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The 2000 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Infant mortality rate: 16.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.73 years male: 67.95 years female: 73.68 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.43 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Kittitian(s), Nevisian(s) adjective: Kittitian, Nevisian

Ethnic groups: predominantly black some British, Portuguese, and Lebanese

Religions: Anglican, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 97% male: 97% female: 98% (1980 est.)

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis

Data code: SC

Government type: constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style parliament

Capital: Basseterre

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Constitution: 19 September 1983

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dr. Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN (since 1 January 1996) head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 July 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 July 1995) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general in consultation with the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (14 seats, 3 appointed and 11 popularly elected from single-member constituencies; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 July 1995 (next to be held by July 2000) election results: percent of vote by party - SKLNP 58%, PAM 41%; seats by party - SKNLP 7, PAM 1, NRP 1, CCM 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Kitts

Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM ; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP ; People's Action Movement or PAM ; Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Osbert W. LIBURD chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: (202) 686-2636 FAX: (202) 686-5740

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Kitts and Nevis; the US Ambassador in Barbados is accredited to Saint Kitts and Nevis

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band bearing two white, five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy has traditionally depended on the growing and processing of sugarcane; decreasing world prices have hurt the industry in recent years. Tourism, export-oriented manufacturing, and offshore banking activity have assumed larger roles. Most food is imported. The government has undertaken a program designed to revitalize the faltering sugar sector. It is also working to improve revenue collection in order to better fund social programs. In 1997 some leaders in Nevis were urging separation from Saint Kitts on the basis that Nevis was paying far more in taxes than it was receiving in government services, but the vote on cessation failed in August 1998. In late September 1998, Hurricane Georges caused approximately $445 million in damages and limited GDP growth for the year.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $244 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.6% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5.5% industry: 22.5% services: 72% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 18,172 (June 1995)

Labor force - by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $64.1 million expenditures: $73.3 million, including capital expenditures of $10.4 million (1997 est.)

Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 85 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 79 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fish

Exports: $42 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: machinery, food, electronics, beverages, tobacco

Exports - partners: US 68.5%, UK 22.3%, Caricom countries 5.5% (1995 est.)

Imports: $160 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery, manufactures, food, fuels

Imports - partners: US 42.4%, Caricom countries 17.2%, UK 11.3% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $62 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $5.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 14,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone connections and international link via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) domestic: interisland links are handled by VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone international: international calls are carried by radiotelephone to Antigua and Barbuda and from there switched to submarine cable or to Intelsat, or carried to Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) by radiotelephone and switched to Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 28,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Transportation

Railways: total: 58 km narrow gauge: 58 km 0.762-m gauge on Saint Kitts to serve sugarcane plantations (1995)

Highways: total: 320 km paved: 136 km unpaved: 184 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Basseterre, Charlestown

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard, Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Defense Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe





SAINT LUCIA

@Saint Lucia:Introduction

Background: The island, with its fine natural harbor at Castries, was contested between England and France throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries (changing possession 14 times); it was finally ceded to the UK in 1814. Self government was granted in 1967 and independence in 1979.

@Saint Lucia:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 53 N, 60 68 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 620 sq km land: 610 sq km water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 158 km

Maritime claims: 200 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Gimie 950 m

Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal potential

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 21% permanent pastures: 5% forests and woodland: 13% other: 53% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion, particularly in the northern region

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Saint Lucia:People

Population: 156,260 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 26,087; female 25,159) 15-64 years: 62% (male 47,420; female 49,290) 65 years and over: 5% (male 3,113; female 5,191) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.21% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.19 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.43 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.31 years male: 68.74 years female: 76.14 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.42 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Saint Lucian(s) adjective: Saint Lucian

Ethnic groups: black 90%, mixed 6%, East Indian 3%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 67% male: 65% female: 69% (1980 est.)

