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The 2000 CIA World Factbook
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Constitution: Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies

Executive branch: chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999) cabinet: Executive Council consists of all five government secretaries, three legislators, and two businessmen elections: NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (23 seats; 8 elected by popular vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held by 15 October 2001) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APPEM 2, UNIPRO 2, CODEM 1, UDM 1, UPD 1, ANMD 1

Judicial branch: The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special Administrative Region

Political parties and leaders: the following is a listing of those associations that participated in the last legislative elections: Associacao de Novo Macau Democratico or ANMD ; Associacao Promotora para a Economia de Macau or APPEM ; Convergencia para o Desenvolvimento or CODEM ; Uniao Geral para o Desenvolvimento de Macau or UDM ; Uniao para o Desenvolvimento or UPD ; Uniao Promotora para o Progresso or UNIPRO note: there are no formal political parties, but civic associations are used instead

Political pressure groups and leaders: Catholic Church [Domingos LAM, bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (special administrative region of China)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag description: light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller

@Macau:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about three-fourths of export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40% of GDP. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods. Output dropped 4% in 1998 and the economy remained weak in 1999. Macau reverted to Chinese administration on 20 December 1999. Gang violence, a dark spot in the economy, probably will be reduced in 2000 to the advantage of the tourism sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.65 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -4% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,500 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1% industry: 40% services: 59% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 281,117 (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 31%, restaurants and hotels 28%, other services 41%

Unemployment rate: 6.9% (1999)

Budget: revenues: $1.34 billion expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $260 million (1998 est.)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, electronics, footwear, tourism, gambling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.34 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.42 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 1 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 175 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: textiles, clothing, toys, electronics, cement, footwear, machinery

Exports - partners: US 48%, EU 31%, Hong Kong 8%, China 7% (1998)

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods, fuels, consumer goods

Imports - partners: China 33%, Hong Kong 24%, EU 11%, Taiwan 10%, Japan 8% (1998)

Debt - external: $1.7 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.01 (January 2000), 7.99 (1999), 7.98 (1998), 7.99 (1997), 7.962 (1996), 8.034 (1993-95); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Macau:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 222,500 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 55,000 (1998)

Telephone system: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services domestic: NA international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 160,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (receives Hong Kong broadcasts) (1997)

Televisions: 49,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Macau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 50 km paved: 50 km unpaved: 0 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Macau

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Macau:Military

Military branches: Macau garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) includes about 500 troops

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 123,581 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 67,974 (2000 est.)

Military - note: responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999

@Macau:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





MACEDONIA





MADAGASCAR

@Madagascar:Introduction

Background: Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule.

@Madagascar:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 587,040 sq km land: 581,540 sq km water: 5,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 41% forests and woodland: 40% other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

@Madagascar:People

Population: 15,506,472 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 3,504,562; female 3,481,056) 15-64 years: 52% (male 3,964,564; female 4,052,056) 65 years and over: 3% (male 237,691; female 266,543) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 42.92 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.69 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 85.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.95 years male: 52.71 years female: 57.26 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.84 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural) adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 80% male: 88% female: 73% (1990 est.)

@Madagascar:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar conventional short form: Madagascar local long form: Republique de Madagascar local short form: Madagascar former: Malagasy Republic

Data code: MA

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO (since NA 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly election results: Didier RATSIRAKA elected president; percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (AFFA) 49.3%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms elections: National Assembly - last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6, MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 32

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle

Political parties and leaders: Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA ; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA ; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana [Pastor Richard ANDRIAMANJATO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo ; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana ; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo ; Judged by Your Work or AVI ; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM ; National Union for Development and Democracy or UNDD; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Biclair Henri ANDRIANANTOANDRO chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 265-5525, 5526 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Shirley E. BARNES embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo telephone: (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18 FAX: (2) 345-39

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

@Madagascar:Economy

Economy - overview: Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 34% of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee demand, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. Formidable obstacles stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth potential; the extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants. Growth should be in the 5% range in 2000-01.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $780 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 34% industry: 12% services: 54% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 34.9% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 7 million (1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $553 million expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 750 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 33.33% hydro: 66.67% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 698 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Exports: $600 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves, shellfish, sugar, petroleum products (1995 est.)

