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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Pawala Valley Ridge 347 m

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: deforestation (only a small portion of the original forest remains because of burning and clearing for settlement) natural hazards: typhoons (especially November to March) international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: 56 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA years male: NA years female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality: noun: Pitcairn Islander(s) adjective: Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic divisions: descendants of the Bounty mutineers

Religions: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

Languages: English (official), Tahitian/English dialect



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands conventional short form: Pitcairn Islands

Data code: PC

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June)

Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal with three years residency

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch, represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (non-resident) of the Pitcairn Islands Robert John ALSTON (since NA August 1994); Commissioner (non-resident) G. D. HARRAWAY (since NA; is the liaison person between the governor and the Island Council) head of government: Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island Council Jay WARREN (since NA); the island magistrate is elected every three years

Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council: elections take place each December; election last held NA December 1995 (next to be held NA December 1996); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (11 total, 5 elected) all independents

Judicial branch: Island Court, island magistrate presides over the court and is elected every three years

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: SPC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield featuring a yellow anchor



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming. The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 14 able-bodied men (1993) by occupation: no business community in the usual sense; some public works; subsistence farming and fishing

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $588,000 expenditures: $583,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993/94 est.)

Industries: postage stamps, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 110 kW production: 300,000 kWh consumption per capita: 5,360 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: wide variety of fruits and vegetables

Exports: $NA commodities: fruits, vegetables, curios partners: NA

Imports: $NA commodities: fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar, other foodstuffs partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $84,000

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5138 (January 1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 6.4 km paved: 0 km unpaved: 6.4 km

Ports: Bounty Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none



Communications ———————

Telephones: 24

Telephone system: party line telephone service on the island domestic: NA international: radiotelephone

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Poland ———



Map —-

Location: 52 00 N, 20 00 E — Central Europe, east of Germany



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white



Geography ————-

Location: Central Europe, east of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 312,683 sq km land area: 304,510 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,888 km border countries: Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border lowest point: Raczki Elblaskie -2 m highest point: Rysy 2,499 m

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt

Land use: arable land: 48% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 29% other: 10% (1992)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: situation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by postcommunist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain



People ———

Population: 38,642,565 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 4,399,649; female 4,188,824) 15-64 years: 66% (male 12,754,272; female 12,930,275) 65 years and over: 12% (male 1,654,526; female 2,715,019) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.14% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 11.92 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.08 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.1 years male: 68.02 years female: 76.41 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Pole(s) adjective: Polish

Ethnic divisions: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian 0.5% (1990 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Languages: Polish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.) total population: 99% male: 99% female: 98%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Poland conventional short form: Poland local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska local short form: Polska

Data code: PL

Type of government: democratic state

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko Biala, Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)

Constitution: interim "small constitution" came into effect in December 1992 replacing the communist-imposed constitution of 22 July 1952; new democratic constitution being drafted

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 December 1995) was elected for a five-year term by popular vote; election first round held 5 November 1995, second round held 19 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000); results - second round Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI 51.7%, Lech WALESA 48.3% head of government: Prime Minister Wlodimierz CIMOSZEWICZ (since 7 February 1996), Deputy Prime Ministers Roman JAGIELINSKI (since NA), Grzegorz KOLODKO (since NA), and Miroslaw PIETRIEWICZ (since NA) were appointed by the Sejm cabinet: Council of Ministers is responsible to the president and the Sejm; the prime minister appointed and the Sejm approved the Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe) post-communist parties (PSL 34, SLD 37), post-Solidarity parties (UW 6, NSZZ 12, BBWR 2), non-communist, non-Solidarity (independents 7, unaffiliated 1, vacant 1) post-communist parties (SLD 171, PSL 132), post-Solidarity parties (UW 74, UP 41, BBWR 16), non-communist, non-Solidarity (KPN 22) note: four seats are constitutionally assigned to ethnic German parties Sejm: elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than 19 September 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (460 total) Senate (Senat): elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no later than 19 September 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (100 total)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: post-Communist: Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) (Social Democracy of Poland), Jozef OLEKSY; Polish Peasant Party (PSL), Waldemar PAWLAK post-Solidarity parties: Freedom Union (UW; Democratic Union and Liberal Democratic Congress merged to form Freedom Union), Leszek BALCEROWICZ; Christian-National Union (ZCHN), Marian PILKA; Center Alliance Party (PC), Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI; Peasant Alliance (PL), Gabriel JANOWSKI; Solidarity Caucus (NSZZ), Marian KRZAKLEWSKI; Union of Labor (UP), Ryszard BUGAJ; Christian-Democratic Party (PCHD), Pawel LACZKOWSKI; Conservative Party, Aleksander HALL; Nonparty Reform Bloc (BBWR) non-Communist non-Solidarity: Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), Leszek MOCZULSKI; German Minority (MN), Georg PORYLKA; Union of Real Politics (UPR), Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE; Democratic Party (SD), Antoni MACKIEWICZ