@Saint Lucia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Saint Lucia

Data code: ST

Government type: Westminster-style parliamentary democracy

Capital: Castries

Administrative divisions: 11 quarters; Anse-la-Raye, Castries, Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux Fort

Independence: 22 February 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

Constitution: 22 February 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dr. Pearlette LOUISY (since September 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Kenneth ANTHONY (since 24 May 1997) and Deputy Prime Minister Mario MICHEL (since 24 May 1997) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; six members appointed on the advice of the prime minister, three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and two after consultation with religious, economic, and social groups) and the House of Assembly (17 seats; members are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Assembly - last held 23 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SLP 16, UWP 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (jurisdiction extends to Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

Political parties and leaders: National Freedom Party or NFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP ; United Workers Party or UWP

International organization participation: ACCT (associate), ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia Merlyn JOHNNY chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: (202) 364-6792 through 6795 FAX: (202) 364-6728 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Lucia; the US Ambassador in Barbados is accredited to Saint Lucia

Flag description: blue, with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border

@Saint Lucia:Economy

Economy - overview: The recent changes in the EU import preference regime and the increased competition from Latin American bananas have made economic diversification increasingly important in Saint Lucia. Improvement in the construction sector and growth of the tourism industry helped expand GDP in 1998-99. The agriculture sector registered its fifth year of decline in 1997 primarily because of a severe decline in banana production. The manufacturing sector is the most diverse in the Eastern Caribbean, and the government is beginning to develop regulations for the small offshore financial sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $656 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.7% industry: 32.3% services: 57% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 43,800

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and commerce 17.7% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget: revenues: $141.2 million expenditures: $146.7 million, including capital expenditures of $25.1 million (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing

Industrial production growth rate: -8.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 110 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 102 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus, root crops, cocoa

Exports: $75 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: bananas 41%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil

Exports - partners: UK 50%, US 24%, Caricom countries 16% (1995)

Imports: $290 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: food 23%, manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation equipment 19%, chemicals, fuels

Imports - partners: US 36%, Caricom countries 22%, UK 11%, Japan 5%, Canada 4% (1995)

Debt - external: $135 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $51.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Saint Lucia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,000 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic: system is automatically switched international: direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados; international calls beyond these countries are carried by Intelsat from Martinique

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 7 (plus 3 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 111,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (of which two are commercial stations and one is a community antenna television or CATV channel) (1997)

Televisions: 32,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Saint Lucia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,210 km paved: 63 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Castries, Vieux Fort

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Saint Lucia:Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Lucia Police Force (includes Special Service Unit), Coast Guard

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5 million (FY91/92)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY91/92)

@Saint Lucia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transit point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe





SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Introduction

Background: First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Geography

Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates: 46 50 N, 56 20 W

Map references: North America

Area: total: 242 sq km land: 242 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 4% other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: vegetation scanty

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:People

Population: 6,896 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.19% (male 924; female 882) 15-64 years: 64.01% (male 2,254; female 2,160) 65 years and over: 9.8% (male 286; female 390) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.53 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.67 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.6 years male: 75.36 years female: 79.95 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.14 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women) adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%

Languages: French

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (1982 est.)

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Data code: SB

Dependency status: self-governing territorial collectivity of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Saint-Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France) note: there are no first-order administrative divisions approved by the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law with special adaptations for local conditions, such as housing and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Remi THUAU (since NA) head of government: President of the General Council Bernard LE SOAVEC (since NA 1996) cabinet: NA elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) elections: elections last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA April 2000) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 15, other 4 note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last held NA September 1995 (next to be held NA September 2004); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 seat to the French National Assembly; elections last held 25 May-1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDF 1

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR ; Socialist Party or PS ; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF

International organization participation: FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Flag description: a yellow sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a dark blue background with a black wave line under the ship; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the square into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one on top of the other; the flag of France is used for official occasions

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Economy

Economy - overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. The islands are heavily subsidized by France to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $74 million (1996 est.); supplemented by annual payments from France of about $65 million

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1991-96 average)

Labor force: 3,000 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: fishing 18%, industry (mainly fish-processing) 41%, services 41% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.8% (1997)

Budget: revenues: $70 million expenditures: $60 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 37 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports: $5 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts

Exports - partners: US, France, UK, Canada, Portugal

Imports: $66 million (c.i.f., 1997 est.)

