX: (212) 972-1786

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles

Flag description: five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side

@Seychelles:Economy

Economy - overview: Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war. Although the industry has rebounded, the government recognizes the continuing need for upgrading the sector in the face of stiff international competition. Other issues facing the government are the curbing of the budget deficit and further privatization of public enterprises. Growth slowed in 1998-99, due to sluggish tourist and tuna sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $590 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 21% services: 75% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1999)

Labor force: 26,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 19%, services 57%, government 14%, fishing, agriculture, and forestry 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $220 million expenditures: $241 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1994 est.)

Industries: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 125 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 116 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fish

Exports: $91 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)

Exports - partners: France, UK, Netherlands, Italy, China, Germany, Japan

Imports: $403 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Imports - partners: South Africa, UK, China, Singapore, France, Italy

Debt - external: $149 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $16.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 5.3060 (September 1999), 5.2622 (1998), 5.0263 (1997), 4.9700 (1996), 4.7620 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Seychelles:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,844 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,249 (1997)

Telephone system: domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago international: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 42,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus 9 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Seychelles:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 280 km paved: 176 km unpaved: 104 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Victoria

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 14 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 8 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 4 (1999 est.)

@Seychelles:Military

Military branches: Army, Coast Guard, Marines, air wing, National Guard, Presidential Protection Unit, Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 22,677 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 11,345 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13 million (FY93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.8% (FY93)

@Seychelles:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Chagos Archipelago in British Indian Ocean Territory





SIERRA LEONE

@Sierra Leone:Introduction

Background: Since 1991, civil war between the government and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (well over one-third of the population) many of whom are now refugees in neighboring countries. A peace agreement, signed on 7 July 1999, offers hope that the country will be able to rebuild its devastated economy and infrastructure, but previous peace efforts have failed. As of late 1999, up to 6,000 UN peacekeepers were in the process of deploying to bolster the peace accord.

@Sierra Leone:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 71,740 sq km land: 71,620 sq km water: 120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 958 km border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite

Land use: arable land: 7% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 31% forests and woodland: 28% other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 290 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (November to May); sandstorms, dust storms

Environment - current issues: rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

@Sierra Leone:People

Population: 5,232,624 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.73% (male 1,148,264; female 1,192,533) 15-64 years: 52.16% (male 1,305,039; female 1,424,076) 65 years and over: 3.11% (male 81,291; female 81,421) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.67% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 45.63 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 19.58 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.) note: by the end of 1999 refugees from Sierra Leone are assumed to be returning

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 148.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.25 years male: 42.37 years female: 48.21 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Sierra Leonean(s) adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups: 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-eighteenth century), refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians

Religions: Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

Languages: English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic total population: 31.4% male: 45.4% female: 18.2% (1995 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone conventional short form: Sierra Leone

Data code: SL

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Constitution: 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election held 26-27 February and 15 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); note - president's tenure of office is limited to two five-year terms election results: Ahmad Tejan KABBAH elected president; percent of vote - Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (SLPP) 59.5%, John Karefa-Smart (UNPP) 40.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (80 seats - 68 elected by popular vote, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 26-27 February 1996 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: percent of vote by party - SLPP 36.1%, UNPP 21.6%, PDP 15.3%, APC 5.7%, NUP 5.3%, DCP 4.8%, other 11.2%; seats by party - SLPP 27, UNPP 17, PDP 12, APC 5, NUP 4, DCP 3; note - first elections since the former House of Representatives was shut down by the military coup of 29 April 1992

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: All People's Congress or APC [Edward Mohammed TURAY, chairman]; Democratic Centre Party or DCP [Adu Aiah KOROMA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA ; National Republican Party or NRP ; National Unity Party or NUP ; People's Democratic Party or PDP ; People's Progressive Party or PPP ; Revolutionary United Front Party or RUFP ; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP ; United National People's Party or UNPP [John KARIFA-SMART in exile, Raymond KAMARA, acting leader]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John Ernest LEIGH chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: (202) 939-9261 through 9263 FAX: (202) 483-1793

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph MELROSE embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: (22) 226481 through 226485 FAX: (22) 225471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue

