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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: metals 39%, natural gas 9%, soybeans 11%, jewelry 11%, wood 8% partners: US 26%, Argentina 15% (1993 est.)

Imports: $1.21 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5% (1993 est.) partners: US 24%, Argentina 13%, Brazil 11%, Japan 11% (1993 est.)

External debt: $4.4 billion (November 1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $362 million (1993)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.9137 (December 1995), 4.8003 (1995), 4.6205 (1994), 4.2651 (1993), 3.9005 (1992), 3.5806 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 3,691 km (single track) narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 46,311 km paved: 1,940 km (including 27 km of expressways) unpaved: 44,371 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km

Ports: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 1,017 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 750 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 69 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 186 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 144,300 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities domestic: microwave radio relay system being expanded international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 43

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,685,572 males fit for military service: 1,098,948 males reach military age (19) annually: 76,035 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $145 million; 1.9% of GDP (1996)



======================================================================



@Bosnia and Herzegovina ———————————

On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former Yugoslavia's three warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt over three years of interethnic civil strife in Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining Bosnia's currently recognized borders. An international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops began to enter Bosnia in late 1995 to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement and is scheduled to depart the country within one year. A High Representative appointed by the UN Security Council is responsible for civilian implementation of the accord, including monitoring implementation, facilitating any difficulties arising in connection with civilian implementation, and coordinating activities of the civilian organizations and agencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian conflict began in the spring of 1992 when the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence and the Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington creating their joint Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Map —-

Location: 44 00 N, 18 00 E — Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia



Flag ——

Description: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white fleurs-de-lis with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner to the lower outer side



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area: total area: 51,233 sq km land area: 51,233 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: none

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 25% forest and woodland: 36% other: 17%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

Geographic note: as of January 1996, Bosnian Serb leaders continued to demand revisions to the territorial aspects of the Dayton Agreement, especially in Sarajevo - designated to be under Federation control - and the Brcko/Posavina corridor area; members of the Bosnian Croat community also reject several territorial aspects of the agreement, citing that historically Bosnian Croat lands are to be transferred to Bosnian Serb control; despite disagreements, initial implementation of the agreement as of January 1996 appeared on course with the warring parties meeting the deadline for withdrawal of forces from the front lines in Sarajevo



People ———

Population: 2,656,240 (July 1996 est.) note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 276,530; female 248,519) 15-64 years: 68% (male 892,807; female 915,686) 65 years and over: 12% (male 133,081; female 189,617) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -2.84% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 6.34 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.92 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -18.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.11 years male: 51.16 years female: 61.39 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s) adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic divisions: Serb 40%, Muslim 38%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Government note: The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, formed by the Muslims and Croats in March 1994, remains in the implementation stages.

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina local long form: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina note: under the new constitution initialed in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995, the name of the country will be changed from Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to simply Bosnia and Herzegovina and will be made up of the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb entity now called Republika Srpska

Data code: BK

Type of government: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: 109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez, Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice note: administrative reorganization is currently under negotiation with the assistance of international mediators; spellings not yet approved by the US Board on Geographic Names

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: first promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended 1989, 1990, and 1991; constitution of Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ratified April 1994; under the Dayton Agreement signed 21 November 1995, the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Serb republic government agreed to accept new basic principles in their constitutions

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990) was elected by a collective (seven-member) presidency (of which he is a member); other members of the collective presidency are: Ejup GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October 1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992); the collective presidency is elected from among the National Assembly with at least two members drawn from each of the three main ethnic groups head of government: Prime Minister Hasan MURATOVIC (since 30 January 1996) was elected by the collective presidency and the National Assembly cabinet: there is an executive body of ministers with no formal name who are members of, and responsible to, the National Assembly note: the president of the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Kresimir ZUBAK (since 31 May 1994); Vice President Ejup GANIC (since 31 May 1994); elections for the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Presidency of the Republika Srpska will take place between six and nine months after the entry into force of the Dayton Agreement (14 December 1995)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina): elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1 Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo): elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, LBO 2, DSS 1, DSZ 1, LS 1 note: the new constitution signed as part of the Dayton agreement on 21 November 1995 provides for a new bicameral Parliamentary assembly which will consist of a House of Peoples with 15 delegates, two-thirds from the Muslim/Croat Federation and one-third from the Serbian republic, and a House of Representatives with 42 members, two-thirds from the Muslim/Croat Federation and one-third from the Serbian republic; elections are scheduled to be held six to nine months after the entry into force of the Dayton Agreement

