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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Description: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, northeast of Botswana

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 390,580 sq km land area: 386,670 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries: total: 3,066 km border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east lowest point: junction of the Lundi and Savi rivers 162 m highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

Land use: arable land: 7% permanent crops: NEGL (coffee) meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 49% other: 31%

Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (1993 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 11,271,314 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 2,513,606; female 2,481,478) 15-64 years: 53% (male 2,935,188; female 3,030,270) 65 years and over: 3% (male 152,244; female 158,528) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.41% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 32.34 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 18.2 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa in search of better paid employment

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 41.85 years male: 41.91 years female: 41.78 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.09 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Zimbabwean(s) adjective: Zimbabwean

Ethnic divisions: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%

Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%

Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write in English (1995 est.) total population: 85% male: 90% female: 80%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe conventional short form: Zimbabwe former: Southern Rhodesia

Data code: ZI

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987) was nominated by the House of Assembly (if more than one nomination, electoral college of members of the House of Assembly elect the president); election last held 26-27 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2002); results - Robert MUGABE 92.7%, Abel MUZOREWA 4.8%; Ndabaningi SITHOLE 2.4%; Co-Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president; responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament: elections last held 8-9 April 1995 (next to be held NA March 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120 elected) ZANU-PF 118, ZANU-Ndonga 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert MUGABE; Zimbabwe African National Union-NDONGA (ZANU-NDONGA), Ndabaningi SITHOLE; Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE; Democratic Party (DP), Emmanuel MAGOCHE; Forum Party of Zimbabwe, Enock DUMBUTSHENA; United Parties, Abel MUZOREWA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100 FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Johnnie CARSON embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare telephone: [263] (4) 794521 FAX: [263] (4) 796488

Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Agriculture employs 70% of the labor force of this landlocked nation and supplies almost 40% of exports. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Severe drought caused GDP to drop 8% in 1992, with growth rebounding to 2% in 1993 and 4.5% in 1994, only to drop by 2.4% in 1995. The government is continuing to push its IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program aimed at encouraging exports and foreign investment. Officials face the difficult task of restraining expenditures in their effort to keep inflation within bounds.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -2.4% (1995)

GDP per capita: $1,620 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 18.3% industry: 35.3% services: 46.4% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25.8% (1995)

Labor force: 4.228 million (1993 est.) by occupation: agriculture 70%, transport and services 22%, industry 8%

Unemployment rate: at least 45% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.7 billion expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $253 million (FY92/93)

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1994)

Electricity: capacity: 2,040,000 kW production: 9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 913 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: agricultural 35% (tobacco 30%, other 5%), manufactures 25%, gold 12%, ferrochrome 10%, textiles 8% (1992) partners: UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5% (1991)

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other manufactures 23%, chemicals 16%, fuels 12% (1991) partners: South Africa 25%, UK 15%, Germany 9%, US 6%, Japan 5% (1991)

External debt: $4.4 billion (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $362 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 -9.3633 (January 1996), 8.6580 (1995), 8.1500 (1994), 6.4725 (1993), 5.0942 (1992), 3.4282 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,759 km (1995) narrow gauge: 2,759 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified; 42 km double track) (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 91,078 km paved: 14,572 km unpaved: 76,506 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km

Ports: Binga, Kariba

Airports: total: 403 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 6 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8 with paved runways under 914 m: 185 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 198 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 301,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, and radiotelephone communication stations international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 18, shortwave 0

Radios: 890,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 280,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,629,880 males fit for military service: 1,632,391 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $236 million, 3.4% of GDP (FY95/96)



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THE END

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