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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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GDP: purchasing power parity - $106.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $10,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 5.8% industry: 40.7% services: 53.5%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.1% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 5.389 million by occupation: industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%, communications and other 45.2% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $16.5 billion expenditures: $16.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal, motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 12.9% (January-November 1995)

Electricity: capacity: 14.470,000 kW production: 56.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 4,842 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe

Exports: $17.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, minerals, metals, agricultural products partners: Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 16.1%, Austria 6.7%, Poland 5.3%, Italy 4%, Russia 3.3%, Netherlands 2.8%, France 2.6%, UK 2.2%, Hungary 2.1%, US 1.8%, Belgium 1.5% (January-September 1995)

Imports: $21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, raw materials, agricultural products partners: Germany 26%, Slovakia 13.2%, Russia 9.2%, Austria 7%, Italy 5.6%, France 4.1%, US 3.8%, Poland 3.1%, Netherlands 2.9%, UK 2.9%, Switzerland 2.1%, Belgium 2.0% (January-September 1995)

External debt: $14.9 billion (June 1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $27 million (1993)

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 26.967 (January 1996), 26.541 (1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990) note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 9,413 km standard gauge: 9,316 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2640 km electrified) narrow gauge: 97 km several narrow gauges (1995)

Highways: total: 55,557 km (1994 est.) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Merchant marine: total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,946 GRT/251,624 DWT ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 5 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 116 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 9 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13 with paved runways under 914 m: 5 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 32 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 41 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 3,349,539 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad Units

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,724,607 males fit for military service: 2,074,331 males reach military age (18) annually: 88,418 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $931 million, 2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Denmark ———-



Map —-

Location: 56 00 N, 10 00 E — Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany



Flag ——

Description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 43,070 sq km land area: 42,370 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Land boundaries: total: 68 km border country: Germany 68 km

Coastline: 3,379 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 4 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone

Land use: arable land: 61% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 6% forest and woodland: 12% other: 21%

Irrigated land: 4,300 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen



People ———

Population: 5,249,632 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 469,672; female 446,907) 15-64 years: 67% (male 1,789,552; female 1,738,870) 65 years and over: 16% (male 330,396; female 474,235) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.24 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.42 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.3 years male: 73.78 years female: 81.01 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dane(s) adjective: Danish

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German (small minority)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 99% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark conventional short form: Denmark local long form: Kongeriget Danmark local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholms, Frederiksborg, Fyns, Kobenhavns, Nordjyllands, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjyllands, Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstroms, Vejle, Vestsjaellands, Viborg note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions

Independence: 10th century first organized as a unified state; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972) is a constitutional monarch; Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the queen (born 26 May 1968) head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA January 1993) was appointed by the queen cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Folketing): elections last held 21 September 1994 (next to be held by December 1998); results - Social Democrats 34.6%, Liberals 23.3%, Conservatives 15.0%, Social People's Party 7.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Radical Liberals 4.6%, Unity Party 3.1%, Center Democrats 2.8%, Christian People's Party 1.8%; seats - (179 total) Social Democrats 63, Liberals 44, Conservatives 28, Social People's Party 13, Progress Party 11, Radical Liberals 8, Unity Party 6, Center Democrats 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the monarch for life

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Hans ENGELL; Liberal Party, Uffe ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party, Holger K. NIELSEN; Progress Party, Group Chairman Kim BEHNKE and Policy Spokesman Jan Kopke CHRISTENSEN; Center Democratic Party, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN; Radical Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian People's Party, Jann SJURSEN; Danish Workers' Party, Common Cause, Preben Moller HANSEN; Unity Party

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300 FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen mailing address: APO AE 09716, PSC 73 telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44 FAX: [45] (35) 43 02 23

Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden



Economy ———-

Economic overview: This thoroughly modern economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is self-sufficient in food production. The new center-left coalition government will concentrate on reducing the persistently high unemployment rate and the budget deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. In the face of recent international market pressure on the Danish krone, the coalition has also vowed to maintain a stable currency. The coalition hopes to lower marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax revenues; boost industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax reforms and increased research and development funds; and improve welfare services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to the criteria for European integration by 1999; Copenhagen has won from the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European Monetary Union (EMU) if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark is, in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU on time. Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better than many West European countries. Although unemployment is high, it remains stable compared to most European countries.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $112.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $21,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 23.5% services: 73.5% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2,553,900 by occupation: private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%, manufacturing and mining 20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.6%, electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $56.5 billion expenditures: $64.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: -2.5% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 10,030,000 kW production: 32 billion kWh consumption per capita: 5,835 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; meat, dairy products; fish

Exports: $39.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment (shipbuilding), fish, chemicals, industrial machinery partners: EU 49.4% (Germany 22.4%, UK 8.2%), Sweden 10.4%, Norway 6.5%, US 5.5%, Japan 4.1%, FSU 1.7% (1994)

Imports: $34 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, textiles, paper partners: EU 51% (Germany 22%, UK 6.5%), Sweden 11.6%, Norway 5.1%, US 5.2%, Japan 3.5%, FSU 1.7% (1994)

External debt: $40.9 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $1.34 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 5.652 (January 1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,848 km (499 km privately owned and operated) standard gauge: 2,848 km 1.435-m gauge (326 km electrified; 760 km double track) (1995)

Highways: total: 71,042 km paved: 71,042 km (including 696 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas 700 km

Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Grenaa, Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine: total: 334 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,013,054 GRT/7,171,871 DWT ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 114, chemical tanker 25, container 65, liquefied gas tanker 27, livestock carrier 5, oil tanker 31, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 26, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 1 note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience within the Danish register (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 109 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 13 with paved runways under 914 m: 77 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 4.005 million (1985 est.)

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network international: 19 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 7 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note - Denmark shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 2.04 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,338,791 males fit for military service: 1,150,996 males reach military age (20) annually: 34,324 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion, 1.8% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Djibouti ————



Map —-

Location: 11 30 N, 43 00 E — Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 22,000 sq km land area: 21,980 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 508 km border countries: Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains lowest point: Asal -155 m highest point: Mousa Alli 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 9% forest and woodland: 0% other: 91%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; a vast wasteland



People ———

Population: 427,642 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 91,687; female 91,242) 15-64 years: 55% (male 123,699; female 110,530) 65 years and over: 2% (male 5,389; female 5,095) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.26 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female all ages: 1.07 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.15 years male: 48.24 years female: 52.12 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Djiboutian(s) adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic divisions: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 46.2% male: 60.3% female: 32.7%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti conventional short form: Djibouti former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Type of government: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4 September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977); election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - President HASSAN GOULED reelected to a six-year term by universal suffrage head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30 September 1978) cabinet: Council of Ministers is responsible to the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): elections last held 18 December 1992; results - RPP (the ruling party) dominated; seats - (65 total) RPP 65

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: ruling party: People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon other parties: Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE; Democratic National Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh

Other political or pressure groups: Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and affiliates; Movement for Unity and Democracy (MUD)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270 FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin L. CHESHES embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti telephone: [253] 35 39 95 FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important supplement to GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of over 30% continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last six years because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees).

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -3% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 21% services: 76% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 282,000 by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services 14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $164 million expenditures: $201 million, including capital expenditures of $16 million (1993 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 90,000 kW production: 170 million kWh consumption per capita: 398 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports: $184 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit) partners: Somalia 48%, Yemen 42%

Imports: $384 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products partners: France, UK, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, South Korea

External debt: $227 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad) narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 2,879 km paved: 363 km unpaved: 2,516 km (1991 est.)