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Civic Democratic Party (GDS), Ibrahim SPAHIC; Party for Bosnia, Haris SILAJDZIC; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH (HDZ), Bozo RAJIC; Croatian Peasants' Party of BiH (HSS), Stanko STISKOVIC; Independent Serbian Democratic Party (NSDS), Petar DODIK; Liberal Bosniak Organization (LBO), Muhamed FILIPOVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president; Muslim-Bosniac Organization (MBO), Adil ZULFIKARPASIC; Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Republican Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Stjepan KLUJIC; Serb Democratic Party (SDS), Radovan KARADZIC, president; Serbian Civic Council (SGV), Mirko PEJANOVIC; Serbian Consultative Council, Ljubomir BERBEROVIC; Social Democratic Party (SDP - formerly the Democratic Party of Socialists (DSS)), Nijaz DURAKOVIC, president; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska, Zivko RADISIC; Union of Social Democrats (SSDB), Salim BESLAGIC; United Left of the Bosnian Serb Republic (ULRS), Mile IVOSEVIC; Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC, note - this party participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist now; Party of Democratic Changes, leader NA, note - this party participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist now; Alliance of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ BiH), Dr. Nenad KECMANOVIC, president, note - this party participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist now; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen PETROVIC, note - this party participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist now; Yugoslav United Left (JUL), CAREVIC; Serb Liberal Party, Miodrag ZIVANOVIC; Serb Radical Party; Serb Patriotic Party, Slavko ZUPLJANIN; Serb Homeland Party

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, ECE, FAO, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615 FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador John K. MENZIES embassy: 43 Ul. Djure Djakovica, Sarajevo mailing address: use street address telephone: [387] (71) 645-992, 445-700, 659-743

Flag: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white fleurs-de-lis with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner to the lower outer side



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of communist central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No economic statistics for 1992-95 are available, although output clearly has fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years and almost certainly is well below $1,000 per head. The country receives substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international community.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,026,254 by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining; much of capacity damaged or shut down (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 3,800,000 kW production: NA kWh consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Illicit drugs: NA

Exports: $NA commodities: NA partners: NA

Imports: $NA commodities: NA partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area, presumably to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian dinars used in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting local currencies in areas held by Bosnian Government

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km) standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1991)

Highways: total: 21,168 km paved: 11,436 km unpaved: 9,732 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note - pipelines now disrupted

Ports: Bosanski Brod

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 24 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 7 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 727,000

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics domestic: NA international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 840,000

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,012,094



Defense ———-

Branches: Army

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 654,326 males fit for military service: 524,963 males reach military age (19) annually: 22,902 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Botswana ————



Map —-

Location: 22 00 S, 24 00 E — Southern Africa, north of South Africa



Flag ——

Description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 600,370 sq km land area: 585,370 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 4,013 km border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: short section of boundary with Namibia is indefinite; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved in January 1996 and the parties have agreed to refer the matter to the ICJ

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m highest point: Tsodilo Hill 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 75% forest and woodland: 2% other: 21%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: overgrazing, primarily as a result of the expansion of the cattle population; desertification; limited natural fresh water resources natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country



People ———

Population: 1,477,630 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 317,254; female 309,617) 15-64 years: 54% (male 374,572; female 419,991) 65 years and over: 4% (male 22,314; female 33,882) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 33.34 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.01 years male: 44.94 years female: 47.11 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural) adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 69.8% male: 80.5% female: 59.9%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Botswana conventional short form: Botswana former: Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Type of government: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*,Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Phikwe*, South-East, Southern,

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980) was elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly; election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October 1999); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament House of Chiefs: is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12 National Assembly: elections last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total, 40 elected and 4 appointed by the majority party) BDP 27, BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Botswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Archibald MOGWE chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Howard F. JETER embassy: address NA, Gaborone mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone telephone: [267] 353982 FAX: [267] 356947

Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs and accounts for only 5% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle raising predominate. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to 39% in 1994. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 21%. Hampered by a still sluggish diamond market in 1994 and 1995, GDP grew by only 1% in both years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: NA% services: NA% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 428,000 (1992) by occupation: 220,000 formal sector employees; 14,300 are employed in various mines in South Africa; most others are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.7 billion expenditures: $1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652 million (FY93/94)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity: capacity: 220,000 kW production: 900 million kWh consumption per capita: 694 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts (peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1994) commodities: diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5% partners: Switzerland, UK, Southern African Customs Union (SACU),

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992) commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products partners: Switzerland, Southern African Customs Union (SACU), UK, US