Imports - commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials

Imports - partners: Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: approximately $65 million in annual grants from France

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.98673 (January 2000), 0.93863 (1999); French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 4,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (there are, however, two repeaters which rebroadcast programs from France, Canada, and the US) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 114 km paved: 69 km unpaved: 45 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: Saint Pierre

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Introduction

Background: Disputed between France and Great Britain in the 18th century, Saint Vincent was ceded to the latter in 1783. Autonomy was granted in 1969, and independence in 1979.

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 15 N, 61 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 389 sq km (Saint Vincent 344 sq km) land: 389 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 84 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Soufriere 1,234 m

Natural resources: hydropower, cropland

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 18% permanent pastures: 5% forests and woodland: 36% other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent is a constant threat

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; in some areas, pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:People

Population: 115,461 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30% (male 17,868; female 17,263) 15-64 years: 63% (male 37,377; female 35,623) 65 years and over: 7% (male 3,144; female 4,186) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.43% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.25 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.3 years male: 70.6 years female: 74.06 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.11 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s) adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian

Ethnic groups: black 66%, mixed 19%, East Indian 6%, Carib Amerindian 2%

Religions: Anglican 47%, Methodist 28%, Roman Catholic 13%, Seventh-Day Adventist, Hindu, other Protestant

Languages: English, French patois

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school total population: 96% male: 96% female: 96% (1970 est.)

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Data code: VC

Government type: parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth

Capital: Kingstown

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

Independence: 27 October 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

Constitution: 27 October 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Charles ANTROBUS (since NA) head of government: Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (21 seats, 15 elected representatives and 6 appointed senators; representatives are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 15 June 1998 (next to be held by NA May 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 8, ULP 7

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Vincent

Political parties and leaders: National Reform Party or NRP [Joel MIGUEL]; New Democratic Party or NDP ; Progressive Labor Party or PLP ; United People's Movement or UPM ; Unity Labor Party or ULP (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement for National Unity or MNU)

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kingsley C. A. LAYNE chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: (202) 364-6730 FAX: (202) 364-6736

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; the US Ambassador in Barbados is accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Flag description: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most important sector of this lower-middle-income economy. The services sector, based mostly on a growing tourist industry, is also important. The government has been relatively unsuccessful at introducing new industries, and a high unemployment rate of 22% continues. The continuing dependence on a single crop represents the biggest obstacle to the islands' development; tropical storms wiped out substantial portions of crops in both 1994 and 1995. The tourism sector has considerable potential for development over the next decade. Recent growth has been stimulated by strong activity in the construction sector and an improvement in tourism. There is a small manufacturing sector and a small offshore financial sector whose particularly restrictive secrecy laws have caused some international concern.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $309 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.6% industry: 17.5% services: 71.9% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 17%, services 57% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1997 est.)

Budget: revenues: $85.7 million expenditures: $98.6 million, including capital expenditures of $25.7 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch

Industrial production growth rate: -0.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 64 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 67.19% hydro: 32.81% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 60 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices; small numbers of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats; fish

Exports: $47.8 million (1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas 39%, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, tennis racquets

Exports - partners: Caricom countries 49%, UK 16%, US 10% (1995)

Imports: $180 million (1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels

Imports - partners: US 36%, Caricom countries 28%, UK 13% (1995)

Debt - external: $83.6 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $47.5 million (1995); note - EU $34.5 million (1998)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 20,500 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 83 (1993)

Telephone system: domestic: islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines international: VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; new SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and to Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 77,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 18,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,040 km paved: 320 km unpaved: 720 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Kingstown

Merchant marine: total: 825 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,253,092 GRT/10,894,566 DWT ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 142, cargo 400, chemical tanker 31, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 5, container 47, liquified gas 5, livestock carrier 5, multi-functional large load carrier 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 60, refrigerated cargo 41, roll-on/roll-off 51, short-sea passenger 12, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 1 (1999 est.) note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 20 countries among which are Croatia 17, Slovenia 7, China 5, Greece 5, UAE 3, Norway 2, Japan 2, and Ukraine 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force (includes Special Service Unit), Coast Guard

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe





SAMOA COUNTRY FLAG OF SAMOA





SAN MARINO

@San Marino:Introduction

Background: The world's third smallest state also claims to be the world's oldest republic, founded by Saint Marinus (for whom the country is named) in 301 A. D. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy. Social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.