Other political or pressure groups: powerful Roman Catholic Church; Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ), trade union

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802 FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas Andrew REY embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, Unit 1340, APO AE 09213-1340 telephone: [48] (2) 628-30-41 FAX: [48] (2) 628-82-98 consulate(s) general: Krakow

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white



Economy ———-

Economic overview: In 1995, Poland continued to make good progress in the difficult transition to a market economy that began on 1 January 1990, when the new democratic government instituted "shock therapy" by decontrolling prices, slashing subsidies, and drastically reducing import barriers. Although real GDP fell sharply in 1990 and 1991, in 1992 Poland became the first country in the region to resume economic growth with a 2.6% increase. Growth advanced to 3.8% in 1993, 5.2% in 1994, and 6.5% in 1995. Most of the growth since 1991 had come from the booming private sector, which now accounts for about 60% of GDP, due in large part to the creation of new private firms. The slow pace of privatization picked up somewhat in 1995, as 512 smaller state enterprises were transferred to private National Investment Funds under the Mass Privatization Program, but large-scale industry remains largely in state hands. Industrial production increased 10.2% in 1995, following a 13.2% rise in 1994, yet remains about 13% below the 1989 level. Inflation, which had approached 1,200% annually in early 1990, fell to 21.6% in December 1995, as the government held the 1995 budget deficit to less than 3% of GDP. After peaking at 16.9% in July 1994, unemployment gradually fell to 14.9% in December 1995 - although the rate still approaches 30% in some regions. The trade and current account balances officially are in deficit but in fact both have comfortable surpluses because of large, unrecorded sales to cross-border visitors. Prospects for 1996 are good, with the government promising to push privatization and social welfare reform. Economic growth should remain above 5%, with inflation dropping below 20% by yearend 1996 and unemployment continuing its slow decline. As for external debt, the burden was sharply reduced by reschedulings and write-offs of both private and official debt during 1991-94.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $226.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 7% industry: 38% services: 55% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 21.6% (December 1995)

Labor force: 17.743 million (1994 annual average) by occupation: industry and construction 32.0%, agriculture 27.6%, trade, transport, and communications 14.7%, government and other 25.7% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 14.9% (December 1995)

Budget: revenues: $34.5 billion expenditures: $37.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 10.2% (1995)

Electricity: capacity: 31,120,000 kW production: 133.7 billion kWh consumption per capita: 3,000 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: potatoes, milk, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry and eggs; pork, beef

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium for domestic consumption and amphetamines for the international market; transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to Western Europe; producer of precursor chemicals

Exports: $22.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: intermediate goods 27.5%, machinery and transport equipment 19.8%, miscellaneous manufactures 20.5%, foodstuffs 11.6%, fuels 9.1% (1994) partners: Germany 35.7%, Netherlands 5.9%, Russia 5.4%, Italy 4.9% (1994)

Imports: $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment 28.9%, intermediate goods 20.2%, chemicals 14.7%, fuels 10.4%, miscellaneous manufactures 9.9% partners: Germany 27.5%, Italy 8.4%, Russia 6.8%, UK 5.3% (1994)

External debt: $42.1 billion (yearend 1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: Western governments and institutions pledged $22 billion in grants and loans during 1990-94, but much of the money has not been disbursed

Currency: 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 2.55 (January 1996) 2.4250 (1995); note - a currency reform on 1 January 1995 replaced 10,000 old zlotys with 1 new zloty; 22,723 (1994), 18,115 (1993), 13,626 (1992), 10,576 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 25,166 km broad gauge: 656 km 1.520-m gauge standard gauge: 22,655 km 1.435-m gauge (11,496 km electrified; 8,978 km double track) narrow gauge: 1,855 km various gauges including 1.000-m, 0.785-m, 0.750-m, and 0.600-m (1995)

Highways: total: 367,000 km (excluding farm, factory, and forest roads) paved: 235,247 km (including 257 km of expressways) unpaved: 131,753 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1991)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,986 km; petroleum products 360 km; natural gas 4,600 km (1992)

Ports: Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Kolobrzeg, Szczecin, Swinoujscie, Ustka, Warsaw, Wrocaw

Merchant marine: total: 131 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,093,491 GRT/3,167,660 DWT ships by type: bulk 73, cargo 36, chemical tanker 4, container 7, oil tanker 1, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 5 note: Poland owns an additional 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 179,913 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Liberia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Vanuatu, and Cyprus (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 134 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 30 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 27 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 7 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 32 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 18 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 5 million (1994)

Telephone system: underdeveloped and outmoded system; government aims to have 10 million phones in service by the year 2000 domestic: cable, open wire, and microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - NA Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions), and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 27, shortwave 0