@Sierra Leone:Economy

Economy - overview: Sierra Leone has substantial mineral, agricultural, and fishery resources. However, the economic and social infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders continue to hamper economic development. About two-thirds of the working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Bauxite and rutile mines have been shut down by civil strife. The major source of hard currency is found in the mining of diamonds, the large majority of which are smuggled out of the country. The resurgence of internal warfare in 1999 brought another substantial drop in GDP. The fate of the economy in 2000 depends on the mid-1999 peace accord holding and the rebels reopening territory under their control.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -10% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 52% industry: 16% services: 32% (1996)

Population below poverty line: 68% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.5% highest 10%: 43.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.369 million (1981 est.) note: only about 65,000 wage earners (1985)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $96 million expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: mining (diamonds); small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 235 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 219 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish

Exports - partners: Benelux 49%, Spain 10%, US 8%, UK 3% (1997)

Imports: $166 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals

Imports - partners: UK 24%, Cote d'Ivoire 14%, Benelux 10%, US 8% (1997)

Debt - external: $1.15 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $203.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones (Le) per US$1 - 2,324.77 (January 2000), 1,804.20 (1999), 1,563.62 (1998), 981.48 (1997), 920.73 (1996), 755.22 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Sierra Leone:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: marginal telephone and telegraph service domestic: national microwave radio relay system made unserviceable by military activities international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 9, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 1.12 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1999)

Televisions: 53,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Sierra Leone:Transportation

Railways: total: 84 km used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed narrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 11,300 km paved: 904 km unpaved: 10,396 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports and harbors: Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel

Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,105 GRT/1,307 DWT ships by type: specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 9 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Military

Military branches: Army

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,119,540 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 543,124 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $46 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96/97)

@Sierra Leone:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





SINGAPORE

@Singapore:Introduction

Background: Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP above that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

@Singapore:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N, 103 48 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 647.5 sq km land: 637.5 sq km water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 6% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 5% other: 87% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

@Singapore:People

Population: 4,151,264 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 390,352; female 365,730) 15-64 years: 75% (male 1,520,875; female 1,590,355) 65 years and over: 7% (male 124,413; female 159,539) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.54% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.79 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.21 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 26.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.05 years male: 77.1 years female: 83.23 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.16 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Singaporean(s) adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups: Chinese 77%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.6%, other 1.4%

Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist

Languages: Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 91.1% male: 95.9% female: 86.3% (1995 est.)

@Singapore:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore conventional short form: Singapore

Data code: SN

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999) head of government: Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held NA August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 2 January 1997 (next to be held by 2002) election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 65% (in contested constituencies), other 35%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 1, SPP 1; note - subsequent to the election, there was a change in the distribution of seats, the new distribution is as follows: PAP 80, WP 1, SPP 1, vacant 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice; Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: National Solidarity Party or NSP [C. K. TAN]; People's Action Party or PAP - the governing party; Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Singapore People's Party or SPP ; Workers' Party or WP

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, Australia Group (observer), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 537-3100 FAX: (202) 537-0876 consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Steven J. GREEN embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508 mailing address: FPO AP 96507 telephone: 476-9100 FAX: 476-9340

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

@Singapore:Economy

Economy - overview: Singapore is blessed with a highly developed and successful free-market economy, a remarkably open and corruption-free business environment, stable prices, and the fifth highest per capita GDP in the world. Exports, particularly in electronics and chemicals, and services are the main drivers of the economy. The government promotes high levels of savings and investment through a mandatory savings scheme and spends heavily in education and technology. It also owns government-linked companies (GLCs) - particularly in manufacturing - that operate as commercial entities and account for 60% of GDP. As Singapore looks to a future increasingly marked by globalization, the country is positioning itself as the region's financial and high-tech hub.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $98 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $27,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NEGL% industry: 28% services: 72%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (1999)

Labor force: 1.932 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: financial, business, and other services 38%, manufacturing 21.6%, commerce 21.4%, construction 7%, other 12%

Unemployment rate: 3.2% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.9 billion expenditures: $16.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $8.1 billion (FY98/99 est.)