@San Marino:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 60.5 sq km land: 60.5 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 39 km border countries: Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m highest point: Monte Titano 749 m

Natural resources: building stone

Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

@San Marino:People

Population: 26,937 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16% (male 2,181; female 2,038) 15-64 years: 68% (male 8,992; female 9,425) 65 years and over: 16% (male 1,849; female 2,452) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.88 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.65 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.14 years male: 77.57 years female: 85.02 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural) adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write total population: 96% male: 97% female: 95% (1976 est.)

@San Marino:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of San Marino conventional short form: San Marino local long form: Repubblica di San Marino local short form: San Marino

Data code: SM

Government type: republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 (by tradition)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3 September (301)

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: cochiefs of state Captain Regent Loris FRANCINI and Captain Regent Alberto CECCHETTI (for the period 1 April 1999-30 September 1999) head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986) cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term elections: cochiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA September 1999 (next to be held NA March 2000); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held NA June 1998 (next to be held NA June 2003) election results: Loris FRANCINI and Alberto CECCETTI elected captain regents; percent of legislative vote - NA; Gabriele GATTI reelected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (cochiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has ten other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are three secretaries of state - Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance - and several additional secretaries; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held by NA May 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 40.8%, PSS 23.3%, PPDS 18.6%, APDS 9.8%, RC 3.3%, SR 4.2%; seats by party - PDCS 25, PSS 14, PPDS 11, APDS 6, RC 2, SR 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders: Communist Refoundation or RC [Giuseppe AMICHI]; Democratic Movement or MD ; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Cesare Antonio GASPERONI, secretary general]; San Marino Popular Democratic Party or APDS ; San Marino Progressive Democratic Party or PPDS ; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS ; Socialists for Reform or SR International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an embassy in the US honorary consulate(s) general: Washington, DC, and New York honorary consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

@San Marino:Economy

Economy - overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1997 more than 3.3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1997)

Labor force: 15,600 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 38%, agriculture 2% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (April 1996)

Budget: revenues: $320 million expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $26 million (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% nuclear: NA% other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh note: electricity supplied by Italy

Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note - also mints its own coins

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999); Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,668.7 (January 1998), 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@San Marino:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,010 (1998)

Telephone system: domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system international: microwave radio relay and cable connections to Italian network; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)

Televisions: 9,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@San Marino:Transportation

Railways: 0 km; note - there is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore

Highways: total: 220 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@San Marino:Military

Military branches: Voluntary Military Force, Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $700,000 (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@San Marino:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

@Sao Tome and Principe:Introduction

Background: Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The first free elections were held in 1991.

@Sao Tome and Principe:Geography

Location: Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 7 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,001 sq km land: 1,001 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m

Natural resources: fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 36% permanent pastures: 1% forests and woodland: 0% other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Sao Tome and Principe:People

Population: 159,883 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 38,588; female 37,624) 15-64 years: 48% (male 37,216; female 39,959) 65 years and over: 4% (male 2,961; female 3,535) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.16% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 42.98 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.76 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.25 years male: 63.84 years female: 66.7 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Sao Tomean(s) adjective: Sao Tomean

Ethnic groups: mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religions: Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Portuguese (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 73% male: 85% female: 62% (1991 est.)