Exports - partners: France 40%, US 9%, Germany 8%, Japan 6%, UK 6% (1997)

Imports: $881 million (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13% (1995 est.)

Imports - partners: France 39%, Hong Kong 5%, Japan 5%, China, Singapore (1997)

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $838 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 6,302.9 (October 1999), 5,877.81 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997), 4,061.3 (1996), 4,265.6 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Madagascar:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 33,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: system is above average for the region domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2 (plus 8 repeater stations), FM 7, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 3.05 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 325,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@Madagascar:Transportation

Railways: total: 883 km narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 49,837 km paved: 5,781 km unpaved: 44,056 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Lakandranon' Ampangalana (Canal des Pangalanes)

Ports and harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Merchant marine: total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,819 GRT/34,173 DWT ships by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, liquified gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 133 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 29 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 104 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 59 under 914 m: 42 (1999 est.)

@Madagascar:Military

Military branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces, Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,525,754 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,092,308 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 149,157 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $29 million (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY94)

@Madagascar:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin





MALAWI

@Malawi:Introduction

Background: Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule, the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under a provisional constitution, which took full effect the following year.

@Malawi:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S, 34 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 118,480 sq km land: 94,080 sq km water: 24,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 2,881 km border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m highest point: Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources: limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite

Land use: arable land: 34% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 20% forests and woodland: 39% other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Malawi:People

Population: 10,385,849 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,335,440; female 2,324,012) 15-64 years: 52% (male 2,671,580; female 2,766,560) 65 years and over: 3% (male 117,932; female 170,325) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.61% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 38.49 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 22.44 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 122.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 37.58 years male: 37.2 years female: 37.98 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malawian(s) adjective: Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important regionally

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 58% male: 72.8% female: 43.4% (1999 est.)

@Malawi:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malawi conventional short form: Malawi former: Nyasaland

Data code: MI

Government type: multiparty democracy

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba note: there may be three new districts named Balaka, Likoma, and Phalombe

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 July (1964); Republic Day 6 July (1966)

Constitution: 18 May 1995

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: 28-member cabinet named by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: Bakili MULUZI reelected president; percent of vote - Bakili MULUZI (UDF) 51.4%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MCP-AFORD) 44.3%

Legislative branch: National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of vote by party - UDF 48%, MCP 34%, AFORD 15%, others 3%; seats by party - UDF 93, MCP 66, AFORD 29, others 4, vacancy 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court, chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; magistrate's courts

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD ; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda CHAKUAMBA, president, John TEMBO, vice president]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP ; Social Democratic Party or SDP ; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI] - governing party

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Willie CHOKANI chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 797-1007

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Ellen SHIPPY embassy: address NA, in new development area in Lilongwe mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi telephone: 783 166 FAX: 780 471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band

Government - note: the executive exerts considerable influence over the legislature

@Malawi:Economy

Economy - overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 37% of GDP and 85% of export revenues. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. The government faces strong challenges, e.g., to spur exports, to improve educational and health facilities, to face up to environmental problems of deforestation and erosion, and to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $940 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 37% industry: 29% services: 34% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 54% (1990-91 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 45% (1999)

Labor force: 3.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 86%, wage earners 14% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $490 million expenditures: $523 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)

Industries: tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 922 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.39% hydro: 97.61% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 857 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats

Exports: $510 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products

Exports - partners: South Africa 15%, US 9%, Germany 9%, Netherlands 7%, Japan (1998)

Imports: $512 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment

Imports - partners: South Africa 38%, Zimbabwe 18%, Zambia 8%, Japan 4%, US, UK, Germany (1998)

Debt - external: $2.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $416.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwachas (MK) per US$1 - 46.3494 (December 1999), 44.0881 (1999), 31.0727 (1998), 16.4442 (1997), 15.3085 (1996), 15.2837 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Malawi:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 34,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 382 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic: fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4 (plus 15 repeater stations), shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.6 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 0 (1999)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Malawi:Transportation

Railways: total: 789 km narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 28,400 km paved: 5,254 km unpaved: 23,146 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports and harbors: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba

Airports: 44 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 5 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 39 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 15 under 914 m: 23 (1999 est.)