External debt: $691 million (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 2.8305 (January 1996), 2.7716 (1995), 2.6831 (1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327 (1992), 2.0173 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Communications ———————

Telephones: 19,109 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations international: microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 13,800 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air Wing), Botswana National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 334,177 males fit for military service: 175,471 males reach military age (18) annually: 17,088 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $199 million, 5.2% of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Bouvet Island ——————-

(territory of Norway)

Map —-

Location: 54 26 S, 3 24 E — Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean, south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Norway is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean, south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total area: 58 sq km land area: 58 sq km comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly inaccessible lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: covered by glacial ice



People ———

Population: uninhabited



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Type of government: territory of Norway

Capital: none; administered from Oslo, Norway

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

Flag: the flag of Norway is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Communications ———————

Communications note: automatic meteorological station



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Norway



======================================================================



@Brazil ———



Map —-

Location: 10 00 S, 55 00 W — Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean



Flag ——

Description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 8,511,965 sq km land area: 8,456,510 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than the US note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Land boundaries: total: 14,691 km border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay, just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use: arable land: 7% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 19% forest and woodland: 67% other: 6%

Irrigated land: 27,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador



People ———

Population: 162,661,214 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (male 25,286,278; female 24,422,897) 15-64 years: 65% (male 52,232,435; female 53,094,724) 65 years and over: 4% (male 3,072,720; female 4,552,160) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 20.8 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.19 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.62 years male: 56.67 years female: 66.81 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.34 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Brazilian(s) adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic divisions: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and African 38%, African 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 83.3% male: 83.3% female: 83.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil conventional short form: Brazil local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Type of government: federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995) was elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last held 3 October 1994; (next to be held October 1998); results - Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note - second direct presidential election since 1960; Vice President Marco MARCIEL (since NA) cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) Federal Senate (Senado Federal): election last held 3 October 1994 for two-thirds of Senate (next to be held October 1996 for one-third of the Senate); results - PMBD 28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%; seats - (81 total) seats by party NA Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados): election last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998); results - PMDB 21%, PFL 18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%; seats - (517 total) seats by party NA note: party totals since Fall 1994 have changed considerably due to extensive party-switching

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, judges are appointed for life by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Paes DE ANDRADE, president; Liberal Front Party (PFL), Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president; Workers' Party (PT), Jose DIRCEU, president; Brazilian Workers' Party (PTB), Rodrigues PALMA, president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president; Brazilian Progressive Party (PPB), Espiridiao AMIN, president; Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Artur DA TAVOLA, president; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, chairman; Liberal Party (PL), Alvaro VALLE, president

Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist Workers' Party are critical of government's social and economic policies

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MTCR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 745-2700 FAX: [1] (202) 745-2827 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco consulate(s): Houston

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030 telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272 FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136 consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo consulate(s): Porto Alegre, Recife

Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: With its large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil has South America's largest GDP by far and has the potential to become a major player in the world economy. Prior to the institution of a stabilization plan in mid-1994, stratospheric inflation rates had devastated the economy and discouraged foreign investment. Since then, tight monetary policy has apparently brought inflation under control - consumer prices increased by 23% in 1995 compared to more than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP growth slowed from 5.7% to 4.2% as credit was tightened and the steadily appreciating real encouraged imports while depressing export growth. The increased stability of the Brazilian economy allowed it to weather the fallout from the Mexican peso crisis relatively well, with foreign funds flowing in during the second half of 1995 to swell official foreign exchange reserves past the $50 billion mark. Stock market indices in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, however, ended 26% lower in 1995. President CARDOSO remains committed to further reducing inflation in 1996 while boosting growth, but he faces key challenges. Servicing domestic debt has become dramatically more burdensome for both public and private sector entities because of very high real interest rates which are contributing to growing budget deficits and a surge in bankruptcies. Fiscal reforms, many of which require constitutional amendments, are proceeding at a slow pace through the Brazilian legislature; in their absence, the government is maintaining its strict monetary policy. Brazil's natural resources remain a major, long-run economic strength.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $976.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

GDP per capita: $6,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 16% industry: 25% services: 59% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23% (1995)

Labor force: 57 million (1989 est.) by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

Unemployment rate: 5% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $58.7 billion expenditures: $54.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 55,130,000 kW production: 241.4 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,589 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, coca cultivation in the Amazon region has diminished in recent years because of its low alkaloid content, mostly for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe

Exports: $46.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle parts partners: EU 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)

Imports: $49.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal partners: US 23.3%, EU 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America 11.8%, Japan 6.5% (1993)