Radios: 10.9 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 40 (Russian repeaters 5)

Televisions: 9.6 million



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 10,267,551 males fit for military service: 7,994,460 males reach military age (19) annually: 324,960 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, 2.4% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Portugal ————



Map —-

Location: 39 30 N, 8 00 W — Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain



Flag ——

Description: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line



Geography ————-

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 92,080 sq km land area: 91,640 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Land boundaries: total: 1,214 km border country: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Indonesia and not recognized by the UN

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Ponta do Pico in Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble

Land use: arable land: 32% permanent crops: 6% meadows and pastures: 6% forest and woodland: 40% other: 16%

Irrigated land: 6,340 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar



People ———

Population: 9,865,114 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 888,157; female 843,309) 15-64 years: 68% (male 3,249,973; female 3,414,793) 65 years and over: 14% (male 601,913; female 866,969) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.02% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.53 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.2 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female all ages: 0.92 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.31 years male: 71.52 years female: 79.31 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.36 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Portuguese (singular and plural) adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%

Languages: Portuguese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 85% male: 89% female: 82%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Portuguese Republic conventional short form: Portugal local long form: Republica Portuguesa local short form: Portugal

Data code: PO

Type of government: republic

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Dependent areas: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China on 20 December 1999)

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 14 January 1996 (next to be held NA January 2001); results - Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 53.8%, Anibal CAVACO SILVA (Conservative) 46.2% head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES (since 28 October 1995) was appointed by the president following the October 1995 legislative elections Council of State: acts as a consultative body to the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica): elections last held 1 October 1995 (next to be held NA October 1999); results - PSD 34.0%, PS 43.8%, CDU 8.6%, CDS/PP 9.1%; seats - (230 total) PSD 88, PS 112, CDU 15, CDS/PP 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal de Justica), judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (PSD), Marcelo Rebelo DE SOUSA; Portuguese Socialist Party (PS), Antonio GUTERRES; Party of Democratic Renewal (PRD), Pedro CANAVARRO; Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Carlos CARVALHAS; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Manuel MONTEIRO; National Solidarity Party (PSN), Manuel SERGIO; Center Democratic Party (CDS); United Democratic Coalition (CDU; communists)

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando Antonio de Lacerda ANDRESEN GUIMARAES chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610 FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726 consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley BAGLEY embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726 telephone: [351] (1) 7266600, 7266659, 7268670, 7268880 FAX: [351] (1) 7269109 consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Portugal's short-term economic fundamentals are strong - the economy grew by 2.8% in 1995, with similar growth expected in 1996 and 1997, and unemployment is among the lowest in the EU. The Socialist government has pledged its dedication both to meeting the Maastricht monetary convergence criteria and to increasing social spending, including provision of a guaranteed minimum income. The government's 1996 budget, passed in March 1996, includes a budget deficit target of 4.2%, to be attained largely through cuts in non-social-service government spending and income from an ambitious privatization program. As for the long run, Portugal hopes for a steady modernization of its capital plant, its work force, and its infrastructure in order to catch up with the productivity and income levels of the Big Four economies of Western Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $116.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $11,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 6% industry: 35.8% services: 58.2% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 4.24 million (1994 est.) by occupation: services 54.5%, manufacturing 24.4%, agriculture, forestry, fisheries 11.2%, construction 8.3%, utilities 1.0%, mining 0.5% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $31 billion expenditures: $41 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 8,220,000 kW production: 29.5 billion kWh consumption per capita: 2,642 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe

Exports: $18.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, cork and paper products, hides partners: EU 75.1%, other developed countries 12.4% (US 5.2%) (1995)

Imports: $24.1 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, petroleum, textiles partners: EU 71%, other developed countries 10.9% (US 2.5%), less developed countries 12.9% (1995)

External debt: $11.8 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $248 million (1993) recipient: ODA, $70 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 151.61 (January 1996), 149.97 (1995), 165.99 (1994), 160.80 (1993), 135.00 (1992), 144.48 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 3,068 km broad gauge: 2,761 km 1.668-m gauge (464 km electrified; 426 km double track) narrow gauge: 307 km 1.000-m gauge note: in 1992, Portugal had 3,588 km of track of which 464 km were electrified

Highways: total: 70,176 km (statistics for continental Portugal only) paved: 60,351 km (including 519 km of expressways) unpaved: 9,825 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km

Ports: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine: total: 72 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 795,725 GRT/1,418,538 DWT ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 35, chemical tanker 5, container 5, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 12, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 note: Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira for Portuguese-owned ships; ships on the Madeira Register (MAR) will have taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience; Portugal owns an additional 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,776 DWT operating under the registries of Panama and Malta (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 67 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 8 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 18 with paved runways under 914 m: 30 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2,236,411 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations: AM 57, FM 66 (repeaters 22), shortwave 0