@Malawi:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,397,385 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,229,676 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $17 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.8% (FY96/97)

@Malawi:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)





MALAYSIA

@Malaysia:Introduction

Background: Malaysia was created in 1963 through the merging of Malaya (independent in 1957) and the former British Singapore, both of which formed West Malaysia, and Sabah and Sarawak in north Borneo, which composed East Malaysia. The first three years of independence were marred by hostilities with Indonesia. Singapore seceded from the union in 1965.

@Malaysia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total: 329,750 sq km land: 328,550 sq km water: 1,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,669 km border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 12% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 68% other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,941 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

@Malaysia:People

Population: 21,793,293 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 3,914,112; female 3,697,731) 15-64 years: 61% (male 6,655,506; female 6,642,073) 65 years and over: 4% (male 386,387; female 497,484) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.01% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.3 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.25 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.) note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.83 years male: 68.22 years female: 73.63 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.29 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malaysian(s) adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 58%, Chinese 26%, Indian 7%, others 9%

Religions: Islam, Buddhism, Daoism, Hinduism, Christianity, Sikhism; note - in addition, Shamanism is practiced in East Malaysia

Languages: Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai; note - in addition, in East Malaysia several indigenous languages are spoken, the largest of which are Iban and Kadazan

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 83.5% male: 89.1% female: 78.1% (1995 est.)

@Malaysia:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Malaysia former: Malayan Union

Data code: MY

Government type: constitutional monarchy note: Malaya (what is now Peninsular Malaysia) formed 31 August 1957; Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore) formed 9 July 1963 (Singapore left the federation on 9 August 1965); nominally headed by the paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, Penang, Sabah, and Sarawak, where governors are appointed by the Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by the federal constitution; under terms of the federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., the right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah - holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - holds 28 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan* note: the city of Kuala Lumpur is located within the federal territory of Wilayah Persekutuan; the terms therefore are not interchangeable

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Paramount Ruler Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1999); Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 8 January 1999) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler elections: paramount ruler and deputy paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister election results: Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah elected paramount ruler; Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin ibni A-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah elected deputy paramount ruler

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of nonelected Senate or Dewan Negara (69 seats; 43 appointed by the paramount ruler, 26 appointed by the state legislatures) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (193 seats; members elected by popular vote weighted toward the rural Malay population to serve five-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held 29 November 1999 (next to be held 3 November 2004) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NF 56%, other 44%; seats by party - NF 148, PAS 27, DAP 10, NJP 5, PBS 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: State Reform Party or STAR [PATAV Rubis]; Democratic Action Party or DAP ; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia ; Liberal Democratic Party ; Malaysian Chinese Association or MCA ; Malaysian Indian Congress or MIC ; National Front or NF [MAHATHIR bin Mohamad] (a coalition of 14 political parties, dominated by the UMNO, and including the UPKO, SAPP, and the Liberal Democratic Party); National Justice Party or NJP ; Parti Akar ; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak or PBDS [Datuk Leo MOGGIE]; Parti Bersekutu ; Parti Islam SeMalaysia or PAS ; Party Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or PBB ; Sabah People's Progressive Party or SAPP ; Sabah People's United Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah) or PBRS ; Sarawak National Party or SNAP ; Sarawak United People's Party or SUPP ; United Kadazan People's Organization or UPKO (formerly Parti Demokratik Sabah) ; United Malays National Organization or UMNO ; United Sabah Party (main opposition party) (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS note: subsequent to the election, the following parties were dissolved - Spirit of '46 or Semangat '46 and Sabah United Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah) or PBS [Datuk Seri Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dato' GHAZZALI Sheikh Abdul Khalid chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 328-2700 FAX: (202) 483-7661 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador B. Lynn PASCOE embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur; American Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152 telephone: (3) 2168-5000 FAX: (3) 242-2207

Flag description: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

@Malaysia:Economy

Economy - overview: Malaysia made a quick economic recovery in 1999 from its worst recession since independence in 1957. GDP grew 5%, responding to a dynamic export sector, which grew over 10% and fiscal stimulus from higher government spending. The large export surplus has enabled the country to build up its already substantial financial reserves, to $31 billion at yearend 1999. This stable macroeconomic environment, in which both inflation and unemployment stand at 3% or less, has made possible the relaxation of most of the capital controls imposed by the government in 1998 to counter the impact of the Asian financial crisis. Government and private forecasters expect Malaysia to continue this trend in 2000, predicting GDP to grow another 5% to 6%. While Malaysia's immediate economic horizon looks bright, its long-term prospects are clouded by the lack of reforms in the corporate sector, particularly those dealing with competitiveness and high corporate debt.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $229.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 46% services: 42% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 6.8% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4% highest 10%: 20.4% (1997 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1999)

