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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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GDP: purchasing power parity - $425 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.2% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $6,600 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5% industry: 19.3% services: 77.2% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1994)

Labor force: 30,000 by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 5%-10%(1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $134 million expenditures: $135.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: -4.9% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 52,100 kW production: 95 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,242 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Illicit drugs: a long-time but relatively minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and recent transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US; more significant as a drug money laundering center

Exports: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17% partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $443.8 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

External debt: $377 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 77 km narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways: total: 240 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: Saint John's

Merchant marine: total: 367 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,573,063 GRT/2,147,243 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 247, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 1, container 72, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 14, roll-on/roll-off cargo 16 note: a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 12 ships, Slovenia 3, Croatia 2, Cyprus 1, and US 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system: domestic: good automatic telephone system international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: NA males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY90/91)



======================================================================



@Arctic Ocean ——————



Map —-

Location: 90 00 N, 0 00 E — body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle



Geography ————-

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total area: 14.056 million sq km comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean) note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Coastline: 45,389 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway and Russia

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge) lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales)

Environment: current issues: endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May international agreements: NA

Geographic note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia, floating research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months



Government —————

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes appendix



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.



Transportation ———————

Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways



Communications ———————

Telephone system: international: no submarine cables



======================================================================



@Argentina ————-



Map —-

Location: 34 00 S, 64 00 W — Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May



Geography ————-

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 2,766,890 sq km land area: 2,736,690 sq km comparative area: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 9,665 km border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 52% forest and woodland: 22% other: 13%

Irrigated land: 17,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cities; water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to increased pesticide and fertilizer use natural hazards: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)



People ———

Population: 34,672,997 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 4,904,380; female 4,707,293) 15-64 years: 63% (male 10,851,004; female 10,834,593) 65 years and over: 9% (male 1,414,412; female 1,961,315) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 19.41 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.62 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.66 years male: 68.37 years female: 75.12 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.62 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine

Ethnic divisions: white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 96.2% male: 96.2% female: 96.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Argentine Republic conventional short form: Argentina local long form: Republica Argentina local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or Argentina's claims to the Falkland Islands

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989) was elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 14 May 1995 (next to be held May 1999); results - Carlos Saul MENEM was reelected; Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) Senate: elections last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) PJ 38, others 34 Chamber of Deputies: one-half of the members elected every two years to four-year terms; elections last held 14 May 1995; (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (257 total) PJ 132, UCR 68, Frepaso 26, other 31

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party (PJ), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR), Rodolfo TERRAGNO, moderately left-of-center party; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), conservative party; Dignity and Independence Political Party (MODIN), Aldo RICO, right-wing party; Grand Front (Frente Grande), Carlos ALVAREZ, center-left coalition; Front for a Country in Solidarity (Frepaso, a four party coalition), leader Jose Octavio BORDON; several provincial parties

Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor movement; General Confederation of Labor (CGT), Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization; Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic Church; the Armed Forces

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MTCR, NSG (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires mailing address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034 telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534 FAX: [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Argentina, rich in natural resources, benefits also from a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20 years. Argentines have responded to the relative price stability by repatriating flight capital and investing in domestic industry. After registering impressive 7.4% growth in 1994, based largely on inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption, the Argentine economy stumbled in 1995 as financial pressures fueled by the Mexican peso crisis and political squabbling within the MENEM administration undermined investor confidence and triggered capital outflows. By yearend, GDP had contracted 4.4%, unemployment reached 16%, and Buenos Aires struggled to meet fiscal targets. On the trade front, exports soared during the first half of 1995 - largely because of strong demand in Brazil and high commodity prices - while anemic domestic consumption lowered imports; the resulting yearend trade surplus was about $1.2 billion. However, because exports contribute only 7.5% to GDP, increased foreign sales had little impact on aggregate growth. High unemployment will continue to plague the MENEM administration for the next several years as provincial entities are readied for privatization and more public sector employees are laid off.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $278.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -4.4%

GDP per capita: $8,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 6% industry: 31% services: 63% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 10.9 million by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $48.46 billion expenditures: $46.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1994 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: -4.6% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 17,330,000 kW production: 54.8 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,610 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets; livestock