Industries: electronics, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: 14% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 26.586 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 24.725 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables; poultry, eggs, fish, vegetables, orchids, ornamental fish

Exports: $114 billion (1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics) 63%, chemicals, mineral fuels (1998)

Exports - partners: US 19%, Malaysia 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7%, Taiwan 5%, Thailand 4%, UK 4%, China 3%, Germany 3% (1998)

Imports: $111 billion (1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 57%, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs (1998)

Imports - partners: US 17%, Japan 17%, Malaysia 16%, Thailand 5%, China 5%, Taiwan 4%, Germany, Saudi Arabia (1998)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.6733 (January 2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Singapore:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 54.6 million (including 46.62 million that serve facsimile machines, computers, and other communication devices) (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.02 million (1998)

Telephone system: good domestic facilities; good international service domestic: NA international: submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 2.55 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1997)

Televisions: 1.33 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (1999)

@Singapore:Transportation

Railways: total: 38.6 km narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge note: there is a 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations

Highways: total: 3,122 km paved: 3,038 km (including 150 km of expressways) unpaved: 84 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Singapore

Merchant marine: total: 891 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,808,813 GRT/34,783,544 DWT ships by type: bulk 140, cargo 121, chemical tanker 66, combination bulk 6, combination ore/oil 6, container 162, liquified gas 26, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large load carrier 3, petroleum tanker 294, refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off 10, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 36 (1999 est.) note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 22 countries among which are Japan 41, Denmark 35, Sweden 28, Thailand 28, Hong Kong 26, Germany 19, Taiwan 19, and Indonesia 11 (1998 est.)

Airports: 9 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Singapore:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,278,525 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 932,978 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.4 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.9% (FY98/99)

@Singapore:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to North America, Western Europe, and the Third World; also a money-laundering center





SLOVAKIA

@Slovakia:Introduction

Background: In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia has experienced more difficulty than the Czech Republic in developing a modern market economy.

@Slovakia:Geography

Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 48,845 sq km land: 48,800 sq km water: 45 sq km

Area - comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: total: 1,355 km border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m highest point: Gerlachovka 2,655 m

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use: arable land: 31% permanent crops: 3% permanent pastures: 17% forests and woodland: 41% other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked

@Slovakia:People

Population: 5,407,956 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (male 538,780; female 514,427) 15-64 years: 69% (male 1,854,779; female 1,880,584) 65 years and over: 12% (male 236,072; female 383,314) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.12% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.74 years male: 69.71 years female: 77.98 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Slovak(s) adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Gypsy 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000), Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

@Slovakia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Slovak Republic conventional short form: Slovakia local long form: Slovenska Republika local short form: Slovensko

Data code: LO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech and Slovak Republics)

National holiday: Slovak Constitution Day, 1 September (1992); Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, 29 August (1944)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); note - following the National Council elections in September 1998, the Constitution was changed to allow direct election of the president; following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER won the first direct popular election with 57% of the vote note: government coalition - SDK, SDL, SMK, SOP

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 25-26 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002) election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS 27%, SDK 26.3%, SDL 14.7%, SMK 9.1%, SNS 9.1%, SOP 8%; seats by party - governing coalition 93 (SDK 42, SDL 23, SMK 15, SOP 13), opposition 57 (HZDS 43, SNS 14)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National Council; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the parliament

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH ; Coexistence ; Democratic Party or DS ; Democratic Union or DU ; Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement or MKDH ; Hungarian Civic Party or MOS ; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or HZDS ; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; Party of Greens in Slovakia or SZS ; Party of the Democratic Center or SDS ; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL ; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK (includes MKDH, MOS, and Coexistence) ; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (includes KDH, DS, DU, SSDS, SZS) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS ; Social Democratic Party of Slovakia or SSDS ; SMER [Robert FICO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Christian Social Union; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG; Party of Entrepreneurs and Businessmen of Slovakia

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin BUTORA chancery: (temporary) Suite 250, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: (202) 965-5161 FAX: (202) 965-5166

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Douglas HENGEL embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: (7) 5443-0861, 5443-3338 FAX: (7) 5441-5148

