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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Airports: total: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services domestic: NA international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 92,704 males fit for military service: 47,124 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.5 million, NA% of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Eritrea ———-



Map —-

Location: 15 00 N, 39 00 E — Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan



Flag ——

Description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 121,320 sq km land area: 121,320 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total: 1,630 km border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: a dispute with Yemen over sovereignty of the Hanish Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to arbitration under the auspices of the ICJ

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains lowest point: Kobar Sink -75 m highest point: Soira 3,013 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil (petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 2% (coffee) meadows and pastures: 40% forest and woodland: 5% other: 50%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: famine; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare natural hazards: frequent droughts international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification

Geographic note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993



People ———

Population: 3,427,883 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 755,417; female 743,135) 15-64 years: 53% (male 910,976; female 913,531) 65 years and over: 3% (male 54,310; female 50,514) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.79% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.32 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.44 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: it is estimated that between 300,000 and 500,000 Eritrean refugees were still living in Sudan at the end of 1995; their repatriation is being facilitated by the UNHCR

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 118.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.31 years male: 48.57 years female: 52.1 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Eritrean(s) adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic divisions: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Italian, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, minor tribal languages



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: State of Eritrea conventional short form: Eritrea local long form: none local short form: none former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Type of government: transitional government note: on 29 May 1991 ISAIAS Afworke, secretary general of the Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which then served and still serves as the country's legislative body, announced the formation of the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the 23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for the autonomous region of Eritrea; the result was a landslide vote for independence, which was proclaimed on 27 April 1993

Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular - awraja); Akele Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye; note - information issued by the Eritrean government indicates that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been established by former colonial powers, will consist of only six regions when the new constitution, presently being drafted, goes into effect sometime in 1996

Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May (1993)

Constitution: transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993; the promulgation of a draft constitution is expected in 1996

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA; note - the transitional constitution of 19 May 1993 did not provide rules for suffrage, but it seems likely that the final version of the constitution, to be promulgated some time in 1996, will follow the example set in the referendum of 1993 in which suffrage was universal for persons 18 years of age or older

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 22 May 1993) is head of the State Council and National Assembly cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority note: election to be held in 1997

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly: 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF) and 75 directly elected members serve as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections are held in 1997

Judicial branch: Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), ISAIAS Afworki, PETROS Solomon (the only party recognized by the government)

Other political or pressure groups: Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ); Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), ABDULLAH Muhammed; Eritrean Liberation Front - United Organization (ELF-UO), Mohammed Said NAWUD; Eritrean Liberation Front - Revolutionary Council (ELF-RC), Ahmed NASSER

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador AMDEMICHAEL Berhane Khasai chancery: Suite 400, 910 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20006 telephone: [1] (202) 429-1991 FAX: [1] (202) 429-9004

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert G. HOUDEK embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt St., Asmara mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara telephone: [291] (1) 120004 FAX: [291] (1) 127584

Flag: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle



Economy ———-

Economic overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993, Eritrea faces the bitter economic problems of a small, desperately poor African country. Most of the population will continue to depend on subsistence farming. Domestic output is substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come from custom duties and income and sales taxes. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia and has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. For the time being, Ethiopia will be largely dependent on Eritrean ports for its foreign trade.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 10% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $570 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: NA kW production: NA kWh consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope); livestock (including goats); fish

Exports: $33 million (1995 est.) commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles partners: Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, UK, US, Yemen

Imports: $420 million (1995 est.) commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency used

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 6.2 (1995 est.), 5.600 (September 1994), 5.000 (fixed rate 1992-93); note - following independence from Ethiopia, Eritrea continued to use Ethiopian currency, the official rate of which was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 307 km; note - nonoperational since 1978 except for about 5 km that was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and of the rolling stock is under way; links Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa) narrow gauge: 307 km 0.950-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 3,845 km paved: 807 km unpaved: 3,038 km (1993 est.)