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe and the US

Exports: $20.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures partners: US 9%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands

Imports: $19.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants, agricultural products partners: US 21%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $90 billion (December 1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 1.00000 (January 1996), 0.99975 (1995), 0.99901 (1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064 (1992), 0.95355 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 37,910 km broad gauge: 24,124 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified) standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 11,021 km 1.000-m gauge (26 km electrified)

Highways: total: 215,578 km paved: 61,440 km unpaved: 154,138 km

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km

Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine: total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 303,448 GRT/458,864 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 11, chemical tanker 1, container 3, oil tanker 14, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 1,253 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 25 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 54 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 46 with paved runways under 914 m: 511 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 60 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 549 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2.7 million (1983 est.)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern system but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive use of microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently grounds out during rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: 22.3 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 231

Televisions: 7.165 million (1991 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only), National Aeronautical Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 8,707,014 males fit for military service: 7,063,304 males reach military age (20) annually: 310,107 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $4.7 billion, 1.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Armenia ———-



Map —-

Location: 40 00 N, 45 00 E — Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold



Geography ————-

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total area: 29,800 sq km land area: 28,400 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 1,254 km border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: supports ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh in their separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley lowest point: Debed River 400 m highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 20% forest and woodland: 0% other: 60%

Irrigated land: 3,050 sq km (1990)

Environment: current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 3,463,574 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 497,461; female 476,649) 15-64 years: 64% (male 1,085,935; female 1,132,282) 65 years and over: 8% (male 111,661; female 159,586) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.02% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 16.27 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.73 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.06 years male: 64.44 years female: 73.92 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Armenian(s) adjective: Armenian

Ethnic divisions: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989) note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from ======================================================================



@Aruba ——-

(part of the Dutch realm)

Map —-

Location: 12 30 N, 69 58 W — Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela



Flag ——

Description: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 193 sq km land area: 193 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: 67,794 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 7,850; female 7,155) 15-64 years: 69% (male 22,499; female 24,596) 65 years and over: 9% (male 2,353; female 3,341) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.31% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 14.62 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.24 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female all ages: 0.93 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.68 years male: 73 years female: 80.55 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban

Ethnic divisions: mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Type of government: part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (of the Netherlands since 30 April 1980), a constitutional monarch, is represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) who was appointed for a six-year term by the queen head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Glenbert F. CROES were appointed by the legislature cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature (Staten): elections last held 29 July 1994 (next to be held by NA July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA 2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP), Jan (Henny) H. EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86 (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Aruban Liberal Party (OLA), Glenbert CROES note: governing coalition includes the AVP and OLA

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)

Flag: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy, although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1% unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.1% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $18,000 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (1994)

Labor force: NA by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1995)

Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1994)

Budget: revenues: $145 million expenditures: $185 million, including capital expenditures of $42 million (1988)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 90,000 kW production: 330 million kWh consumption per capita: 4,761 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: aloes; livestock; fishing

Illicit drugs: major drug money laundering center and minor transit point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

Exports: $1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: mostly refined petroleum products partners: US 64%, EU

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products, crude oil for refining and reexport partners: US 8%, EU

External debt: $669 million (December 1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 note: government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic flights (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 22,922 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: more than adequate international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 19,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands



======================================================================



@Ashmore and Cartier Islands —————————————-

(territory of Australia)

Map —-

Location: 12 14 S, 123 05 E — Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of Australia



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 5 sq km land area: 5 sq km comparative area: about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 12 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards international agreements: NA

Geographic note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal caretakers



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Type of government: territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry for the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force



======================================================================



@Atlantic Ocean ———————



Map —-

Location: 0 00 N, 25 00 W — body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and the Western Hemisphere



Geography ————-

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area: total area: 82.217 million sq km comparative area: slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean) note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Coastline: 111,866 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones

Environment: current issues: endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May and extreme southern Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September international agreements: NA

Geographic note: major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South ======================================================================



@Australia ————-



Map —-

Location: 27 00 S, 133 00 E — Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 7,686,850 sq km land area: 7,617,930 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than the US note: includes Macquarie Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 58% forest and woodland: 14% other: 22%