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

@Slovakia:Economy

Economy - overview: Slovakia continues the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. It started 1999 faced with a sharp slowdown in GDP growth, large budget and current account deficits, fast-growing external debt, and persisting corruption, but made considerable progress toward achieving macroeconomic stabilization later in the year. Tough austerity measures implemented in May cut the overall fiscal deficit from 6% in 1998 to under 4% of GDP, and the current account deficit was halved to an estimated 5% of GDP. Slovakia was invited by the EU in December to begin accession negotiations early in 2000. Foreign investor interest, although rising, has not yet led to actual deals; several credit rating agencies have upgraded their outlook for the country. However, Slovakia's fiscal position remains weak; inflation and unemployment remain high; and the government is only now addressing the structural problems inherited from the MECIAR period, such as large inefficient enterprises, an insolvent banking sector and high inter-company debts, and declining tax and social support payments. Furthermore, the government faces considerable public discontent over the government's austerity package, persistent high unemployment - which reached an all-time high of 20% in December 1999 - rising consumer prices, reduced social benefits, and declining living standards. Real GDP is forecast to stagnate in 2000; inflationary pressures will remain strong due to further price liberalization; and little scope exists for further fiscal consolidation in the 2000 budget, which is based on rosier assumptions than nearly all private forecasts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $45.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 33% services: 62% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 3.32 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $5.4 billion expenditures: $5.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: 0.9% (1998)

Electricity - production: 20.035 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 24% hydro: 20% nuclear: 56% other: 0% (1999 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 23.3 billion kWh (1999 est.)

Electricity - exports: 920 million kWh (1999 est.)

Electricity - imports: 840 million kWh (1999 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports: $10.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 37%; intermediate manufactured goods 30%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 13%; chemicals 9%; raw materials 4% (1998)

Exports - partners: EU 56% (Germany 29%, Austria 7%), Czech Republic 20%, Poland 7% (1998)

Imports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 40%; intermediate manufactured goods 18%; fuels 11%; chemicals 11%; miscellaneous manufactured goods 10% (1998)

Imports - partners: EU 50% (Germany 26%, Italy 6%), Czech Republic 18%, Russia 10% (1998)

Debt - external: $10.6 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $421.9 million (1995)

Currency: 1 koruna (Sk) = 100 halierov

Exchange rates: koruny (Sk) per US$1 - 42.059 (January 2000), 41.363 (1999), 35.233 (1998), 33.616 (1997), 30.654 (1996), 29.713 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Slovakia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.557 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 641,000 (1998)

Telephone system: domestic: predominantly an analog system which is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added international: 3 international exchanges, 1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica, are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects which will increase the availability of external services

Radio broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 3.12 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (1998)

Televisions: 2.62 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 11 (1999)

@Slovakia:Transportation

Railways: total: 3,660 km broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge standard gauge: 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1505 km electrified; 1,011 km double track) narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (1998)

Highways: total: 17,710 km paved: 17,533 km (including 288 km of expressways) unpaved: 177 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 172 km on the Danube

Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Ports and harbors: Bratislava, Komarno

Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,041 GRT/19,517 DWT ships by type: cargo 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 36 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 18 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 8 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 8 (1999 est.)

@Slovakia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense Forces, Civil Defense Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,484,567 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,134,751 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 45,605 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $332 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY99)

@Slovakia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: ongoing Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Hungary; agreement with Czech Republic signed 24 November 1998 resolves issues of redistribution of former Czechoslovak federal property - approval by both parliaments is expected in 2000

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe





SLOVENIA COUNTRY FLAG OF SLOVENIA





SOLOMON ISLANDS

@Solomon Islands:Introduction

Background: The UK established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands in the 1890s. Some of the bitterest fighting of World War II occurred on these islands. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later. Current issues include government deficits, deforestation, and malaria control.

@Solomon Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 159 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 28,450 sq km land: 27,540 sq km water: 910 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 5,313 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Makarakomburu 2,447 m

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, nickel

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 1% forests and woodland: 88% other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons, but they are rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earth tremors; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; much of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Solomon Islands:People

Population: 466,194 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 105,024; female 101,065) 15-64 years: 53% (male 124,627; female 121,358) 65 years and over: 3% (male 6,935; female 7,185) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.04% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 34.79 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.35 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.28 years male: 68.86 years female: 73.81 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Solomon Islander(s) adjective: Solomon Islander

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%, European 0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

Religions: Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United (Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other Protestant 5%, indigenous beliefs 4%

Languages: Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2% of population note: 120 indigenous languages

Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

@Solomon Islands:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Solomon Islands former: British Solomon Islands