@Sao Tome and Principe:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe local short form: Sao Tome e Principe

Data code: TP

Government type: republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome note: Principe has had self-government since 29 April 1995

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Constitution: approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991) head of government: Prime Minister Guilherma Posser da COSTA (since 30 December 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 June and 21 July 1996 (next to be held NA July 2001); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president election results: Miguel TROVOADA reelected president in Sao Tome's second multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - Miguel TROVOADA 52.74%, Manuel Pinto da COSTA 47.26%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 8 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP-PSD 56%, PCD 14.5%, ADI 29%; seats by party - MLSTP-PSD 31, ADI 16, PCD 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Front or FDC ; Democratic Opposition Coalition or CODO [leader NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI ; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD ; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD ; other small parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Sao Tome and Principe does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at 122 East 42nd Street, Suite 1604, New York, NY 10168, telephone (212) 317-0533

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands

Flag description: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Sao Tome and Principe:Economy

Economy - overview: This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 25 years ago. However, cocoa production has substantially declined because of drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a significant amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies, but economic growth has remained sluggish. Sao Tome is also optimistic that significant petroleum discoveries are forthcoming in its territorial waters in the oil-rich waters of the Gulf of Guinea. Corruption scandals continue to weaken the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $169 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 23% industry: 19% services: 58% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.5% (yearend 1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing note: shortages of skilled workers

Unemployment rate: 50% in the formal business sector (1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: $58 million expenditures: $114 million, including capital expenditures of $54 million (1993 est.)

Industries: light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 15 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 46.67% hydro: 53.33% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 14 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish

Exports: $4.9 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: cocoa 90%, copra, coffee, palm oil (1997)

Exports - partners: Netherlands 51%, Germany 6%, Portugal 6% (1997)

Imports: $19.5 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Portugal 26%, France 18%, Angola, Belgium, Japan (1997)

Debt - external: $274 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $57.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1 - 7,200.0 (October 1999), 7,104.05 (1998), 4,552.5 (1997), 2,203.2 (1996), 1,420.3 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Sao Tome and Principe:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: domestic: minimal system international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 38,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 23,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Sao Tome and Principe:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 320 km paved: 218 km unpaved: 102 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Santo Antonio, Sao Tome

Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 43,587 GRT/34,802 DWT ships by type: cargo 4, container 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Sao Tome and Principe:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Security Police

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 32,933 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 17,391 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1 million (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY94)

@Sao Tome and Principe:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





SAUDI ARABIA

@Saudi Arabia:Introduction

Background: In 1902 Abdul al-Aziz Ibn SAUD captured Riyadh and set out on a 30-year campaign to unify the Arabian peninsula. In the 1930s, the discovery of oil transformed the country. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. A burgeoning population, aquifer depletion, and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all major governmental concerns.

@Saudi Arabia:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total: 1,960,582 sq km land: 1,960,582 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 4,415 km border countries: Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline: 2,640 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 nm continental shelf: not specified territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 56% forests and woodland: 1% other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Environment - current issues: desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills

Environment - international agreements: party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

@Saudi Arabia:People

Population: 22,023,506 note: includes 5,360,526 non-nationals (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 4,781,695; female 4,607,038) 15-64 years: 55% (male 7,093,567; female 4,969,848) 65 years and over: 2% (male 309,638; female 261,720) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.28% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 37.47 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.02 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.43 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female total population: 1.24 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.77 years male: 66.11 years female: 69.51 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Saudi(s) adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Arabic

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 62.8% male: 71.5% female: 50.2% (1995 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia conventional short form: Saudi Arabia local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

Data code: SA

Government type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Constitution: governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law); the Basic Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was introduced in 1993

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch and includes many royal family members elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: a consultative council (90 members and a chairman appointed by the monarch for four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders: none allowed

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BIS, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037 telephone: (202) 342-3800 consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wyche FOWLER, Jr. embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh mailing address: American Embassy Riyadh, Unit 61307, APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693 telephone: (1) 488-3800 FAX: (1) 488-7360 consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag description: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the traditional color of Islam

@Saudi Arabia:Economy

Economy - overview: This is an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the world (26% of the proved total), ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 40% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. About 35% of GDP comes from the private sector. Roughly 4 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and service sectors. Saudi Arabia was a key player in the successful efforts of OPEC and other oil producing countries to raise the price of oil in 1999 to its highest level since the Gulf War by reducing production. Although oil prices are expected to remain relatively high in 2000, Riyadh expects to have a $7.5 billion budget deficit in part because of increased spending for education and other social problems. The government in 1999 announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies, which follows the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications company. The government is expected to continue calling for private sector growth to lessen the kingdom's dependence on oil and increase employment opportunities for the swelling Saudi population. Shortages of water and rapid population growth will constrain government efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $191 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6% industry: 47% services: 47% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.2% (1999)