Radios: 2.2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 66 (repeaters 23)

Televisions: 2,970,892 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,498,965 males fit for military service: 2,014,653 males reach military age (20) annually: 83,427 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.9 billion, 2.4% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Puerto Rico —————-

(commonwealth associated with the US)

Map —-

Location: 18 15 N, 66 30 W — Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic



Flag ——

Description: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 9,104 sq km land area: 8,959 sq km comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m

Natural resources: some copper and nickel, potential for onshore and offshore oil

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 9% meadows and pastures: 41% forest and woodland: 20% other: 22%

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: the recent drought has caused water levels in reservoirs to drop and prompted water rationing for more than one-half of the population natural hazards: periodic droughts international agreements: NA

Geographic note: important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north



People ———

Population: 3,819,023 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25% (male 484,038; female 461,175) 15-64 years: 65% (male 1,201,841; female 1,279,707) 65 years and over: 10% (male 174,274; female 217,988) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.18% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15.56 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.46 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.38 years male: 71.13 years female: 79.89 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.94 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens) adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic divisions: Hispanic

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15%

Languages: Spanish, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico conventional short form: Puerto Rico

Data code: RQ

Type of government: commonwealth associated with the US

Capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US); note - there are 78 municipalities

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952

Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of the US) William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) head of government: Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since 2 January 1993) was elected for a four-year term by direct suffrage; election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 5 November 1996); results - Pedro ROSSELLO (PNP) 50%, Victoria MUNOZ (PPD) 46%, Fernando MARTIN (PIP) 4%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 5 November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (29 total) PNP 20, PPD 8, PIP 1 House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (53 total) PNP 36, PPD 16, PIP 1 US House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 5 November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PNP 1 (Carlos Romero BARCELO); note - Puerto Rico elects one representative to the US House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate; Superior Courts, justices appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate; Municipal Courts, justices appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Party of Puerto Rico, Luis FERRE; Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Hector ACEVEDO; New Progressive Party (PNP), Pedro ROSSELLO; Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP) has been disbanded (1994); Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), Ruben BERRIOS Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s) unknown

Other political or pressure groups: Armed Forces for National Liberation (FALN); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution; Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Armed Forces of Popular Resistance

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCL, WFTU, WHO (associate), WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary sector of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Important industries include pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and processed foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of nearly 3.9 million tourists in 1993.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $29.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $7,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1994)

Labor force: 1.2 million (1993) by occupation: government 22%, manufacturing 17%, trade 20%, construction 6%, communications and transportation 5%, other 30% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994)

Budget: revenues: $5.1 billion expenditures: $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95)

Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 4.230,000 kW production: 15.6 billion kWh consumption per capita: 3,819 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; cattle, chickens

Exports: $21.8 billion (1994) commodities: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment, instruments partners: US 86.2% (1993)

Imports: $16.7 billion (1994) commodities: chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products partners: US 69.2% (1993)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 96 km narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge, rural, narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger service

Highways: total: NA km paved: 13,762 km (1982 est.) unpaved: NA km

Ports: Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San Juan

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 23 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8 with paved runways under 914 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1,166,231 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: modern system, integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability domestic: digital telephone system with about 1 million lines (1990 est.); cellular telephone service international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US

Radio broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 63, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.565 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9 note: cable television available with US programs (1990 est.)

Televisions: 952,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Qatar ——-



Map —-

Location: 25 30 N, 51 15 E — Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia



Flag ——

Description: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 11,000 sq km land area: 11,000 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: total: 60 km border country: Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial dispute with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Bahrain; 1965 boundary with Saudi Arabia, renegotiated and revised in 1992, but not official depiction

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Qurayn Aba al Bawl 103 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 5% forest and woodland: 0% other: 95%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits



People ———

Population: 547,761 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30% (male 82,147; female 83,552) 15-64 years: 68% (male 263,107; female 109,177) 65 years and over: 2% (male 6,609; female 3,169) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.39% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 21.03 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 3.6 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 0.96 male(s)/female under 15 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 2.41 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 2.09 male(s)/female all ages: 1.8 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.35 years male: 70.75 years female: 75.84 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.28 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Qatari(s) adjective: Qatari

Ethnic divisions: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

Religions: Muslim 95%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 79.4% male: 79.2% female: 79.9%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: State of Qatar conventional short form: Qatar local long form: Dawlat Qatar local short form: Qatar note: pronounced gutter

Data code: QA

Type of government: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batnah, Ash Shamal, Umm Salal

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal matters

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: Amir and Prime Minister HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup) is an absolute monarch; Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani (since NA July 1995); note - Amir HAMAD who also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, has not yet selected a new crown prince cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): the constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every four years since; seats - (30 total)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador ABD AL-RAHMAN bin Saud bin Fahd Al Thani chancery: Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 338-0111