Data code: BP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western note: there may be two new provinces of Choiseul (Lauru) and Rennell/Bellona and the administrative unit of Honiara may have been abolished

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Father John LAPLI (since NA 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU (since 27 August 1997); Deputy Prime Minister Sir Baddeley DEVESI (since 27 August 1997) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of Parliament for up to five years; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (50 seats; members elected from single member constituencies by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 6 August 1997 (next to be held by August 2001) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GNUR 21, PAP 7, NAPSI 5, SILP 4, UP 4, independents 6, other 3

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: characterized by fluid coalitions; Christian Fellowship ; Group for National Unity and Reconciliation or GNUR ; Labor Party or LP [Joses TUHANUKU]; Liberal Party ; National Action Party of Solomon Islands or NAPSI ; National Party [leader NA]; Nationalist Front for Progress or NFP ; People's Alliance Party or PAP ; Solomon Islands Labor Party or SILP ; Solomon Islands National Unity, Reconciliation, and Progressive Party or SINURP (leader of opposition); United Party or UP

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Rex HOROI (represents the country as both the permanent representative to the UN and the ambassador to the US) chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400L, New York, NY 10017 telephone: (212) 599-6192, 6193 FAX: (212) 661-8925

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Solomon Islands (embassy closed July 1993); the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands

Flag description: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green

@Solomon Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: The bulk of the population depend on agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. Economic troubles in Southeast Asia led to a steep downturn in the timber industry, and economic output declined by about 10% in 1998. The government instituted public service pay cuts and other retrenchments. The economy partially recovered in 1999 on the strength of rising international gold prices and the first full year of the Gold Ridge mining operation. However, the closure of the country's major palm oil plantation in mid-year cast a shadow over future prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.21 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,650 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 50% industry: 3.5% services: 46.5% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 26,842

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $147 million expenditures: $168 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: fish (tuna), mining, timber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 28 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels, rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; timber; fish

Exports: $142 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: timber, fish, palm oil, cocoa, copra

Exports - partners: Japan 50%, Spain 16%, UK, Thailand 5% (1996)

Imports: $160 million (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: plant and equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuel

Imports - partners: Australia 42%, Japan 10%, Singapore 9%, NZ 8%, US 5% (1996)

Debt - external: $135 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $46.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 5.0745 (January 2000), 4.8381 (1999), 4.8156 (1998), 3.5664 (1997), 3.4059 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Solomon Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 7,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 230 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 3,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Solomon Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,360 km paved: 34 km unpaved: 1,326 km (includes about 800 km of private plantation roads) (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Aola Bay, Honiara, Lofung, Noro, Viru Harbor, Yandina

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 33 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 21 (1999 est.)

@Solomon Islands:Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Solomon Islands National Reconnaissance and Surveillance Force; Royal Solomon Islands Police (RSIP)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Solomon Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





SOMALIA

@Somalia:Introduction

Background: Intermittent civil war has been a fact of life in Somalia since 1977. In 1991, the northern portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognized by any foreign government. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored.

@Somalia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 637,657 sq km land: 627,337 sq km water: 10,320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 2,366 km border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 69% forests and woodland: 26% other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season

Environment - current issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

@Somalia:People

Population: 7,253,137 note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 1,610,945; female 1,608,209) 15-64 years: 53% (male 1,938,263; female 1,892,752) 65 years and over: 3% (male 90,717; female 112,251) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.9% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 47.7 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 18.69 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 125.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.23 years male: 44.66 years female: 47.85 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.18 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Somali(s) adjective: Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 24% male: 36% female: 14% (1990 est.)

@Somalia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Somalia former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic

Data code: SO

Government type: none

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Somalia has no functioning government; the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Major General Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the present political situation is one of anarchy, marked by interclan fighting and random banditry

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Golaha Shacbiga note: not functioning

Judicial branch: (not functioning); note - following the breakdown of national government, most regions have reverted to Islamic law with a provision for appeal of all sentences

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Somalia does not have an embassy in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi at Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue; mail address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: (2) 334141; FAX (2) 340838

Flag description: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

Government - note: While chaos and clan fighting continue in most of Somalia, some orderly government has been established in the northern part. In May 1991, the elders of clans in former British Somaliland established the independent Republic of Somaliland, which, although not recognized by any government, maintains a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of the ruling clan and the economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs. Neighboring Puntland has also made strides towards reconstructing legitimate, representative government. In February 1996, the EU agreed to finance the reconstruction of the port of Berbera; since then, other aid projects have been assumed by the EU and by a non-governmental Italian organization.