Ports: Djibouti

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 11 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 7,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country domestic: microwave radio relay network international: submarine cable to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 17,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force), National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 102,528 males fit for military service: 60,076 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA% of GDP (1989)



======================================================================



@Dominica ————



Map —-

Location: 13 30 N, 61 20 W — Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago



Flag ——

Description: green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 750 sq km land area: 750 sq km comparative area: more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 13% meadows and pastures: 3% forest and woodland: 41% other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling



People ———

Population: 82,926 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 11,986; female 11,521) 15-64 years: 64% (male 27,206; female 25,841) 65 years and over: 8% (male 2,608; female 3,764) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 18.38 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.31 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.4 years male: 74.55 years female: 80.4 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.93 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dominican(s) adjective: Dominican

Ethnic divisions: black, Carib Indians

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%, Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none 2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970 est.) total population: 94% male: 94% female: 94%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October 1993) was elected for a five-year term by the House of Assembly; election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1998); results - percent of vote NA head of government: Prime Minister Edison C. JAMES (since 12 June 1995); prime minister is appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly: elections last held 12 June 1995 (next to be held by October 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected representatives) UWP 11, DLP 5, DFP 5

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Santa Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Brian ALLEYNE; Dominica Labor Party (DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES

Other political or pressure groups: Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a small leftist group

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: Dominica does not have an embassy in the US consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Dominica; the Ambassador to Dominica resides in Bridgetown (Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag: green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly vulnerable to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for 26% of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains difficult because of the rugged coastline and the lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The newly elected government is attempting to develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $200 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,450 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 26% industry: NA% services: NA% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (1995)

Labor force: 25,000 by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services 28% (1984)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $80 million expenditures: $95.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 7,000 kW production: 30 million kWh consumption per capita: 347 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; minor cannabis producer

Exports: $48.3 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges partners: UK 55%, Caricom countries, Italy, US

Imports: $98.8 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals partners: US 25%, Caricom, UK, Japan, Canada

External debt: $92.8 million (1992)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 800 km paved: 500 km unpaved: 300 km

Ports: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 14,613 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: fully automatic network international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 45,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 cable

Televisions: 5,200 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: NA males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Dominican Republic —————————



Map —-

Location: 19 00 N, 70 40 W — Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti



Flag ——

Description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the cross



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 48,730 sq km land area: 48,380 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: total: 275 km border country: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 6 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use: arable land: 23% permanent crops: 7% meadows and pastures: 43% forest and woodland: 13% other: 14%

Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October) international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)



People ———

Population: 8,088,881 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 1,401,322; female 1,355,530) 15-64 years: 62% (male 2,541,356; female 2,460,509) 65 years and over: 4% (male 156,238; female 173,926) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.73% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.51 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female all ages: 1.03 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.06 years male: 66.89 years female: 71.34 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dominican(s) adjective: Dominican

Ethnic divisions: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 82.1% male: 82% female: 82.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Dominican Republic conventional short form: none local long form: Republica Dominicana local short form: none

Data code: DR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, sixth elected term began 16 August 1994); Vice President Jacinto PEYNADO Garrigoza (since 16 August 1994); president is elected for a four-year term by direct vote; election last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held 16 May 1996); results - Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 42.6%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD) 13.2%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez (PRD) 41.9%, Jacobo MAJLUTA (PRI) 2.3% cabinet: Cabinet was nominated by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) Senate (Senado): elections last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total) PRSC 15, PLD 1, PRD 14 Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Lidio CADET; Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez; Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI), Jacobo MAJLUTA minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez; National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert; Dominican Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde; Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini; Alliance for Democracy Party (APD), Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA; Democratic Union (UD), Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to form the Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain individual party structures

Other political or pressure groups: Collective of Popular Organizations (COP)

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280 FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041 telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171, 221-8100 FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the cross



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Economic reforms launched in late 1994 contributed to exchange rate stabilization, reduced inflation, and relatively strong GDP growth in 1995. Output growth was concentrated in the tourism and free trade zone (ftz) sectors while sugar and non-ftz manufacturing declined last year. Drought in early 1995 hurt agricultural production but favorable world prices for export commodities helped mitigate the impact. Sugar refining was devastated by a disastrous harvest resulting from the drought and ongoing problems at the state-owned sugar company. Unreliable electric supplies continue to hamper expansion in manufacturing; small and medium-sized retail firms also suffer due to the dismal power situation. A presidential election scheduled for May 1996 could lead to increased government spending before and in the immediate aftermath of the vote, raising the potential for rising inflation and increased pressure on the Dominican peso.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 13% industry: 32% services: 55% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1995)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million by occupation: agriculture 50%, services and government 32%, industry 18% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.8 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 1,450,000 kW production: 5.4 billion kWh consumption per capita: 651 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, meat, eggs