Ports: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,573 GRT/13,593 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 14 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 2 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: very inadequate; about 4 telephones per 100 families, most of which are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government controlled)

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: NA males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Estonia ———-



Map —-

Location: 59 00 N, 26 00 E — Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia



Flag ——

Description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 45,100 sq km land area: 43,200 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Land boundaries: total: 557 km border countries: Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline: 1,393 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with neighboring states territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims over 2,000 sq km of Russian territory in the Narva and Pechora regions - based on boundary established under the 1921 Peace Treaty of Tartu; disputes maritime border with Latvia - primary concern is fishing rights around Ruhne Island in the Gulf of Riga

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber

Land use: arable land: 22% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 11% forest and woodland: 31% other: 36%

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1990)

Environment: current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Wetlands



People ———

Population: 1,459,428 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 148,683; female 143,563) 15-64 years: 66% (male 467,759; female 501,519) 65 years and over: 14% (male 63,976; female 133,928) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.13% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.74 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 14.12 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female all ages: 0.87 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.13 years male: 62.5 years female: 74.05 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.55 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Estonian(s) adjective: Estonian

Ethnic divisions: Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.2%, Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%, other 2.1% (1989)

Religions: Lutheran, Orthodox Christian

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.) total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Estonia conventional short form: Estonia local long form: Eesti Vabariik local short form: Eesti former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Type of government: republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond (Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare), Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond (Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru) note: county centers are in parentheses

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992) was elected for a five-year term by Parliament; election last held 20 September 1992 (next to be held fall 1996); results - no candidate received majority; Parliament elected Lennart MERI head of government: Acting Prime Minister Tiit VAHI (since NA March 1995); the president nominated and Parliament authorized the candidate for prime minister cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Riigikogu): elections last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results - KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K 14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats - (101 total) KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8, Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: National Court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union (KMU), Tiit VAHI, chairman, made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party, Country People's Party, Farmer's Assembly, and Pensioners' and Families' League; Reform Party-Liberals (RE), Siim KALLAS, chairman; Center Party (K), Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland Alliance (Isamaa of Fatherland), Toivo JURGENSON, chairman; National Independence Party (ERSP), Kelam TUNNE, chairman, note - may have disappeared since the last election; Our Home is Estonia made up of 2 parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian People's Party of Estonia; United Peoples Party, Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman; Russian People's Party of Estonia, Sergei KUZNETSOV, chairman; Moderates (M) made up of 2 parties: Social Democratic Party and Rural Center Party; Social Democratic Party, Eiki NESTOR, chairman; Rural Center Party, Vambo KAAL, chairman; Right-Wingers, Ulo NUGIS, chairman

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101 FAX: [1] (202) 789-0471 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence P. TAYLOR embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [372] (6) 312-021 FAX: [372] (6) 312-025

Flag: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Estonia continues to experience strong economic growth after its economy bottomed out in 1993. Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western Europe, Estonia has adhered to disciplined fiscal and financial policies and has led the FSU countries in pursuing economic reform. Monthly inflation has been held to under 5% since the beginning of 1992, with monthly inflation in 1995 at 2%. Following four years of decline, Estonia's GDP grew 5% in 1994 and 6% in 1995 - among the highest rates in Europe, according to estimates of the IMF and Estonia's own Economic Ministry. Despite these positive economic indicators, unemployment - 8% in 1994 - is on the rise, and wages - especially for teachers and law enforcement personnel - have not kept pace with inflation. Small- and medium-scale privatization is essentially complete, and large-scale privatization is progressing, but slowly. Estonia has successfully reoriented it trade toward the West, two-thirds of exports now going to Western markets. Estonia's free trade policies were the cornerstone of its negotiations with the European Union, and led to the signing of an association agreement in June 1995. Estonia was the only Baltic state not to have a transition period imposed by the EU prior to its implementation of a free trade agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (1995 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $7,600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 10% industry: 37% services: 53% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 750,000 (1992) by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $620 million expenditures: $582 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (January-October 1995)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 3,420,000 kW production: 11.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 6,528 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; very limited illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic consumption

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11% (1993) partners: Russia, Finland, Sweden, Germany

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10% (1993) partners: Finland, Russia, Germany, Sweden

External debt: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $147 million (1993) note: Western commitments $285 million (including international financial institutions)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August 1992)

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1 - 11.523 (December 1995), 11.465 (1995), 12.991 (1994), 13.223 (1993); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 14,771 km paved: 8,124 km (including 62 km of expressways) unpaved: 6,647 km (1993)

Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports: Haapsalu, Narva, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine: total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 353,140 GRT/467,086 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 33, oil tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 4 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 22 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 400,000

Telephone system: system is antiquated; improvements are being made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for subscriber service domestic: substantial investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational throughout Estonia international: international traffic is carried to the other former Soviet republics by landline or microwave radio relay and to other countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber-optic, submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; access to the international packet-switched digital network via Helsinki

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 710,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 note: provide Estonian programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs

Televisions: 600,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard, Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops), Coast Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 357,835 males fit for military service: 280,757 males reach military age (18) annually: 10,525 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $35 million, 1.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Ethiopia ————



Map —-

Location: 8 00 N, 38 00 E — Eastern Africa, west of Somalia



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1,127,127 sq km land area: 1,119,683 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,311 km border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley lowest point: Denakil -125 m highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 41% forest and woodland: 24% other: 22%

Irrigated land: 1,620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; famine natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993



People ———

Population: 57,171,662 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 13,116,158; female 13,080,276) 15-64 years: 51% (male 14,782,995; female 14,624,779) 65 years and over: 3% (male 728,808; female 838,646) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 46.05 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.53 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan, Kenya and Somalia for refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected to continue in 1996; entry into Ethiopia of Sudanese and Somalis fleeing the fighting in their own countries is also continuing in 1996

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 122.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.85 years male: 45.71 years female: 48.02 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ethiopian(s) adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 5%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 35.5% male: 45.5% female: 25.3%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia conventional short form: Ethiopia local long form: none local short form: Ityop'iya abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Type of government: federal republic note: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional popular elections were held in May and June 1995

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) and 1 federal capital*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara; Benshangul/Gumaz; Gambela; Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples; Tigray

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)

Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President NEGASSO Gidada (since NA August 1995) elected by the Council of People's Representatives following the elections of legislators in May and June 1995 head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995) designated by the party in power, EPRDF, following the elections of legislators in May and June 1995 cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the Council of People's Representatives

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature Federal Council: upper chamber, having NA members, represents the ethnic interests of the regional governments and is elected by the regional assemblies Council of People's Representatives: lower chamber, having 550 members, elected by popular vote note: both bodies have five-year terms of office; regional and national popular elections were held in May and June 1995; results - EPRDF swept nearly all seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the national legislature

Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES Zenawi

Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); All Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since MENGISTU'S resignation, including several Islamic militant groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-2281, 2282 FAX: [1] (202) 328-7950

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Irvin HICKS embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa telephone: [251] (1) 550666 FAX: [251] (1) 552191

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for about half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor cultivation practices, and deterioration of internal security conditions. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is state-run. The government is considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants and is implementing reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the economy. A major medium-term problem is the improvement of roads, water supply, and other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected during years of civil strife.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 48% industry: 15% services: 37% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (FY93/94)

Labor force: 18 million by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $1.2 billion expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $707 million (FY93/94)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 460,000 kW production: 1.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, other vegetables; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and regional export

Exports: $296 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: coffee, leather products, gold partners: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy

Imports: $972 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: capital goods, consumer goods, fuel partners: US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan

External debt: $3.7 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1.036 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 6.3200 (December 1995), 6.3200 (1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate 1992-93); fixed at 2.070 before 1992; note - official rate pegged to the US$

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad) narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 24,127 km paved: 3,289 km unpaved: 20,838 km (1993 est.)

Ports: none; Ethiopia is landlocked but by agreement with Eritrea may use the ports of Assab and Massawa

Merchant marine: total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,908 DWT ships by type: cargo 8, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 58 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 6 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 9 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 29 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 100,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate for government use domestic: open wire and microwave radio relay international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.9 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police note: following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopia's naval facilities remained in Eritrea's possession; current reorganization plans do not include a navy

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 12,912,144 males fit for military service: 6,707,180 males reach military age (18) annually: 583,724 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million, 4.1% of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Europa Island ——————-

(possession of France)

Map —-

Location: 22 20 S, 40 22 E — Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique



Flag ——

Description: the flag of France is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 28 sq km land area: 28 sq km comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% (heavily wooded) other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: wildlife sanctuary



People ———

Population: uninhabited



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Europa Island local long form: none local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Type of government: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic; resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: total: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Communications note: 1 meteorological station



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) ————————————————-

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 51 45 S, 59 00 W — Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT



Geography ————-

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 12,170 sq km land area: 12,170 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 99% forest and woodland: 0% other: 1%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year international agreements: NA

Geographic note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season



People ———

Population: 2,374 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Falkland Islander(s) adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic divisions: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: English



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Colony of the Falkland Islands conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Data code: FA

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the UK since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch head of government: Governor R. RALPH (since NA) was appointed by the queen cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council: elections last held 11 October 1989 (next was to be held NA October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected) independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs most of the work force. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So far, efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been unsuccessful. The economy has diversified since 1987, when the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year and support the island's health, education, and welfare system. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day. An agreement between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,100 (est.) by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

Budget: revenues: $42.7 million expenditures: $28.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993-94 est.)

Industries: wool and fish processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 9,200 kW production: 17 million kWh consumption per capita: 7,253 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep farming, small dairy herds

Exports: $5.4 million commodities: wool, hides, meat partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1992)

Imports: $26.2 million commodities: food, clothing, timber, and machinery partners: UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1992)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: UK, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments totaled $18 million (1993-94)

Currency: 1 Falkland pound (LF) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (LF) per US$1 - 0.6535 (January 1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 510 km paved: 30 km unpaved: 480 km

Ports: Stanley

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 5 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1,180 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 1,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Faroe Islands ——————-

(part of the Danish realm)

Map —-

Location: 62 00 N, 7 00 W — Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to Norway



Flag ——

Description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 1,400 sq km land area: 1,400 sq km comparative area: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 764 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 98%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands



People ———

Population: 43,857 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 24% (male 5,461; female 5,280) 15-64 years: 62% (male 14,488; female 12,617) 65 years and over: 14% (male 2,661; female 3,350) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.8% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.91 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -23.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 0.99 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.83 years male: 74.75 years female: 80.88 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.38 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Faroese (singular and plural) adjective: Faroese

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Faroe Islands local long form: none local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Type of government: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (of Denmark since 14 January 1972), who is a constitutional monarch, is represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE, chief administrative officer (since NA) head of government: Prime Minister Edmund JOENSEN (since 15 September 1994) was elected by the Logting cabinet: Landsstyri was elected by the Logting

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament (Logting): elections last held 8 July 1994 (next to be held by July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (32 total) Liberal Party 8, People's Party 6, Social Democrats 5, Republicans 4, Workers' Party 3, Christian Democrats 2, Center Party 2, Home Rule Party 2 Danish Parliament: elections last held on 21 September 1994 (next to be held by September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Liberals 2

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Marita PETERSEN; Workers Front, Oli JACOBSEN; Home Rule Party, Helena Dam A NEYSTABO; The "Coalition Party," Edmund JOENSEN; Republican Party, Finnbogi ISAKSON; Centrist Party, Tordur NICLASEN; Christian People's Party, Niels Pauli DANIELSEN; People's Party, Arnfinn KALLSBERG; Liberal Party, Jorgen ESTRUP; Christian Democratic Party

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Faroese economy is experiencing a moderate upturn after several years of decline brought on by over-fishing and declining fish prices, large budget deficits by the Faroese Home Rule Government (FHRG), plummeting property values, and a bail-out merger of the two largest Faroese banks. Near-term forecasts suggest continued economic recovery, and oil finds close to the Faroese area may lay the basis for an eventual economic rebound. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy from Denmark, the Faroese have enjoyed a standard of living comparable to the Danes and other Scandinavians.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $733 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $15,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 17,585 by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and commerce

Unemployment rate: 23% (1993)

Budget: revenues: $407.2 million expenditures: $482.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 90,000 kW production: 200 million kWh consumption per capita: 3,953 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: potatoes, vegetables; sheep; annual fish catch about 360,000 metric tons

Exports: $345.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment (ships) (1989) partners: Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US 4.5%

Imports: $234.4 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5% partners: Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%

External debt: $1.2 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130 million

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 5.652 (January 1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 443 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: Klaksvick, Torshavn, Tvoroyri

Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,879 GRT/18,444 DWT ships by type: cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 27,900 (1984 est.)