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick N. THEROS embassy: 149 Armed Bin Ali St., Fariq Bin Omran (opposite the television station), Doha mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha telephone: [974] 864701 through 864703 FAX: [974] 861669

Flag: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for more than 30% of GDP, roughly 75% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.3 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for about 25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to the leading West European industrial countries. Production and export of natural gas are becoming increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the development of off-shore petroleum and the diversification of the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.7 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -1% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $20,820 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 1% industry: 50% services: 49% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 233,000 (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion expenditures: $3.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 1,520,000 kW production: 4.5 billion kWh consumption per capita: 8,415 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish (all on small scale)

Exports: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: petroleum products 75%, steel, fertilizers partners: Japan 61%, Australia 5%, UAE 4%, Singapore 4% (1994)

Imports: $2 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals partners: Germany 14%, Japan 12%, UK 11%, US 9%, Italy 5% (1994)

External debt: $1.5 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,191 km paved: 1,028 km unpaved: 163 km (1988 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km

Ports: Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id

Merchant marine: total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 467,447 GRT/771,483 DWT ships by type: combination ore/oil 2, container 3, cargo 11, oil tanker 3 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 160,717 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: modern system centered in Doha domestic: NA international: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 201,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 205,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 220,635 males fit for military service: 115,403 males reach military age (18) annually: 4,115 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Reunion ———-

(overseas department of France)

Map —-

Location: 21 06 S, 55 36 E — Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar



Flag ——

Description: the flag of France is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map references: World

Area: total area: 2,510 sq km land area: 2,500 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 201 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Piton des Neiges 3,069 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use: arable land: 16% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 5% forest and woodland: 35% other: 41% (1993)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: periodic, devastating cyclones (December to April); Piton de la Fournaise on the southeastern coast is an active volcano international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: 679,198 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 112,413; female 107,187) 15-64 years: 62% (male 207,386; female 214,308) 65 years and over: 6% (male 15,610; female 22,294) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.93% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 24.01 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.75 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.77 years male: 71.71 years female: 77.98 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Reunionese (singular and plural) adjective: Reunionese

Ethnic divisions: French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian

Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Hindu, Islam, Buddhist

Languages: French (official), Creole widely used

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982 est.) total population: 79% male: 76% female: 80%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Department of Reunion conventional short form: Reunion local long form: none local short form: Ile de la Reunion

Data code: RE

Type of government: overseas department of France

Capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: overseas department of France; there are no first-order divisions as defined by the US Government but there are four arrondissements, 24 communes, and 47 cantons

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) represented by Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ (since NA) who was appointed by the French Ministry of the Interior head of government: President of the General Council Christophe PAYET (since NA)

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional Council General Council: elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) PCR 12, PS 12, UDF 11, RPR 5, others 7 Regional Council: elections last held 25 June 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (45 total) UPF 17, Free-Dom Movement 13, PCR 9, PS 6 French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (3 total) RPR 1, FRA 1, independent 1 French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (5 total) PS 1, PCR 1, UPF 1, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (Cour d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alain DEFAUD; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Gilbert GERARD; Communist Party of Reunion (PCR), Elie HOARAU; France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre THIEN AH KOON; Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude FRUTEAU; Social Democrats (CDS), leader NA; Union for France (UPF - includes RPR and UDF); Free-Dom Movement, Marguerite SUDRE

International organization participation: FZ, IOC, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years it accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been pushing the development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment, which recently amounted to one-third of the labor force. The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is extraordinary and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The white and Indian communities are substantially better off than other segments of the population, often approaching European standards, whereas indigenous groups suffer the poverty and unemployment typical of the poorer nations of the African continent. The outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991 illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic tensions. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on continued financial assistance from France.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 242,169 (1993) by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49% (1981)

Unemployment rate: 35% (February 1991)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, handicraft items

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 180,000 kW production: 1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,454 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco, tropical fruits, vegetables, corn

Exports: $174 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: sugar 63%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 2%, lobster 3%, (1993) partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy, Madagascar

Imports: $2.08 billion (c.i.f., 1993) commodities: manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy, Madagascar

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: substantial annual subsidies from France

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January 1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,784 km paved: 2,187 km unpaved: 597 km (1987 est.)

Ports: Le Port, Pointe des Galets

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 191,647 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis domestic: modern open wire and microwave radio relay network international: radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: 151,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 18)

Televisions: 116,181 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Gendarmerie)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 176,609 males fit for military service: 90,784 males reach military age (18) annually: 5,728 (1996 est.)