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe

Exports: $837.7 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa partners: US 47.5%, EC 22%, Puerto Rico 8.4%, Asia 6.7% (1994)

Imports: $2.867 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals partners: US 60% (1993)

External debt: $4.6 billion (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $21 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 13.589 (December 1995), 13.617 (1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.676 (1993), 12.774 (1992), 12.692 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 757 km standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad) narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominica Government Railway); 240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways: total: 11,931 km paved: 5,766 km unpaved: 6,165 km (1987 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 31 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 6 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 14 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 190,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 728,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,212,012 males fit for military service: 1,391,472 males reach military age (18) annually: 83,611 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $116 million, 1.4% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Ecuador ———-



Map —-

Location: 2 00 S, 77 30 W — Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru



Flag ——

Description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms



Geography ————-

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 283,560 sq km land area: 276,840 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Nevada note: includes Galapagos Islands

Land boundaries: total: 2,010 km border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente) lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 17% forest and woodland: 51% other: 23%

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Geographic note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world



People ———

Population: 11,466,291 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 2,062,468; female 1,996,679) 15-64 years: 60% (male 3,403,197; female 3,489,728) 65 years and over: 5% (male 241,217; female 273,002) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.96% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 25.06 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.09 years male: 68.49 years female: 73.82 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian(s) adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 90.1% male: 92% female: 88.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador conventional short form: Ecuador local long form: Republica del Ecuador local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Type of government: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice President Eduardo PENA Trivino (since 18 October 1995); president and vice president were elected for four-year terms by universal suffrage; runoff election held 5 July 1992; results - Sixto DURAN-BALLEN elected as president (next election was held 19 May 1996; no presidential candidate received more than 50% of the vote; a runoff election between BUCARAM and NEBOT will be held on 7 July 1996); note - former Vice President DAHIK resigned 11 October 1995 and left the country to escape arrest on corruption charges; National Congress chose PENA as his successor in accordance with the constitution cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional): elections last held 19 May 1996; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (82 total) PSC 27, PRE 21, DP 10, Pachakutik Movement 7, ID 5, PLRE 3, MPD 2, APRE 2, CFP 1, independent and other 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Center-Right parties: Republican Unity Party (PUR); Social Christian Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president; Ecuadorian Conservative Party (PCE), President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN (two parties merged in 1995) Center-Left parties: Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos, Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leaders; Popular Democracy (DP), Rodrigo PAZ, leader; Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE), Medardo MORA, leader; Radical Alfarista Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario, director Populist parties: Roldosist Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director; Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP), Rodolfo BAQUERIZO Nazur, leader; Popular Revolutionary Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS Passos, leader Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Juan Jose CASTELLO, leader; Ecuadorian Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS, leader; Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Rene Mauge MOSQUERA, chairman; Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, director Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene Mauge MOSQUERA, Secretary General; Communist Party of Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist)

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Edgar TERAN Teran chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco consulate(s): Newark

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito mailing address: APO AA 34039 telephone: [593] (2) 562-890 FAX: [593] (2) 502-052 consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Growth has been uneven in recent years because of fluctuations in prices for Ecuador's primary exports - oil and bananas - as well as because of government policies designed to curb inflation. President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN launched a series of macroeconomic reforms when he came into office in August 1992, which included raising domestic fuel prices and utility rates, eliminating most subsidies, and bringing the government budget into balance. These measures helped to reduce inflation from 55% in 1992 to 25% in 1995. DURAN-BALLEN has a much more favorable attitude toward foreign investment than his predecessor and has supported several laws designed to encourage foreign investment. Ecuador has implemented free or complementary trade agreements with Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, as well as joined the World Trade Organization. Growth slowed to 2.3% in 1995 due in part to high domestic interest rates and shortages of electric power.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $44.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 13% industry: 39% services: 48% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1995)