Labor force: 9.3 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: manufacturing 27%, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 16%, local trade and tourism 17%, services 15%, government 10%, construction 9% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $23.2 billion expenditures: $27.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 57.435 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 94.78% hydro: 5.22% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 53.423 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 75 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 83 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawak - rubber, pepper; timber

Exports: $83.5 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, chemicals, palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles

Exports - partners: US 23%, Singapore 16%, Japan 11%, Hong Kong 5%, Netherlands 5%, Taiwan 5%, Thailand 3% (1999 est.)

Imports: $61.5 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, fuel and lubricants

Imports - partners: Japan 21%, US 18%, Singapore 14%, Taiwan 5%, South Korea 5%, Thailand 4%, China 3% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $43.6 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 3.8000 (January 2000), 3.8000 (1999), 3.9244 (1998), 2.8133 (1997), 2.5159 (1996), 2.5044 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Malaysia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.4 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.17 million (1998)

Telephone system: international service good domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations international: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 56, FM 31 (plus 13 repeater stations), shortwave 5 (1999)

Radios: 9.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 27 (plus 15 high-power repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 3.6 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (1999)

@Malaysia:Transportation

Railways: total: 1,801 km narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (148 km electrified) (2000)

Highways: total: 94,500 km paved: 70,970 km (including 580 km of expressways) unpaved: 23,530 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 7,296 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,209 km, Sabah 1,569 km, Sarawak 2,518 km)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Ports and harbors: Bintulu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Dickson, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjung Berhala, Tanjung Kidurong, Tawau

Merchant marine: total: 361 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,000,706 GRT/7,393,915 DWT ships by type: bulk 61, cargo 119, chemical tanker 34, container 55, liquified gas 19, livestock carrier 1, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 57, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 6, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 5 (1999 est.)

Airports: 115 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 32 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 83 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 74 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Malaysia:Military

Military branches: Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts

Military manpower - military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,662,933 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,431,602 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 183,139 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.211 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY98)

@Malaysia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Philippines have not fully revoked claim to Sabah State; two islands in dispute with Singapore; Sipadan and Ligitan Islands in dispute with Indonesia

Illicit drugs: transit point for some illicit drugs going to Western markets; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties





MALDIVES

@Maldives:Introduction

Background: The Maldives were long a sultanate, first under Dutch and then under British protection. They became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. Tourism and fishing are being developed on the archipelago.

@Maldives:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates: 3 15 N, 73 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 300 sq km land: 300 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat, with white sandy beaches

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Wilingili island in the Addu Atoll 2.4 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 3% forests and woodland: 3% other: 84% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea level rise

Environment - current issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; global warming and sea level rise; coral reef bleaching

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

@Maldives:People

Population: 301,475 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 71,273; female 67,323) 15-64 years: 51% (male 78,598; female 75,331) 65 years and over: 3% (male 4,666; female 4,284) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.06% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 38.96 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.32 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.09 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 65.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.2 years male: 61.05 years female: 63.4 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.62 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Maldivian(s) adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic groups: South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 93.2% male: 93.3% female: 93% (1995 est.)

@Maldives:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Maldives conventional short form: Maldives local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa local short form: Dhivehi Raajje

Data code: MV

Government type: republic

Capital: Male

Administrative divisions: 19 atolls (atholhu, singular and plural) and 1 other first-order administrative division*; Alifu, Baa, Dhaalu, Faafu, Gaafu Alifu, Gaafu Dhaalu, Gnaviyani, Haa Alifu, Haa Dhaalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Lhaviyani, Maale*, Meemu, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Vaavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution: adopted January 1998

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: appointed by the president; note - need not be members of Majlis elections: president nominated by the Majlis and then that nomination must be ratified by a national referendum (at least a 51% approval margin is required); president elected for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003) election results: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected; percent of popular vote - Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 90.9%

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council or Majlis (50 seats; 42 elected by popular vote, 8 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2004) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 42

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: although political parties are not banned, none exist

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Maldives does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic visits there

Flag description: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag

@Maldives:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, Maldives largest industry, accounts for 20% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. Almost 400,000 tourists visited the islands in 1998. Fishing is a second leading sector. The Maldivian Government began an economic reform program in 1989 initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign investment. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a minor role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods must be imported. Industry, which consists mainly of garment production, boat building, and handicrafts, accounts for about 18% of GDP. Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is one meter or less above sea level.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $540 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 20% industry: 18% services: 62% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 67,000 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 22%, industry 18%, services 60% (1995)

Unemployment rate: NEGL%

Budget: revenues: $166 million (excluding foreign grants) expenditures: $192 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (1999 est.)