Labor force: 7 million note: 35% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 25%, services 63% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $41.9 billion expenditures: $49.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 110.132 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 102.423 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk

Exports: $48 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90%

Exports - partners: Japan 17%, US 15%, South Korea 11%, Singapore 8%, India 4%, France 4% (1998)

Imports: $28 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles

Imports - partners: US 21%, UK 9%, Japan 9%, Germany 6%, France 5%, Italy 4% (1998)

Debt - external: $28 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - donor: pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon; since 1993, Saudi Arabia has committed $208 million for assistance to the Palestinians

Currency: 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalah

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since June 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saudi Arabia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.1 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1 million note: in 1998, the government contracted for the installation of 575,000 additional Group Speciale Mobile (GSM) cellular telephone lines over 15 months to raise the total number of subscribers to more than one million; Riyadh planned to further expand the GSM system in 1999 by adding an additional one million lines (1998)

Telephone system: modern system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay and coaxial and fiber-optic cable systems international: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 6.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 117 (1997)

Televisions: 5.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999)

@Saudi Arabia:Transportation

Railways: total: 1,390 km standard gauge: 1,390 km 1.435-m gauge (448 km double track) (1992)

Highways: total: 146,524 km paved: 44,104 km unpaved: 102,420 km (1997 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas 2,200 km (includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)

Ports and harbors: Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Duba, Jiddah, Jizan, Rabigh, Ra's al Khafji, Mishab, Ras Tanura, Yanbu' al Bahr, Madinat Yanbu' al Sinaiyah

Merchant marine: total: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,071,003 GRT/1,388,802 DWT ships by type: cargo 12, chemical tanker 7, container 5, liquified gas 1, livestock carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off 12, short-sea passenger 8 (1999 est.)

Airports: 205 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 72 over 3,047 m: 31 2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 133 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 77 914 to 1,523 m: 39 under 914 m: 13 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1999 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Military

Military branches: Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Ministry of Interior Forces (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,786,089 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,225,809 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 221,026 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $18.1 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 12% (FY97)

@Saudi Arabia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: large section of boundary with Yemen not defined; location and status of boundary with UAE is not final, de facto boundary reflects 1974 agreement; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia; June 1999 agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the border with Qatar

Illicit drugs: death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin and cocaine





SENEGAL

@Senegal:Introduction

Background: Independent from France in 1960, Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group sporadically has clashed with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.

@Senegal:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 196,190 sq km land: 192,000 sq km water: 4,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: total: 2,640 km border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 16% forests and woodland: 54% other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 710 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping

Geography - note: The Gambia is almost an enclave of Senegal

@Senegal:People

Population: 9,987,494 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,237,678; female 2,213,632) 15-64 years: 52% (male 2,501,649; female 2,729,412) 65 years and over: 3% (male 152,236; female 152,887) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.94% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 37.94 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.57 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.19 years male: 60.6 years female: 63.82 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.21 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural) adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%

Religions: Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly Roman Catholic)

Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 33.1% male: 43% female: 23.2% (1995 est.)

@Senegal:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal conventional short form: Senegal local long form: Republique du Senegal local short form: Senegal

Data code: SG

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 4 April 1960 from France; complete independence was achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960 (The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (constituted February 1982) that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Constitution: 3 March 1963, revised 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; Senegal has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since NA 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Niasse MOUSTAPHA (since NA 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 27 February 2000 (next to be held 27 February 2007); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abdoulaye WADE elected president; percent of vote in the second round of voting - Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) NA%, Abdou DIOUF (PS) NA%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (140 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 24 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - PS 50%, PDS 19%, UDS-R 13%, And Jef 5%, LD-MPT 4%, CDP 2%, FSD 1%, PDS-R 1%, RND 1%, BGC 1%, PIT 1%, other 2%; seats by party - PS 93, PDS 23, UDS-R 11, And Jef 4, LD-MPT 3, CDP 1, FSD 1, PDS-R 1, RND 1, BGC 1, PIT 1