External debt: $94 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $107 million (1993)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1 - 0.975 (January 1996), 0.918 (1995), 0.639 (1994); CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992), 0.407 (1991) note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real (R$) was introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reals

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 27,418 km (1,750 km electrified) broad gauge: 5,730 km 1.600-m gauge standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge narrow gauge: 20,958 km 1.000-m gauge; 13 km 0.760-m gauge dual gauge: 523 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges

Highways: total: 1,661,850 km paved: 142,919 km unpaved: 1,518,931 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km

Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine: total: 207 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,108,543 GRT/8,477,760 DWT ships by type: bulk 48, cargo 29, chemical tanker 11, combination ore/oil 12, container 14, liquefied gas tanker 11, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 64, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 2,950 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 19 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 122 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 295 with paved runways under 914 m: 1,298 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 66 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1,145 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 14,426,673 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: good working system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151

Radios: 60 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 112 note: Brazil has the world's fourth largest television broadcasting system

Televisions: 30 million (1993 est.)



======================================================================



@British Indian Ocean Territory ———————————————

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 6 00 S, 71 30 E — Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia



Flag ——

Description: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area: total area: 60 sq km land area: 60 sq km comparative area: about 0.5 times the size of Washington, DC note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: the island of Diego Garcia is claimed by Mauritius

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to four meters in elevation) lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants note: there are UK-US military personnel and civilian contractors; civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US military facilities



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory conventional short form: none abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: none

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994); Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note - both reside in the UK

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and various services needed to support the military installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity: provided by the US military



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield on Diego Garcia unpaved: NA km

Ports: Diego Garcia

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: facilities for military needs only domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@British Virgin Islands ———————————

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 18 30 N, 64 30 W — Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 150 sq km land area: 150 sq km comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC note: includes the island of Anegada

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 7% meadows and pastures: 33% forest and woodland: 7% other: 33%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the island's water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment) natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October) international agreements: NA

Geographic note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico



People ———

Population: 13,195 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.29% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 20.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 19.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.78 years male: 70.93 years female: 74.75 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: British Virgin Islander(s) adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.) total population: 97.8% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: British Virgin Islands abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952), hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor David MACKILLIGIN (since NA June 1995) who was appointed by the queen head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May 1995; appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT) was appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Council cabinet: Executive Council is appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council: election last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (13 total) VIP 6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP); Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), E. Walwyln BREWLEY

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an estimated 45% of the national income. In 1985, the government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to international business. Livestock raising is the most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic food requirements. Because of traditional close links with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands have used the dollar as their currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $133 million (1991 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1991 est.)

GDP per capita: $10,600 (1991 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1990 est.)

Labor force: 4,911 (1980) by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1992)

Budget: revenues: $77.1 million expenditures: $76.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93/94)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity: capacity: 10,500 kW production: 50 million kWh consumption per capita: 3,148 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988) commodities: rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988) commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 106 km (1983 est.) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 6,291 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service domestic: NA international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 9,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Brunei ———



Map —-

Location: 4 30 N, 114 40 E — Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia



Flag ——

Description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 5,770 sq km land area: 5,270 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundaries: total: 381 km border country: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 1% forest and woodland: 79% other: 18%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Geographic note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia



People ———

Population: 299,939 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 51,266; female 49,194) 15-64 years: 62% (male 98,806; female 88,323) 65 years and over: 5% (male 6,843; female 5,507) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.56% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 25.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.24 male(s)/female all ages: 1.1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.39 years male: 69.82 years female: 73.04 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.39 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bruneian(s) adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic divisions: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 88.2% male: 92.6% female: 83.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Type of government: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967) is a traditional Islamic monarch cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers is composed chiefly of members of the royal family, appointed and presided over by the sultan; deals with executive matters Religious Council: is appointed by the sultan; advises on religious matters Privy Council: is appointed by the sultan; deals with constitutional matters the Council of Succession: is appointed by the sultan; determines the succession to the throne if the need arises

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri): elections last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in by the sultan for a three-year term

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity Party (the first legal political party and now banned), leader NA; Brunei Peoples Party (banned), leader NA

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador JAYA bin Abdul Latif chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159 FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Theresa A. TULL embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan mailing address: American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP 96440 telephone: [673] (2) 229670 FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 40% of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $15,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 42% services: 55%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 119,000 (1993 est.); note - includes members of the Army by occupation: government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986) note: 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.1 billion expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $427 million (1993)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 12.9% (1987)

Electricity: capacity: 380,000 kW production: 1.2 billion kWh consumption per capita: 3,971 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water buffalo, pigs

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products partners: Japan 50%, UK 19%, Thailand 10%, Singapore 9% (1994 est.)