@Somalia:Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. After livestock, bananas are the principal export; sugar, sorghum, corn, and fish are products for the domestic market. The small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of GDP; most facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife. Moreover, in 1999, ongoing civil disturbances in Mogadishu and outlying areas interfered with any substantial economic advance and with international aid arrangements.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 59% industry: 10% services: 31% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 3.7 million (very few are skilled laborers)(1993 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry and services 29%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 265 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 246 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish

Exports: $187 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish (1997)

Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 57%, UAE 15%, Italy 12%, Yemen 8% (1997)

Imports: $327 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials (1995)

Imports - partners: Djibouti 20%, Kenya 11%, Belarus 11%, India 10%, Saudi Arabia 9%, Brazil 9% (1997)

Debt - external: $2.6 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $191.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 2,620 (January 1999), 7,500 (November 1997 est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.), 5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616 (1 July 1993), 4,200 (December 1992) note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issues its own currency, the Somaliland shilling (So. Sh.)

Fiscal year: NA

@Somalia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own private systems domestic: recently, local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers international: international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 4 (1988)

Radios: 470,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 135,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Somalia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 22,100 km paved: 2,608 km unpaved: 19,492 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Ports and harbors: Bender Cassim (Boosaaso), Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 61 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 7 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 54 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 29 under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

@Somalia:Military

Military branches: no functioning central government military forces; clan militias continue to battle for control of key economic or political prizes

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,772,631 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 984,103 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Somalia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden





SOUTH AFRICA

@South Africa:Introduction

Background: After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments, but were defeated in the Boer War (1899-1902). The resulting Union of South Africa operated under a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races. The 1990s brought an end to apartheid politically and ushered in black majority rule.

@South Africa:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa

Geographic coordinates: 29 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,219,912 sq km land: 1,219,912 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 4,750 km border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,798 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 67% forests and woodland: 7% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts

Environment - current issues: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage threatens to outpace supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

@South Africa:People

Population: 43,421,021 note: South Africa took a census October 1996 which showed a population of 40,583,611 (after an official adjustment for a 6.8% underenumeration based on a post-enumeration survey); estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.46% (male 7,094,756; female 6,999,009) 15-64 years: 62.76% (male 13,111,457; female 14,139,372) 65 years and over: 4.78% (male 782,397; female 1,294,030) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 24.56 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.69 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.1 years male: 50.41 years female: 51.81 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: South African(s) adjective: South African

Ethnic groups: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%

Religions: Christian 68% (includes most whites and Coloreds, about 60% of blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of Indians), indigenous beliefs and animist 28.5%

Languages: 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 81.8% male: 81.9% female: 81.7% (1995 est.)

@South Africa:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of South Africa conventional short form: South Africa abbreviation: RSA

Data code: SF

Government type: republic

Capital: Pretoria; note - Cape Town is the legislative center and Bloemfontein the judicial center

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape, Northern Province, Western Cape

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)

Constitution: 10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 3 February 1997; it is being implemented in phases

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 2 June 1999 (next scheduled for sometime between May and July 2004) election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation) note: ANC-IFP governing coalition

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consisting of the National Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has special powers to protect regional interests, including the safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities); note - following the implementation of the new constitution on 3 February 1997 the former Senate was disbanded and replaced by the National Council of Provinces with essentially no change in membership and party affiliations, although the new institution's responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new constitution elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held 2 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 66.4%, DP 9.6%, IFP 8.6%, NP 6.9%, UDM 3.4, FF 0.8%, other 4.3%; seats by party - ANC 266, DP 38, IFP 34, NP 28, UDM 14, FF 3, other 17; National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANC 61, NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP ; African National Congress or ANC ; Democratic Party or DP [Tony LEON, president]; Freedom Front or FF ; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP ; National Party (now the New National Party) or NP [Marthinus VAN SCHALKWYK, executive director]; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC ; United Democratic Movement or UDM

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