Industries: fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining

Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 85 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 79 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fish

Exports: $98 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: fish, clothing

Exports - partners: US, UK, Sri Lanka, Japan

Imports: $312 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Japan, Canada

Debt - external: $188 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laari

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 11.770 (fixed rate since 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Maldives:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,000 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 300 (1999)

Telephone system: minimal domestic and international facilities domestic: interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands are connected with telephone and fax service international: satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 35,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1999)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Maldives:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km; note - Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city (1988 est.)

Ports and harbors: Gan, Male

Merchant marine: total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 69,599 GRT/105,599 DWT ships by type: cargo 17, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 5 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)

@Maldives:Military

Military branches: National Security Service (paramilitary police force)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 68,940 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 38,402 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Maldives:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





MALI

@Mali:Introduction

Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997, President KONARE has continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term.

@Mali:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1.24 million sq km land: 1.22 million sq km water: 20,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 7,243 km border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 25% forests and woodland: 6% other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked

@Mali:People

Population: 10,685,948 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (male 2,537,586; female 2,508,782) 15-64 years: 50% (male 2,524,969; female 2,781,762) 65 years and over: 3% (male 156,447; female 176,402) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.98% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 49.23 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 19.1 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 123.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.66 years male: 45.5 years female: 47.85 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.89 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malian(s) adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 31% male: 39.4% female: 23.1% (1995 est.)

@Mali:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali conventional short form: Mali local long form: Republique de Mali local short form: Mali former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

Data code: ML

Government type: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992) head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha Oumar KONARE 95.9%, Mamadou DIABY 4.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held in two rounds in 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADEMA 130, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA ; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA ; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS ; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID ; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP ; Party for National Renewal or PARENA ; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT ; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP ; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP ; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD

Political pressure groups and leaders: Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 332-2249, 939-8950 FAX: (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako telephone: 22 54 70 FAX: 22 37 12

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Mali:Economy

Economy - overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform, and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994, has pushed up economic growth. Several multinational corporations increased gold mining operations in 1996-98, and the government anticipates that Mali will become a major Sub-Saharan gold exporter in the next few years. Annual growth should remain in the 5-6% range in 2000-01, and inflation should drop under 3%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $820 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 46% industry: 21% services: 33% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $730 million expenditures: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1997 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 310 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 38.71% hydro: 61.29% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 288 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $640 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton 50%, gold, livestock (1998 est.)

Exports - partners: Thailand 20%, Italy 20%, China 9%, Brazil 5%, Franc Zone (1997)

Imports: $650 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire 19%, France 17%, other Franc Zone and EU countries (1997)

Debt - external: $3.1 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $596.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995) note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mali:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 14, shortwave 7 (1998)

Radios: 570,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 45,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Mali:Transportation

Railways: total: 729 km (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes) narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 15,100 km paved: 1,827 km unpaved: 13,273 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Koulikoro

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 22 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

@Mali:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,202,950 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,262,242 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $49 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96)

@Mali:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





MALTA

@Malta:Introduction

Background: Great Britain formally acquired possession of Malta in 1814. The island staunchly supported the UK through both World Wars and remained in the Commonwealth when it became independent in 1964. A decade later Malta became a republic. Over the last 15 years, the island has become a major freight transshipment point, financial center, and tourist destination. It is an official candidate for EU membership.