Judicial branch: under the terms of a reform of the judicial system implemented in 1992, the principal organs of the judiciary are as follows: Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: African Party for Democracy and Socialism or And Jef (also known as PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; African Party of Independence ; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) ; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT ; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD ; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT ; National Democratic Rally or RND ; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS ; Senegalese Democratic Party-Renewal or PDS-R ; Senegalese Democratic Union-Renewal or UDS-R ; Socialist Party or PS ; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]; other small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 234-0540

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Harriet L. ELAM-THOMAS embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar telephone: 823-4296, 823-7384 FAX: 822-2991

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Senegal:Economy

Economy - overview: In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which is linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging 5% annually in 1995-99. Annual inflation has been pushed down to 2%, and the fiscal deficit has been cut to less than 1.5% of GDP. Investment rose steadily from 13.8% of GDP in 1993 to 16.5% in 1997. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal also realized full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a miniboom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82% of GDP. On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic unemployment, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction. Real GDP growth is expected to rise above 6%, while inflation is likely to hold at 2% in 2000-2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,650 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19% industry: 20% services: 61% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4% highest 10%: 42.8% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 60%

Unemployment rate: NA%; urban youth 40%

Budget: revenues: $885 million expenditures: $885 million, including capital expenditures of $125 million (1996 est.)

Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.2 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.116 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish

Exports: $925 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: fish, ground nuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton

Exports - partners: France 22%, Italy, India, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali (1998)

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners: France 36%, other EU countries, Nigeria, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Algeria, US, China, Japan (1998)

Debt - external: $3.4 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $647.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1966), 499.15 (1995) note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Senegal:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 82,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 122 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system international: 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 14, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1.24 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 361,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (1999)

@Senegal:Transportation

Railways: total: 906 km narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-meter gauge (70 km double track)

Highways: total: 14,576 km paved: 4,271 km unpaved: 10,305 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal river, and 112 km on the Saloum river

Ports and harbors: Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard Toll, Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor

Airports: 20 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 10 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Senegal:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,218,920 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,158,893 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 109,381 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $68 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY97)

@Senegal:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of boundary with The Gambia is indefinite

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis





SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

@Serbia and Montenegro:Introduction

Background: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US. The US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation. In 1999, massive expulsions by Serbs of ethnic Albanians living in the autonomous republic of Kosovo provoked an international response, including the bombing of Serbia and the stationing of NATO and Russian peacekeepers in Kosovo.

@Serbia and Montenegro:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 102,350 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,938 sq km) land: 102,136 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,724 sq km) water: 214 sq km (Serbia 0 sq km; Montenegro 214 sq km)

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Land boundaries: total: 2,246 km border countries: Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km (with Serbia), Croatia (north) 241 km (with Serbia), Croatia (south) 25 km (with Montenegro), Hungary 151 km (with Serbia), The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km (with Serbia), Romania 476 km (with Serbia) note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome, hydro power

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% permanent pastures: NA% forests and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment - international agreements: party to: none of the selected agreements signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

@Serbia and Montenegro:People

Population: 10,662,087 (Serbia - 9,981,929; Montenegro - 680,158) note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: Serbia - 19.95% (male 1,028,355; female 963,366); Montenegro - 22.05% (male 77,582; female 72,395) 15-64 years: Serbia - 65.22% (male 3,187,746; female 3,322,425); Montenegro - 66.16% (male 222,095; female 227,923) 65 years and over: Serbia - 14.83% (male 638,204; female 841,833); Montenegro - 11.79% (male 32,400; female 47,763) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: Serbia - 0.739%; Montenegro - -12.22% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: Serbia - 12.20 births/1,000 population; Montenegro - 14.9 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: Serbia - 11.08 deaths/1,000 population; Montenegro - 7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: Serbia - 6.26 migrants/1,000 population; Montenegro - -29.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: Serbia - 1.08 male(s)/female; Montenegro - 1.09 male(s)/female under 15 years: Serbia - 1.07 male(s)/female; Montenegro - 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: Serbia - 0.96 male(s)/female; Montenegro - 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: Serbia - 0.76 male(s)/female; Montenegro - 0.68 male(s)/female total population: Serbia - 0.95 male(s)/female; Montenegro - 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: Serbia - 20.13 deaths/1,000 live births; Montenegro - 10.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: Serbia - 72.39 years; Montenegro - 75.46 years male: Serbia - 69.31 years; Montenegro - 71.45 years female: Serbia - 75.72 years; Montenegro - 79.82 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: Serbia - 1.70 children born/woman; Montenegro - 1.96 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s) adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Yugoslav 3.4%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 9.2% (1991)