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Romania ———-



Map —-

Location: 46 00 N, 25 00 E — Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 237,500 sq km land area: 230,340 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total: 2,508 km border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use: arable land: 43% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 19% forest and woodland: 28% other: 7%

Irrigated land: 34,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine



People ———

Population: 21,657,162 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 2,180,023; female 2,088,496) 15-64 years: 68% (male 7,261,160; female 7,393,531) 65 years and over: 12% (male 1,138,583; female 1,595,369) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.21% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 9.77 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.27 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.42 years male: 65.51 years female: 73.57 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Romanian(s) adjective: Romanian

Ethnic divisions: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992 est.) total population: 97% male: 98% female: 95%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Romania local long form: none local short form: Romania

Data code: RO

Type of government: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December 1989) was elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 27 September 1992, with runoff between top two candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6% head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since NA November 1992) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament Senate (Senat): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.3%, CDR 18.2%, DP-FSN 12.6%, others 34.9%; seats - (143 total) PSDR 49, CDR 26, DP-FSN 18, PUNR 13, UDMR 12, PRM 6, PAC 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5, PL-93 2, other 1 House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.0%, CDR 16.4%, DP-FSN 12.3%, others 37.3%; seats - (341 total) PSDR 116, CDR 56, DP-FSN 42, PUNR 29, UDMR 27, PL-93 19, PRM 15, PSM 13, PAC 5, other 19

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, judges are appointed by the president on recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party (DP-FSN), Petre ROMAN; Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR), Adrian NASTASE; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), Bela MARKO; National Liberal Party (PNL), Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party (PNTCD), Ion DIACONESCU; Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR), Gheorghe FUNAR; Socialist Labor Party (PSM), Ilie VERDET; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania (PDAR), Victor SURDU; The Democratic Convention (CDR), Emil CONSTANTINESCU; Romania Mare Party (PRM), Corneliu Vadim TUDOR; Civic Alliance Party (PAC), Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman; Liberal Party 1993 (PL-93) note: numerous other small parties exist but almost all failed to gain representation in the most recent election

Other political or pressure groups: various human rights and professional associations

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mircea Dan GEOANA chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851 FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred H. MOSES embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest mailing address: American Consulate General (Bucharest), Unit 1315, APO AE 09213-1315 telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42 FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95 branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Romania, one of the poorer East European countries moving away from the command economy, posted its third straight year of growth in 1995. Bucharest also was successful in reducing its inflation rate to 25% - less than half the 1994 rate - because of tight monetary and fiscal policies, while unemployment fell to 9% as the private sector hired more workers. Despite these successes on the economic front, Romania has lagged much of Central and Eastern Europe in the restructuring process. The private sector accounted for only 40% of GDP in 1995 with over 90% of industry remaining in state hands. Privatization is slated to pick up in 1996, but Bucharest faces other economic problems that could stall recovery, including a growing budget deficit, limited reform of the agricultural and energy sectors, and accumulated decay of the infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $105.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5.4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 19.6% industry: 36.3% services: 44.1% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1995)

Labor force: 11.3 million (1992) by occupation: industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 8.9% (December 1995)

Budget: revenues: $5.35 billion expenditures: $6.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and refining

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 22,180,000 kW production: 50.8 billion kWh consumption per capita: 2,076 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; milk, eggs, meat

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine transiting the Balkan route

Exports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: textiles and footwear 23.8%, metals and metal products 17.3%, fuels and mineral products 11.6%, machinery and transport equipment 14.8%, chemicals 7.9%, food and agricultural goods 6.5%, other 18.1% (1994) partners: developing countries 30.3%, East and Central Europe 8.4%, Russia 3.4%, OECD 57.9% (EU 50%, US 3.1%) (1994)

Imports: $7.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: fuels and minerals 26.8%, machinery and transport equipment 25.1%, textiles and footwear 12.3%, food and agricultural goods 9.3%, chemicals 7.9%, other 18.6% (1994) partners: OECD 60% (EU 44.5%, US 6.5%), East and Central Europe 6.1%, developing countries 16.6%, Russia 13.8%, other 3.5% (1994)

External debt: $4.7 billion (1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $81 million (1993)

Currency: 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 2,599.24 (January 1996), 2,033.28 (1995), 1,655.09 (1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95 (1992), 76.39 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 11,374 km broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge standard gauge: 10,887 km 1.435-m gauge (3,866 km electrified; 3,060 km double track) narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 153,014 km paved: 78,037 km (including 113 km of expressways) unpaved: 74,977 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports: Braila, Constanta, Galatz, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine: total: 233 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,425,729 GRT/3,641,741 DWT ships by type: bulk 39, cargo 166, container 2, oil tanker 13, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9 note: Romania owns an additional 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,078,490 DWT operating under the registries of Liberia, Malta, Cyprus, and The Bahamas (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 156 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 9 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 14 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 17 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 108 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2.3 million (1990 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: poor service; 89% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is microwave radio relay; roughly 3,300 villages with no service (February 1990 est.) international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital international direct-dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993 est.)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.64 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (1990 est.)