Labor force: 2.8 million by occupation: agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%, services and other activities 28% (1982)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1994)

Budget: revenues: $3.3 billion expenditures: $3.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (1993)

Electricity: capacity: 2,230,000 kW production: 6.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 612 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub

Exports: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: petroleum 39%, bananas 17%, shrimp 16%, cocoa 3%, coffee 6% partners: US 42%, Latin America 29%, Caribbean, EU countries 17%

Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery, chemicals partners: US 28%, EU 17%, Latin America 31%, Caribbean, Japan

External debt: $12.6 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $153 million (1993) note: received $12.7 million from the US and $160 million from other countries in 1995

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 2914.8 (31 December 1995), 2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993), 1,534.0 (1992), 1,046.25 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 965 km (single track) narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 43,709 km paved: 5,245 km unpaved: 38,464 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 114,701 GRT/171,240 DWT ships by type: container 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 12, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 188 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 8 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 13 with paved runways under 914 m: 121 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 5 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 32 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 586,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 940,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,968,361 males fit for military service: 2,006,509 males reach military age (20) annually: 121,241 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $386 million, 2.1% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Egypt ——-



Map —-

Location: 27 00 N, 30 00 E — Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1,001,450 sq km land area: 995,450 sq km comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,689 km border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km, tensions over this disputed area began to escalate in 1992 and remain high

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 95%

Irrigated land: 25,850 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics



People ———

Population: 63,575,107 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 37% (male 11,970,197; female 11,462,689) 15-64 years: 60% (male 19,127,696; female 18,738,304) 65 years and over: 3% (male 1,028,916; female 1,247,305) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.91% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.18 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.43 years male: 59.51 years female: 63.46 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.58 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s) adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic divisions: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 51.4% male: 63.6% female: 38.8%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form: Egypt local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah local short form: none former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Type of government: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (sworn in as president 14 October 1981, eight days after the assassination of President SADAT); national referendum held 4 October 1993 validated MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third six-year presidential term; note - the president is nominated by the People's Assembly and that nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed al-GANZOURI (since 4 January 1996) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b): elections last held 29 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - NDP 72%, idependents 25%, opposition 3%; seats - (454 total, 444 elected, 10 appointed by the president) NDP 317, independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1, Liberals 1 Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): functions only in a consultative role; elections last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA); results - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats - (264 total, 176 elected, 88 appointed by the president) seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP), President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party (SLP), Ibrahim SHUKRI; National Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid Muhi al-DIN; Socialist Liberal Party, Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party, Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), leader NA; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party, Anwar AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party, Muhammad 'ABD-AL-'AL note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Other political or pressure groups: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more aggressively in the past year to block its influence; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr. embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo mailing address: APO AE 09839-4900, Unit 64900, Cairo telephone: [20] (2) 3557371 FAX: [20] (2) 3573200 branch office: Alexandria

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Half of Egypt's GDP originates in the public sector, most industrial plants being owned by the government. Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. Egypt's first IMF standby arrangement, concluded in mid-1987, was suspended in early 1988 because of the government's failure to adopt promised reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and also negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991. In 1991-93 the government made solid progress on administrative reforms such as liberalizing exchange and interest rates, but resisted implementing major structural reforms like streamlining the public sector. As a result, the economy has not gained enough momentum to tackle the growing problem of unemployment. Egypt made uneven progress in implementing the successor programs it signed onto in late 1993 with the IMF and World Bank; currently it is negotiating another successor program with the IMF. President MUBARAK has cited population growth as the main cause of the country's economic troubles. The addition of about 1.2 million people a year to the already huge population of 63 million exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the land area available for agriculture along the Nile.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $171 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,760 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.4% (yearend 1995)