Telephone system: good international communications; fair domestic facilities domestic: NA international: 3 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3 (repeaters 10), shortwave 0

Radios: 24,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 29)

Televisions: 14,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: no organized native military forces; only a small Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark



======================================================================



@Fiji ——



Map —-

Location: 18 00 S, 175 00 E — Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand



Flag ——

Description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 18,270 sq km land area: 18,270 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 5% meadows and pastures: 3% forest and woodland: 65% other: 19%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Whaling

Geographic note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited



People ———

Population: 782,381 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 141,652; female 135,829) 15-64 years: 62% (male 240,621; female 240,620) 65 years and over: 3% (male 11,235; female 12,424) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.37 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.35 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.71 years male: 63.39 years female: 68.14 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.83 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Fijian(s) adjective: Fijian

Ethnic divisions: Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2% note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 91.6% male: 93.8% female: 89.3%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Fiji conventional short form: Fiji

Data code: FJ

Type of government: republic note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990; the 1990 Constitution is under review; the review is scheduled to be complete by 1997

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (Acting President since 15 December 1993, President since 12 January 1994) was appointed for a five-year term by the Great Council of Chiefs; First Vice President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12 January 1994); Second Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994) head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992) was appointed by the president; Deputy Prime Minister Timoci VESIKULA (since NA) Presidential Council: advises the president on matters of national importance Great Council of Chiefs: highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly system cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament Senate: nonelective body, members are appointed by the president and serve five-year terms; seats - (34 total, 24 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 9 for Indians and others, and 1 for the island of Rotuma) House of Representatives: members serve five-year terms; elections last held 18-25 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FAP 5, GVP 4, independents 2, ANC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian), Jai Ram REDDY; Fijian Nationalist Party (FNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY; General Voters Party (GVP), Leo SMITH; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP), leader NA; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), leader NA; Fiji Indian Liberal Party, leader NA; Fiji Indian Congress Party, leader NA; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party, leader NA; Fijian Association Party (FAP), Josevata KAMIKAMICA; General Electors' Association, leader NA note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National Congress (ANC) merged with the Fijian Association (FA); the remaining members of the ANC have renamed their party the General Electors' Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320 FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996 consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Don Lee GEVIRTZ embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva telephone: [679] 314466 FAX: [679] 300081

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Fiji, richly endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports and tourism are the major sources of foreign exchange. Industry contributes 17% to GDP; sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Roughly 250,000 tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought, however, contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from tourism and sugar and to the emigration of skilled workers. In 1992, growth was approximately 3%, based on growth in tourism and a lessening of labor-management disputes in the sugar and gold-mining sectors. In 1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of 3% was not achieved because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural output and damage from Cyclone Kina. Growth in 1994 of 5% was largely attributable to increased tourism and expansion in the manufacturing sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $6,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 22% industry: 17% services: 61% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1995)

Labor force: 235,000 by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (1992)

Budget: revenues: $495.6 million expenditures: $591.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber, small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 200,000 kW production: 480 million kWh consumption per capita: 581 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish catch nearly 33,000 tons (1989)

Exports: $571.8 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: sugar 40%, clothing, gold, processed fish, lumber partners: EC 26%, Australia 15%, Pacific Islands 11%, Japan 6%

Imports: $864.3 million (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, consumer goods, chemicals partners: Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%

External debt: $670 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4347 (January 1996), 1.4063 (1995), 1.4641 (1994), 1.5418 (1993), 1.5030 (1992), 1.4756 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 597 km; note - belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 4,800 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges

Ports: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine: total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,267 GRT/17,884 DWT ships by type: chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 21 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 15 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 60,017 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center domestic: NA international: access to important cable link between US and Canada and NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 12,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes army, navy, and air elements)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 205,616 males fit for military service: 113,339 males reach military age (18) annually: 8,746 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Finland ———-



Map —-

Location: 64 00 N, 26 00 E — Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia



Flag ——

Description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 337,030 sq km land area: 305,470 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total: 2,628 km border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 6 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 76% other: 16%

Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain



People ———

Population: 5,105,230 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (male 492,616; female 471,736) 15-64 years: 67% (male 1,725,113; female 1,687,974) 65 years and over: 14% (male 275,927; female 451,864) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.1% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 11.32 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.92 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.47 years male: 73.82 years female: 77.18 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Finn(s) adjective: Finnish

Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Finland conventional short form: Finland local long form: Suomen Tasavalta local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Type of government: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994) was elected for a six-year term by popular vote; election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held NA January 2000); results - Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46% head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995) were appointed by the president cabinet: Council of State (Valtioneuvosto) was appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta): elections last held 19 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999); results - Social Democratic Party 28.3%, Center Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 17.9%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party 5.1%, Green League 6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish Christian League 3.0%, Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%; seats - (200 total) Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22, Swedish People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1, Finnish Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus), judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: government coalition: Social Democratic Party, Paavo LIPPONEN; National Coalition (conservative) Party, Sauli NIINISTO; Leftist Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative, Claes ANDERSSON; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK; Green League, Pekka HAAVISTO other: Center Party, Esko AHO; Finnish Christian League, Toimi KANKAANNIEMI; Rural Party, Raimo VISTBACKA; Liberal People's Party, Tuulikki UKKOLA; Greens Ecological Party (EPV); Young Finns, Risto PENTTILAE

Other political or pressure groups: Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jaakko LAAJAVA chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800 FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Derek N. SHEARER embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki mailing address: APO AE 09723 telephone: [358] (0) 171931 FAX: [358] (0) 174681

Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output equaling that of the UK, France and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into deep recession in 1991 as GDP contracted by 6.5%. The recession - which continued in 1992 with GDP contracting by 4.1% - has been caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and changes in monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the European Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability. Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in the government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by about 12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in September 1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of Finnish exports. The recession bottomed out in 1993, and Finland participated in the general European upturn of 1994. Unemployment probably will remain a serious problem during the next few years; the majority of Finnish firms face a weak domestic market and the troubled German and Swedish export markets. The Finns voted in an October 1994 referendum to enter the EU, and Finland officially joined the Union on 1 January 1995. Increasing integration with Western Europe will dominate the economic picture over the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $92.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $18,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 4.6% industry: 28% services: 67.4% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.533 million by occupation: public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%, finance, insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and forestry 8.6%, transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

Unemployment rate: 17% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $21.7 billion expenditures: $31.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 13,360,000 kW production: 58 billion kWh consumption per capita: 12,196 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Latin American cocaine for the West European market

Exports: $29.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber partners: EU 46.5% (Germany 13.4%, UK 10.3%), Sweden 11%, US 7.2%, Japan 2.1%, FSU 8.6% (1994)

Imports: $23.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder grains partners: EU 44% (Germany 15%, UK 8.3%), Sweden 10.4%, US 7.6%, Japan 6.5%, FSU 10.3 (1994)

External debt: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $355 million (1993)

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.4425 (January 1996), 4.3667 (1995), 5.2235 (1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 5,895 km broad gauge: 5,895 km 1.524-m gauge (1,993 km electrified; 480 km double- or more-track) (1995)

Highways: total: 76,755 km paved: 47,588 km (including 318 km of expressways) unpaved: 29,167 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine: total: 92 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,051,231 GRT/1,075,397 DWT ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 12, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 31, short-sea passenger 12, vehicle carrier 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 157 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 23 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 21 with paved runways under 914 m: 92 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2.78 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: good service from cable and microwave radio relay network domestic: cable and microwave radio relay international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 105, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.98 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 235

Televisions: 2.1 million (1983 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,307,128 males fit for military service: 1,074,540 males reach military age (17) annually: 32,760 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.9 billion, 1.6% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@France ———



Map —-

Location: 46 00 N, 2 00 E — Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent areas



Geography ————-

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 547,030 sq km land area: 545,630 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado note: includes only metropolitan France (which includes Corsica), but excludes the overseas administrative divisions

Land boundaries: total: 2,892.4 km border countries: Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France; claims Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

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