Televisions: 4.58 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 5,572,383 males fit for military service: 4,693,376 males reach military age (20) annually: 198,125 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $885 million, 3.0% of GDP (1995)



Original publicaton at http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/nsolo/wfb-all.htm (June 17, 1997). ======================================================================



@Russia ———



Map —-

Location: 60 00 N, 100 00 E — Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 17,075,200 sq km land area: 16,995,800 sq km comparative area: slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 19,913 km border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

Coastline: 37,653 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: inherited disputes from former USSR including sections of the boundary with China; islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; maritime dispute with Norway over portion of the Barents Sea; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined; potential dispute with Ukraine over Crimea; Estonia claims over 2,000 sq km of Russian territory in the Narva and Pechora regions; the Abrene section of the border ceded by the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic to Russia in 1944; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation

Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Mount El'brus 5,633 m

Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: NEGL% meadows and pastures: 5% forest and woodland: 45% other: 42%

Irrigated land: 56,000 sq km (1992)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture



People ———

Population: 148,178,487 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 15,792,573; female 15,213,854) 15-64 years: 67% (male 48,145,679; female 51,125,902) 65 years and over: 12% (male 5,403,066; female 12,497,413) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.07% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.15 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 16.34 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.43 male(s)/female all ages: 0.88 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.24 years male: 56.51 years female: 70.31 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.42 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian

Ethnic divisions: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%

Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other

Languages: Russian, other

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.) total population: 98% male: 100% female: 97%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Russian Federation conventional short form: Russia local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya local short form: Rossiya former: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Data code: RS

Type of government: federation

Capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions: 21 autonomous republics (avtomnykh respublik, singular - avtomnaya respublika); Adygea (Maykop), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatia (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashia (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Gorno-Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Ingushetia (Nazran'), Kabardino-Balkaria (Nal'chik), Kalmykia (Elista), Karachay-Cherkessia (Cherkessk), Karelia (Petrozavodsk), Khakassia (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mari El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordovia (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tuva (Kyzyl), Udmurtia (Izhevsk), Yakutia - also known as Sakha (Yakutsk); 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'); Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Orenburg, Penza, Perm', Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'; 6 krays (krayev, singular - kray); Altay (Barnaul), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Primorskiy (Vladivostok), Stavropol'; 10 autonomous okrugs; Aga (Aginskoye), Chukotka (Anadyr'), Evenkia (Tura), Khantia-Mansia (Khanty-Mansiysk), Koryakia (Palana), Nenetsia (Nar'yan-Mar), Permyakia (Kudymkar), Taymyria (Dudinka), Ust'-Onda (Ust'-Ordynskiy), Yamalia (Salekhard); 1 autonomous oblast (avtomnykh oblast'); Birobijan note: the autonomous republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia were formerly the autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary between Chechnya and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg are federal cities; an administrative division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, June 12 (1990)

Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June 1991) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage under the constitution of 12 December 1993, but subsequent presidents, beginning with the 16 June 1996 election, will serve a four-year term; election last held 12 June 1991 (next to be held 16 June 1996); results - percent of vote NA; note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months head of government: Premier and Chairman of the Russian Federation Government Viktor Stepanovich CHERNOMYRDIN (since 14 December 1992), First Deputy Premiers and First Deputy Chairmen of the Government Oleg SOSKOVETS (since 30 April 1993) and Vladimir KADANNIKOV (since 25 January 1996) were appointed by the president on approval of the Dumas Security Council: originally established as a presidential advisory body in June 1991, but restructured in March 1992, with responsibility for managing individual and state security Presidential Administration: drafts presidential edicts and provides staff and policy support to the entire executive branch cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" was appointed by the president Group of Assistants: schedules president's appointments, processes presidential edicts and other official documents, and houses the president's press service and primary speechwriters Council of Heads of Republics: includes the leaders of the 21 ethnic-based Republics Council of Heads of Administrations: includes the leaders of the 66 autonomous territories and regions, and the mayors of Moscow and St. Petersburg Presidential Council: prepares policy papers for the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly Federation Council: 178 seats, filled ex-officio by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 89 federal administrative units (oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg) State Duma: elections last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA December 1999); results - percent of vote received by parties clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of the 225 party list seats: Communist Party of the Russian Federation 22.3%, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 11.2%, Our Home Is Russia 10.1%, Yabloko Bloc 6.9%; seats - (450 total - half elected in single-member districts and half elected from national party lists) Communist Party of the Russian Federation 157, Independents 78, Our Home Is Russia 55, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 51, Yabloko Bloc 45, Agrarian Party of Russia 20, Russia's Democratic Choice 9, Power To the People 9, Congress of Russian Communities 5, Forward, Russia! 3, Women of Russia 3, other parties 15