Labor force: 16 million (1994 est.) by occupation: government, public sector enterprises, and armed forces 36%, agriculture 34%, privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises 20% (1984) note: shortage of skilled labor; 2.5 million Egyptians work abroad, mostly in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $18 billion expenditures: $19.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.8 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 11,830,000 kW production: 44.5 billion kWh consumption per capita: 695 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon and Syria

Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., FY94/95 est.) commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports: $15.2 billion (c.i.f., FY94/95 est.) commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer goods, capital goods partners: US, EU, Japan

External debt: $33.6 billion (FY93/94 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1.713 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (LE) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (LE) per US$1 - 3.4 (November 1994), 3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992), 2.7072 (1990); market rate: 3.3920 (January 1996), 3.3900 (1995), 3.3910 (1994), 3.3718 (1993), 3.3386 (1992), 3.3322 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 4,751 km standard gauge: 4,751 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km double track)

Highways: total: 47,387 km paved: 34,593 km unpaved: 12,794 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460 km

Ports: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine: total: 164 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,187,290 GRT/1,833,108 DWT ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 74, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 33, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15, short-sea passenger 4 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 80 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 11 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 34 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 16 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 9 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2.2 million (1993)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 41

Televisions: 5 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 16,530,460 males fit for military service: 10,723,011 males reach military age (20) annually: 660,453 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion, 8.2% of GDP (FY94/95 est.)



======================================================================



@El Salvador —————-



Map —-

Location: 13 50 N, 88 55 W — Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 21,040 sq km land area: 20,720 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total: 545 km border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 27% permanent crops: 8% meadows and pastures: 29% forest and woodland: 6% other: 30%

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Geographic note: smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea



People ———

Population: 5,828,987 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38% (male 1,137,804; female 1,097,774) 15-64 years: 57% (male 1,627,519; female 1,716,261) 65 years and over: 5% (male 115,973; female 133,656) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.81% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.3 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.81 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 31.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.88 years male: 65.44 years female: 72.5 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Salvadoran(s) adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75% note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 71.5% male: 73.5% female: 69.8%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador conventional short form: El Salvador local long form: Republica de El Salvador local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Type of government: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994) and Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994) were elected for five-year terms by universal suffrage; election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1999); results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%; because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election was held 24 April 1994; results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65% cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - ARENA 46.4%, FMLN 25.0%, PDC 21.4%, PCN 4.8%, other 2.4%; seats - (84 total) ARENA 39, FMLN 21, PDC 18, PCN 4, other 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance (ARENA), Juan Jose DOMENECH, president; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren (aka Leonel GONZALEZ), general coordinator; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Ronal UMANA, secretary general; National Conciliation Party (PCN), Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general; Democratic Convergence (CD), Juan Jose MARTEL, secretary general; Unity Movement, Jorge MARTINEZ Menendez, president note: newly formed parties not yet officially recognized by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal: Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Kirio Waldo SALGADO, founder; Social Democratic Party (breakaway from FMLN), Joaquin VILLALOBOS, founder; Social Christian Renovation Movement (MRSC) (breakaway from PDC), Abraham RODRIGUEZ, founder

Other political or pressure groups: labor organizations: Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; United Workers Front (FUT) business organizations: Productive Alliance (AP), conservative; National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Alan H. FLANIGAN embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San Salvador mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023 telephone: [503] 278-4444 FAX: [503] 278-6011

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: El Salvador possesses a fast-growing entrepreneurial economy in which 90% of economic activity is in private hands, with growth averaging 5% since 1990. Yet, because the 1980s were a decade of civil war and stagnation, per capita GDP has not regained the level of the late 1970s. The rebound in the 1990s stems from the government program, in conjunction with the IMF, of privatization, deregulation, and fiscal stabilization. The economy now is oriented more toward manufacturing and services compared with agriculture. The sizable trade deficits are in the main covered by remittances from the large number of Salvadorans abroad.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,950 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1982 est.) by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%, government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (1993)

Budget: revenues: $846 million expenditures: $890 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, textiles, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1993)