Irrigated land: 18,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer



People ———

Population: 18,260,863 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 2,009,915; female 1,912,605) 15-64 years: 66% (male 6,129,285; female 5,980,315) 65 years and over: 13% (male 967,291; female 1,261,452) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.99 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.88 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.39 years male: 76.44 years female: 82.5 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian

Ethnic divisions: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Type of government: federal parliamentary state

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch, represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February 1996) who was appointed by the queen head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996) was appointed by the governor general; Deputy Prime Minister Timothy Andrew FISCHER (since 11 March 1996) cabinet: Cabinet was selected from among the members of Federal Parliament by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament Senate: elections last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) Liberal-National 37, Labor 29, Australian Democrats 8, Greens 1, independent 1 House of Representatives: elections last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (148 total) Liberal-National 94, Labor 49, independent 5

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders: government: coalition of Liberal Party, John Winston HOWARD and National Party, Timothy Andrew FISCHER opposition: Australian Labor Party, Kim BEAZLEY; Australian Democratic Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party, Bob BROWN

Other political or pressure groups: Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador John Phillip MCCARTHY chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000 FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward J. PERKINS embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address: APO AP 96549 telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000 FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney consulate(s): Brisbane

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP comparable to levels in highly industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for more than 80% of the value of total exports, so that, as in 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the early 1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly from the prolonged recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor being weak world demand for Australia's exports. Growth picked up so strongly in 1994 that the government felt the need for fiscal and monetary tightening by yearend. Australia's GDP grew 6.4% in 1994, largely due to increases in industrial output and business investment. A severe drought in 1994 reduced the value of Australia's net farm production, but rising world commodity prices are likely to boost commodity exports by 15% to $42.4 billion in 1995/96, according to government statistics. Short-term economic problems include a balancing of output growth and inflationary pressures and the stimulation of exports to offset rising imports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $405.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $22,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 3.1% industry: 27.7% services: 69.2% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.75% (1995)

Labor force: 8.63 million (September 1991) by occupation: finance and services 33.8%, public and community services 22.3%, wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry 16.2%, agriculture 6.1% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 8.1% (December 1995)

Budget: revenues: $95.69 billion expenditures: $95.15 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (FY93/94)

Electricity: capacity: 34,540,000 kW production: 155 billion kWh consumption per capita: 8,021 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

Exports: $51.57 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment partners: Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong (1992)

Imports: $57.41 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, crude oil and petroleum products partners: US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)

External debt: $147.2 billion (1994)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $953 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January 1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3668 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 38,563 km (2,914 km electrified; 172 km dual gauge) broad gauge: 6,083 km 1.600-m gauge standard gauge: 16,752 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 15,728 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 810,264 km paved: 283,592 km (including 1,200 km of expressways) unpaved: 526,672 km (1989 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km

Ports: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceton (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine: total: 76 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,547,869 GRT/3,679,534 DWT ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk 1, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 442 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 9 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 13 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 106 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 116 with paved runways under 914 m: 30 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 22 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 146 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 8.7 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: good domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 134 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.2 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 4,848,777 males fit for military service: 4,192,250 males reach military age (17) annually: 127,569 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $7.3 billion, 2.0% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Austria ———-



Map —-

Location: 47 20 N, 13 20 E — Central Europe, north of Italy



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red



Geography ————-

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 83,850 sq km land area: 82,730 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total: 2,558 km border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 324 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m highest point: Grossglockner 3,797 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 24% forest and woodland: 39% other: 19%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geographic note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere



People ———

Population: 8,023,244 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 720,696; female 685,179) 15-64 years: 67% (male 2,726,122; female 2,659,162) 65 years and over: 15% (male 451,231; female 780,854) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.41% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 11.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.43 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.53 years male: 73.38 years female: 79.84 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Austrian(s) adjective: Austrian

Ethnic divisions: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%

Languages: German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.) total population: 99% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Austria conventional short form: Austria local long form: Republik Oesterreich local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Type of government: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections

Executive branch: chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992) was elected for a six-year term by popular vote; election last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1998); results of second ballot - Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43% head of government: Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986) was chosen by the president from the majority party in the National Council; Vice Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (since 22 April 1995) was chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor cabinet: Council of Ministers was chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) Federal Council (Bundesrat): consists of 63 members representing each of the provinces on the basis of population, but with each province having at least three representatives National Council (Nationalrat): elections last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held Fall 1999); results - SPOE 38.3%, OEVP 28.3%, FPOE 22.1%, Greens 4.6%, LF 5.3%, other 1.4%; seats - (183 total) SPOE 71, OEVP 53, FPOE 40, Greens 9, LF 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal cases; Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases; Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman; Austrian People's Party (OEVP), Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman; Freedom Movement (F, formerly the Freedom Party of Austria or FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPOE), Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman; The Greens, Madeleine PETROVIC; Liberal Forum (LF), Heide SCHMIDT

Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (OEVP) representing business, labor, and farmers; OEVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035 telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700 FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT chancery: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [43] (1) 313-39 FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Austria has a well-developed market economy with a sizable - but falling - proportion of nationalized industry, an extensive social system, and a high standard of living. Austria's economy is closely integrated with Germany and other EU members - Austria joined the EU on 1 January 1995. Since the early 1980s, the Austrian economy has experienced stable growth. Following a mild recession in 1993, Austria's economy - driven by strong exports, investment, and private consumption - expanded 2.7% in 1994 and about 2.4% in 1995. The slowdown in 1995 was largely due to an appreciation of the Austrian schilling and its negative effect on exports and tourism. EU membership has had a positive impact on foreign investment and has helped to lower inflation. Despite Austria's generally favorable economic prospects, the government faces a number of economic challenges, especially budget consolidation. Smaller than expected revenues and rising welfare payments caused the budget deficit to climb to 7.1% of GDP in 1995. Austria also faces a growing unemployment problem. Although low by European standards, Austria's unemployment rate has risen gradually during the 1990s as companies restructured to meet competition from the EU single market and Eastern Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $152 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $19,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 2% industry: 34% services: 64% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 3.47 million (1989) by occupation: services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and forestry 8.1% note: an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 5% of labor force (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.6% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $65 billion expenditures: $75.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: food, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (first half 1995)

Electricity: capacity: 17,230,000 kW production: 50.2 billion kWh consumption per capita: 5,824 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets; cattle, pigs, poultry; sawn wood

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and Eastern Europe

Exports: $45.2 billion (1994) commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products, chemicals partners: EU 64.8% (Germany 38.1%, Italy 8.1%), Eastern Europe 11.8%, Japan 1.6%, US 3.5% (1994)

Imports: $55.3 billion (1994) commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals partners: EU 68.4% (Germany 40%, Italy 8.8%), Eastern Europe 6.55%, Japan 4.3%, US 4.4% (1994)

External debt: $28.7 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $544 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 10.314 (January 1996), 10.081 (1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993), 10.989 (1992), 11.676 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 5,624 km standard gauge: 5,269 km 1.435-m gauge (3,263 km electrified) narrow gauge: 355 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (86 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 108,000 km paved: 22,000 km (including 1,800 km of expressways) unpaved: 86,000 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 446 km

Pipelines: crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas 2,611 km

Ports: Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine: total: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 88,617 GRT/122,475 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 23, combination bulk 2, container 1, refrigerated cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 55 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 41 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 3.47 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: highly developed and efficient international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 21 (repeaters 545), shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 47 (repeaters 870)

Televisions: 2,418,584 (1984 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,084,827 males fit for military service: 1,741,068 males reach military age (19) annually: 45,628 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 1.0% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Azerbaijan —————

Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved eight-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared independence and seized almost 20% of the country's territory, creating almost 1 million Azeri refugees in the process. Both sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place since May 1994, and support the OSCE-mediated peace process, now entering its fifth year. Nevertheless, Baku and Xankandi (Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh region) remain far apart on most substantive issues from the placement and composition of a peacekeeping force to the enclave's ultimate political status, and prospects for a negotiated settlement remain dim.