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed by the Federation Council on recommendation of the president; Supreme Court (highest court for criminal, civil, and administrative cases), judges are appointed by the Federation Council on recommendation of the president; Superior Court of Arbitration (highest court that resolves economic disputes), judges are appointed by the Federation Council on recommendation of the president

Political parties and leaders: pro-market democrats: Our Home Is Russia, Viktor CHERNOMYRDIN; Yabloko Bloc, Grigoriy YAVLINSKIY; Russia's Democratic Choice Party, Yegor GAYDAR; Forward, Russia!, Boris FEDOROV centrists/special interest parties: Congress of Russian Communities, Yuriy SKOKOV; Women of Russia, Alevtina FEDULOVA and Yekaterina LAKHOVA anti-market and/or ultranationalist parties: Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY; Agrarian Party, Mikhail LAPSHIN; Power To the People, Nikolay RYZHKOV and Sergey BABURIN; Russian Communist Workers' Party, Viktor ANPILOV and Viktor TYULKIN note: some 269 political parties, blocs, and associations tried to gather enough signatures to run slates of candidates in the 17 December 1995 Duma elections; 43 succeeded

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant), ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yuliy Mikhaylovich VORONTSOV chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700 through 5704 FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735 consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING embassy: Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, Moscow mailing address: APO AE 09721 telephone: [7] (095) 252-24-51 through 59 FAX: [7] (095) 956-42-61 consulate(s) general: St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Russia, a vast country with a wealth of natural resources, a well-educated population, and a diverse industrial base, continues to experience formidable difficulties in moving from its old centrally planned economy to a modern-market economy. The break-up of the USSR into 15 successor states in late 1991 destroyed major economic links that have been only partially replaced. As a result of these dislocations and the failure of the government to implement a rigorous and consistent reform program, output in Russia has dropped by one-third since 1990 (instead of the one-half previously estimated). On the one hand, President YEL'TSIN's government has made substantial strides in converting to a market economy since launching its economic reform program in January 1992 by freeing nearly all prices, slashing defense spending, eliminating the old centralized distribution system, completing an ambitious voucher privatization program in 1994, establishing private financial institutions, and decentralizing foreign trade. On the other hand, Russia has made little progress in a number of key areas that are needed to provide a solid foundation for the transition to a market economy; and the strong showing of the communists and nationalists in the Duma elections in December 1995 casts a shadow over prospects for further reforms. In 1995, the new cash privatization program went slower than planned. The state claims that the nonstate sector produced approximately 70% of GDP in 1995, up from 62% in 1994, although these figures apparently include many enterprises that have only nominally moved out of state control. Moscow has been slow to develop the legal framework necessary to fully support a market economy and to encourage foreign investment. Stockholder rights remain ill-defined and the Duma has yet to adopt a land code that would allow development of land markets as sources of needed capital. Russia's securities market remains largely unregulated and suffers from the lack of a comprehensive securities law. In addition, Moscow has yet to develop a social safety net that would allow faster restructuring by relieving enterprises of the burden of providing social benefits for their workers. Most rank-and-file Russians perceive they are worse off because of growing crime and health problems, the drop in real wages, the great rise in wage arrears, and the widespread threat of unemployment. The number of Russians living below the official poverty level rose by 10% to 36.6 million people, or 25% of the population. The decline in output slowed during 1995, and some sectors showed signs of a turnaround; analysts forecast the resumption of growth in 1996 - at a low rate. Russian official data, which fail to capture a considerable portion of private sector output and employment, show that GDP declined by 4% in 1995, as compared with a 15% decline in 1994. Despite continued declines in agricultural and industrial production, unemployment climbed only slowly to about 8% of the work force by yearend because government policies aimed at softening the impact of reforms have created incentives for enterprises to keep workers on the rolls even as production slowed to a crawl. Moscow renewed tightened financial policies in early 1995 and succeeded in reducing monthly consumer price inflation from 18% in January to about 3% in December, the lowest monthly rate since the beginning of reform. According to official trade statistics, Russia ran a $19.9 billion trade surplus for 1995, up from $15.9 billion in 1994. It continued to shift its trade away from the other former Soviet republics toward the West, with the CIS countries' share of Russian trade falling to 22% in 1995. Russia made good progress with official and commercial creditors in 1995 in resolving the issue of its $105 billion in Soviet-era debts. When completed, these Paris Club and London Club rescheduling agreements will reduce Russia's repayment liabilities from $20 billion to less than $5 billion annually through the end of the decade. Capital flight reportedly continued to be a problem in 1995, with billions of additional dollars in assets being moved abroad, primarily to bank accounts in Europe.

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