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Languages: Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

@Serbia and Montenegro:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro local long form: none local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora note: Serbia and Montenegro has self-proclaimed itself the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) but the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation

Data code: Serbia - SR; Montenegro - MW

Government type: republic

Capital: Belgrade (Serbia), Podgorica (Montenegro)

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day, 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Slobodan MILOSEVIC (since 23 July 1997); note - Milan MILUTINOVIC is president of Serbia (since 21 December 1997); Milo DJUKANOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 21 December 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Momir BULATOVIC (since 20 May 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995), Jovan ZEBIC (since 9 April 1998), and Vladan KUTLESIC (since 20 March 1997), Danilo VUKSANOVIC (since 20 May 1998), Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 12 August 1999), Maja Gojkovic (since 12 August 1999) cabinet: Federal Executive Council elections: president elected by the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 23 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Slobodan MILOSEVIC elected president; percent of legislative vote - Slobodan MILOSEVIC 90%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Savezna Skupstina consists of the Chamber of Republics or Vece Republika (40 seats - 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin; members distributed on the basis of party representation in the republican assemblies to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats - 108 Serbian with half elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional representation, 30 Montenegrin with six elected by constituency and 24 proportionally; members serve four-year terms) elections: Chamber of Republics - last held 24 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); Chamber of Citizens - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000) election results: Chamber of Republics - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - seats are filled on a proportional basis to reflect the composition of the legislatures of the republics of Montenegro and Serbia; note - since 1998 Serbia has effectively barred Montenegro from its constitutional right to delegate deputies to the Chamber of Republics; Chamber of Citizens - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPS/JUL/ND 64, Zajedno coalition 22, DPS 20, SRS 16, NS 8, SVM 3, other 5; note - Zajedno coalition included SPO, DS, GSS

Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms; Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM ; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Goran SVILANOVIC, chairman]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV [Bela TONKOVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM ; Democratic League of Albanians ; Democratic Party or DS ; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS ; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS ; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV ; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro ; New Democracy or ND ; Parliamentary Party of Kosovo or PPK ; Party for the Democratic Progress of Kosovo or PPDK ; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Dr. Sulejman UGLJANIN]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS ; Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina or RDSV ; Serbian Radical Party or SRS ; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO ; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party) ; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP ; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP ; Yugoslav United Left or JUL Political pressure groups and leaders: National Movement for the Liberation of Kosovo or LKCK ; The People's Movement for Kosovo or LPK

International organization participation: ICFTU, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UNHCR

Diplomatic representation in the US: the Embassy of the Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ceased operations 25 March 1999

Diplomatic representation from the US: at present, the US has no diplomatic representation in Serbia and Montenegro; the US office in Pristina, Kosovo, was opened in 1999; its members are not accredited to a foreign government

@Serbia and Montenegro:Economy

Economy - overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it had depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia is the continuation in office of a government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable from 1995 through 1997, but inflationary pressures resurged in 1998. Reliable statistics continue to be hard to come by, and the GDP estimate is extremely rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 has failed to materialize. Government mismanagement of the economy is largely to blame, but the damage to Serbia's infrastructure and industry by the NATO bombing during the war in Kosovo have added to problems. Also, sanctions continue to isolate Belgrade from international financial institutions; an investment ban and asset freeze imposed in 1998 and the oil embargo imposed during the NATO bombing remain in place.

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