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994 est.)

External debt: 0

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.4214 (January 1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 13 km private line narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways: total: 2,443 km paved: 1,296 km unpaved: 1,147 km (1993)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km

Ports: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine: total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT (1994 est.)

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 76,900 (1993)

Telephone system: service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia domestic: NA international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 115,000 (1993)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1984 est.)

Televisions: 78,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 83,641 males fit for military service: 48,559 males reach military age (18) annually: 2,918 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $312 million, 6.2% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Bulgaria ————



Map —-

Location: 43 00 N, 25 00 E — Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 110,910 sq km land area: 110,550 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total: 1,808 km border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Land use: arable land: 34% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 18% forest and woodland: 35% other: 10%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia



People ———

Population: 8,612,757 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 769,025; female 732,119) 15-64 years: 68% (male 2,891,197; female 2,923,440) 65 years and over: 15% (male 561,944; female 735,032) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 8.33 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.55 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71 years male: 67.07 years female: 75.12 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic divisions: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992 est.) total population: 98% male: 99% female: 97%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Type of government: emerging democracy

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya, Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system with Soviet law influence; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990, when he was elected by the National Assembly); president and vice president elected for five-year terms by popular vote; election last held NA January 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Zhelyu ZHELEV elected by popular vote; Vice President (vacant) head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Zhan VIDENOV (since 25 January 1995) appointed by the president; Deputy Prime Ministers Doncho KONAKCHIEV (since 25 January 1995), Atanas PAPAKIZOV (since NA), Rumen GECHEV (since 25 January 1995), Svetoslav SHIVAROV (since 25 January 1995) cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie): last held 18 December 1994 (next to be held NA 1997); results - BSP 43.5%, UDF 24.2%, PU 6.5%, MRF 5.4%, BBB 4.7%; seats - (240 total) BSP 125, UDF 69, PU 18, MRF 15, BBB 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a seven-year term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices appointed or elected for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan VIDENOV, chairman; Union of Democratic Forces (UDF - an alliance of pro-Democratic parties), Ivan KOSTOV; People's Union (PU), Stefan SAVOV; Movement for Rights and Freedoms (mainly ethnic Turkish party) (MRF), Ahmed DOGAN; Bulgarian Business Bloc (BBB), George GANCHEV

Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Alliance for the Republic (DAR); New Union for Democracy (NUD); Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP); Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOT, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant), ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Snezhana Damianova BOTUSHAROVA chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969 FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia mailing address: Unit 1335, APO AE 09213-1335 telephone: [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05 FAX: [359] (2) 80-19-77

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: One of the poorest countries of central Europe, Bulgaria has continued the difficult process of moving from its old command economy to a modern, market-oriented economy. GDP rose a moderate 2.4% in 1995; inflation was down sharply; and unemployment fell from an estimated 16% to 12%. Despite this progress, structural reforms necessary to underpin macroeconomic stabilization were not pursued vigorously. Mass privatization of state-owned industry continued to move slowly, although privatization of small-scale industry, particularly in the retail and service sectors, accelerated. The Bulgarian economy will continue to grow in 1996, but economic reforms will remain politically difficult as the population has become weary of the process.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $43.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,920 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 36% services: 52% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1995)

Labor force: 3.1 million by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 18%, other 41% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 11.9% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $3.8 billion expenditures: $4.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1995)

Electricity: capacity: 11,500,000 kW production: 38.1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 4,342 kWh (1994)

Agriculture: grain, oilseed, vegetables, fruits, tobacco; livestock

Illicit drugs: important transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine transiting the Balkan route; limited producer of precursor chemicals

Exports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: machinery and equipment 12.8%; agriculture and food 21.9%; textiles and apparel 14%; metals and ores 19.7%; chemicals 16.9%; minerals and fuels 9.3% partners: former CEMA countries 35.7%; OECD 46.6% (EU 33.5%); Arab countries 5.1%; other 12.6%

Imports: $4 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 30.1%; machinery and equipment 23.6%; textiles and apparel 11.6%; agricultural products 10.8%; metals and ores 6.8%; chemicals 12.3%; other 4.8% partners: former CEMA countries 40.3%; OECD 48.3% (EU 34.1%); Arab countries 1.7%; other 9.7%

External debt: $10.4 billion (1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $39 million (1993) note: $700 million in balance of payments support from Western nations (1994)