@Malta:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 316 sq km land: 316 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Ta'Dmejrek 253 m (near Dingli)

Natural resources: limestone, salt, arable land

Land use: arable land: 38% permanent crops: 3% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 59% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; increasing reliance on desalination

Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: the country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors

@Malta:People

Population: 391,670 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 41,046; female 38,273) 15-64 years: 67% (male 132,692; female 131,532) 65 years and over: 13% (male 20,091; female 28,036) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.74% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.75 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.94 years male: 75.49 years female: 80.62 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Maltese (singular and plural) adjective: Maltese

Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and Phoenicians, with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean stock)

Religions: Roman Catholic 91%

Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write total population: 88% male: 88% female: 88% (1985)

@Malta:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Malta conventional short form: Malta local long form: Repubblika ta' Malta local short form: Malta

Data code: MT

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administered directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964)

Constitution: 1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Guido DE MARCO (since 4 April 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Eddie FENECH ADAMI (since 6 September 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Lawrence GONZE (since 4 May 1999) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections: president elected by the House of Representatives for a five-year term; election last held NA April 1999 (next to be held by NA April 2004); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister election results: Guido DE MARCO elected president; percent of House of Representatives vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (usually 65 seats; note - additional seats are given to the party with the largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total: 65 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 5 September 1998 (next to be held by September 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - PN 51.8%, MLP 46.9%, AD 1.2%; seats by party - PN 35, MLP 30

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for Social Justice or AD ; Malta Labor Party or MLP ; Nationalist Party or PN

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George SALIBA chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 462-3611, 3612 FAX: (202) 387-5470 consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Haycock PROFFITT embassy: 3rd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, mailing address: P. O. Box 535, Valletta telephone: 235960 FAX: 243229

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in red

@Malta:Economy

Economy - overview: Major resources are limestone, a favorable geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy sources. The economy is dependent on foreign trade, manufacturing (especially electronics and textiles), and tourism; the state-owned Malta drydocks employs about 3,800 people. In 1999, over 1 million tourists visited the island. Per capita GDP of $13,800 places Malta in the ranks of the less affluent EU countries. The island is divided politically over the question of joining the EU. The sizable budget deficit remains a key concern.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $13,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 26% services: 71% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 143,700 (October 1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 24%, services 71%, agriculture 5% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (September 1999)

Budget: revenues: $1.32 billion expenditures: $1.76 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Industries: tourism; electronics, ship building and repair, construction; food and beverages, textiles, footwear, clothing, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.62 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.507 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry, eggs

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactures

Exports - partners: France 20.7%, US 18.1%, Germany 12.6%, UK 7.7%, Italy 4.8% (1998)

Imports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods; food, drink, and tobacco

Imports - partners: Italy 19.3%, France 17.8%, UK 12.4%, Germany 10.5%, US 8.9% (1998)

Debt - external: $130 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.4086 (January 2000), 0.3994 (1999), 0.3885 (1998), 0.3857 (1997), 0.3604 (1996), 0.3529 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Malta:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 171,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 15,650 (1999)

Telephone system: automatic system satisfies normal requirements domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 18, shortwave 6 (1999)

Radios: 255,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (1999)

Televisions: 280,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (1999)

@Malta:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,742 km paved: 1,677 km unpaved: 65 km (1997 est.)

Ports and harbors: Marsaxlokk, Valletta

Merchant marine: total: 1,484 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,083,952 GRT/46,772,146 DWT ships by type: bulk 431, cargo 424, chemical tanker 54, combination bulk 16, combination ore/oil 14, container 64, liquified gas 2, livestock carrier 3, multi-functional large load carrier 4, passenger 7, petroleum tanker 331, refrigerated cargo 44, roll-on/roll-off 48, short-sea passenger 21, specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 16 (1999 est.) note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 49 countries among which includes Greece 445, Russia 51, Switzerland 45, Italy 44, Norway 40, Croatia 26, Turkey 35, Germany 32, Georgia 23, and Monaco 24 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Malta:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (including land forces, an air squadron, a maritime squadron, and the Revenue Security Corps), Maltese Police Force

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 98,850 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 78,677 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $201 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.5% (FY98/99)

@Malta:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Western Europe





MAN





MARSHALL ISLANDS

@Marshall Islands:Introduction

Background: After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the islands between 1947 and 1962.

@Marshall Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 181.3 sq km land: 181.3 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein

Area - comparative: about the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 60% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

@Marshall Islands:People

Population: 68,126 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 50% (male 17,204; female 16,521) 15-64 years: 48% (male 16,826; female 16,111) 65 years and over: 2% (male 693; female 771) (2000 est.)

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