Electricity: capacity: 750,000 kW production: 2.4 billion kWh consumption per capita: 408 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local consumption

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: coffee, sugarcane, shrimp partners: US, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Germany

Imports: $3.3 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany

External debt: $2.6 billion (December 1992)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $777 million (1993) note: US has committed $250 million in aid to El Salvador for 1992-96

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.755 (December 1995), 8.755 (1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670 (1993), 9.170 (1992), 8.080 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 602 km (single track; note - some sections abandoned, unusable, or operating at reduced capacity) narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways: total: 12,251 km paved: 1,740 km (including 107 km of expressways) unpaved: 10,511 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 73 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 48 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 21 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 116,000 (1984 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 500,700 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,415,691 males fit for military service: 905,938 males reach military age (18) annually: 78,660 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Equatorial Guinea ————————-



Map —-

Location: 2 00 N, 10 00 E — Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cameroon and Gabon



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 28,050 sq km land area: 28,050 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 539 km border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Malabo 3,008 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 4% forest and woodland: 51% other: 33%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: tap water is not potable; desertification natural hazards: violent windstorms international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated



People ———

Population: 431,282 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 93,319; female 92,753) 15-64 years: 53% (male 108,706; female 120,129) 65 years and over: 4% (male 7,235; female 9,140) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.58% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 39.77 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 14.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 98 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.01 years male: 50.79 years female: 55.29 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.17 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s) adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic divisions: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni (primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices

Languages: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 78.5% male: 89.6% female: 68.1%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial former: Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Type of government: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

Capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: new constitution 17 November 1991

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979) election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2003); results - President OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected to a seven-year term without opposition head of government: Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17 January 1992); Vice Prime Minister Anatolio NDONG MBA (since November 1993) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral House of People's Representatives: (Camara de Representantes del Pueblo) elections last held 21 November 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (82 total) PDGE 72, various opposition parties 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader opposition parties: Progressive Democratic Alliance (ADP), Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea (APGE),Casiano Masi Edu, leader; Liberal Democratic Convention (CLD), Alfonso Nsue MIFUMU, president; Convergence for Social Democracy (CPDS), Santiago Obama Ndong, president; Social Democratic and Popular Convergence (CSDP), Secundino Oyono Agueng Ada, general secretary; Party of the Social Democratic Coalition (PCSD), Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu, general coordinater; Liberal Party (PL), Santos PASCUAL; Party of Progress (PP), Severo MOTO Nsa, president; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha Balinga Alene, general secretary; Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea (PSGE), Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez, general secretary; National Democratic Union (UDENA), Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president; Democratic Social Union (UDS), Camelo Modu, general secretary; Popular Union (UP), Juan Bitui, president

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE chancery: (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553 telephone: [1] (914) 738-9584, 667-6913 FAX: [1] (914) 667-6838

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US relations with Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for about half of GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence farming predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of the government's gross corruption and mismanagement. Businesses, for the most part, are owned by government officials and their family members. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration, taking place under concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms, has been moderately successful. In 1995, exports responded to the devaluation of 12 January 1994, apparently resulting in a sizable surplus and strong GDP growth. Increased production from recently discovered oil and natural gas fields will provide a greater share of exports in 1996-97.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $325 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 10% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 47% industry: 26% services: 27% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 41% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 172,000 (1986 est.) by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980) note: labor shortages on plantations

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $32.5 million expenditures: $35.9 million, including capital expenditures of $3 million (1992 est.)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 23,000 kW production: 20 million kWh consumption per capita: 50 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts, manioc; livestock; timber

Exports: $62 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: coffee, cocoa beans, timber, petroleum partners: Spain, Nigeria, Cameroon, Japan, Portugal

Imports: $60 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery partners: Cameroon, Spain, France, US, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $268 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,744 km paved: 330 km unpaved: 2,414 km (1988 est.)

Ports: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,412 GRT/6,699 DWT ships by type: cargo 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1995 est.)

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