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 70.5 (December 1995), 54.2 (1994), 27.1 (1993), 23.3 (1992), 18.4 (1991); note - floating exchange rate since February 1991

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 4,292 km standard gauge: 4,047 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917 double track) other: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 36,932 km paved: 33,904 km (including 276 km of expressways) unpaved: 3,028 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,400 km (1992)

Ports: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine: total: 103 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,084,090 GRT/1,596,735 DWT ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 27, chemical tanker 4, container 2, oil tanker 13, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1 note: Bulgaria owns an additional 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 135,016 DWT operating under the registries of Liberia and Malta (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 355 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 17 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10 with paved runways under 914 m: 88 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 10 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 226 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2,773,293 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: almost two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67% of Sofia households have telephones (November 1988 est.) domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in most villages international: direct dialing to 36 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region); Intelsat available through a Greek earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)

Televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops, Internal Troops

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,155,332 males fit for military service: 1,797,318 males reach military age (19) annually: 64,568 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $352 million, 2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Burkina Faso ——————



Map —-

Location: 13 00 N, 2 00 W — Western Africa, north of Ghana



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 274,200 sq km land area: 273,800 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries: total: 3,192 km border countries: Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: following mutual acceptance of an International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling in December 1986 on their international boundary dispute, Burkina Faso and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast lowest point: Black Volta River 200 m highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 37% forest and woodland: 26% other: 27%

Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation natural hazards: recurring droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 10,623,323 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 2,569,806; female 2,537,106) 15-64 years: 49% (male 2,444,601; female 2,738,726) 65 years and over: 3% (male 145,479; female 187,605) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.53% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 47.02 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 19.99 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 117.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 43.21 years male: 43.46 years female: 42.95 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural) adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic divisions: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 19.2% male: 29.5% female: 9.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Burkina Faso former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Type of government: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987) elected for a seven-year term by popular vote; election last held NA December 1991 (next to be held NA 1998) head of government: Prime Minister Roch KABORE (since NA March 1994) appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of People's Deputies: elections last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (107 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD 12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7 note: the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber, which has not been formally constituted

Judicial branch: Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: Organization for People's Democracy - Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling party, Secretary General Simon COMPAORE; National Convention of Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic Party (CNPP-PSD), Moussa BOLY; African Democratic Rally (RDA), Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for Democracy and Federation (ADF), Amadou Michel NANA

Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of the revolution; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gaetan R. OUEDRAOGO chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald J. MCCONNELL embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou telephone: [226] 306723 through 306725 FAX: [226] 303890

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy ———-

Economic overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso has a high population density and a high population growth rate, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications network within a landlocked country. Agriculture is mainly subsistence farming. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the Communaute Financiere Africaine currency devaluation on 12 January 1994, exports appear to have risen, but no official figures have been released yet. The upswing apparently continued in 1995, with growth perhaps at 4%. The government has updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, yet even with the best of plans, the government faces formidable problems on all sides.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 32% industry: 24% services: 44% (1990 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistence agriculture) by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and government 5% note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $483 million expenditures: $548 million, including capital expenditures of $189 million (1992)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 60,000 kW production: 190 million kWh consumption per capita: 17 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports: $273 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: cotton, gold, animal products partners: EC, Cote d'Ivoire, Taiwan, Thailand

Imports: $636 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum partners: EC, Africa, Japan

External debt: $1 billion (December 1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 622 km (1995 est.) narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (517 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 105 km opened in 1993 from Ouagadougou to Kaya)

Highways: total: 16,400 km paved: 1,280 km unpaved: 15,120 km (1987 est.)

Ports: none

Airports: total: 23 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 8 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 10 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 21,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: all services only fair domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communication stations international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 49,000 (1991 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's Militia

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,149,485 males fit for military service: 1,101,184 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 6.4% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Burma ——-



Map —-

Location: 22 00 N, 98 00 E — Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand



Flag ——

Description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 678,500 sq km land area: 657,740 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,876 km border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 15% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 1% forest and woodland: 49% other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10,180 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes



People ———

Population: 45,975,625 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 37% (male 8,637,102; female 8,308,282) 15-64 years: 59% (male 13,577,232; female 13,571,312) 65 years and over: 4% (male 853,403; female 1,028,294) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.84% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 30.01 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.14 years male: 54.46 years female: 57.92 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.83 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Burmese (singular and plural) adjective: Burmese

Ethnic divisions: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 83.1% male: 88.7% female: 77.7%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Union of Burma conventional short form: Burma local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar) local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

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