Map —-

Location: 40 30 N, 47 30 E — Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band



Geography ————-

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total area: 86,600 sq km land area: 86,100 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maine note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Land boundaries: total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: violent and longstanding dispute with ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh over its status; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use: arable land: 18% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 25% forest and woodland: 0% other: 53%

Irrigated land: 14,010 sq km (1990)

Environment: current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising levels of the Caspian Sea international agreements: party to - Climate Change; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 7,676,953 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 1,270,812; female 1,215,781) 15-64 years: 61% (male 2,293,688; female 2,423,222) 65 years and over: 7% (male 179,048; female 294,402) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 22.28 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.84 years male: 60.13 years female: 69.78 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic divisions: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.) note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.) note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.) total population: 97% male: 99% female: 96%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic conventional short form: Azerbaijan local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi local short form: none former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Type of government: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abscron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, AliBayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimb Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993) was elected by popular vote; election last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held 1997 or 1998); results - Heydar ALIYEV won 97% of vote head of government: Prime Minister Fuad QULIYEV (since 9 October 1994), First Deputy Prime Ministers Abbas ABBASOV (since NA), Samed SADYKOV (since NA), Vahid AKHMEDOV (since NA), Elchin EFENDIYEV (since NA) were appointed by the president and confirmed by the Milli Mejlis cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president and confirmed by the Mejlis

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Milli Mejlis): elections last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (125 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front (APF), Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman; Musavat Party, Isa GAMBAR, chairman; National Independence Party, Etibar MAMEDOV, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Araz ALIZADE, chairman; Communist Party, Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman; People's Freedom Party, Yunus OGUZ, chairman; Independent Social Democratic Party, Arif YUNUSOV and Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen; New Azerbaijan Party, Heydar ALIYEV, chairman; Boz Gurd Party, Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman; Azerbaijan Democratic Independence Party, Qabil HUSEYNLI, chairman; Islamic Party of Azerbaijan, Ali Akram, chairman; Ana Veten Party, Fazail AGAMALIYEV; Azerbaijan Democratic Party, Sardar Jalaloglu MAMEDOV; Azerbaijan Democratic Party of Proprietors (DPOP), Makhmud MAMEDOV; Azerbaijan Patriotic Solidarity Party, Sabir RUSTAMHANLI; Azerbaijan Republic Reform Party, Fuad ASADOV; Communist Party of Azerbaijan (unregistered), Sayad SAYADOV; Equality of the Peoples Party, Faukhraddin AYDAYEV; Independent Azerbaijan Party, Nizami SULEYMANOV; Labor Party of Azerbaijan, Sabutai HAJIYEV; Liberal-Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, Lyudmila NIKOLAYEVNA; National Enlightenment Party, Hajy Osman EFENDIYEV; National Liberation Party, Panak SHAKHSEVEV; Peasant Party, Firuz MUSTAFAYEV; Radical Party of Azerbaijan, Malik SHARIFOV; United Azerbaijan Party, Kerrar ABILOV; Vetan Adzhagy Party, Zakir TAGIYEV

Other political or pressure groups: self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001 FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH embassy: Azadliq Prospekti 83, Baku mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [9] (9412) 96-00-19, 98-03-37, 98-03-36, 93-64-80, 96-36-21 FAX: [9] (9412) 98-37-55

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline for several years, but the November 1994 ratification of the $7.5 billion oil deal with a consortium of Western companies should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures have yet to be replaced. Whereas the economies of most of the former Soviet republics had begun to bottom out in 1995, Azerbaijan's economy continued to plummet because of its late start on economic reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.5 billion (1995 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: -17% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,480 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 85% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.789 million by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 2.3% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers (December 1995)

Budget: revenues: $465 million expenditures: $488 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -21% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 4,900,000 kW production: 17 billion kWh consumption per capita: 2,200 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

Exports: $549.9 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton partners: mostly CIS and European countries

Imports: $681.5 million (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles partners: European countries

External debt: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $14 million (1993) note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,000 million ($185 million in disbursements); wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,375 (April 1996), 4,500 (April 1995), 4,168 (end of December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways: total: 36,700 km paved: 31,800 km (includes graveled) unpaved: 4,900 km (1990 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km

Ports: Baku (Baki)

Airports: total: 69 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 17 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 7 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 33 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 710,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991 est.) domestic: telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system in the Baku area was supposed to become operational in 1994 international: cable and microwave radio relay connections to former Soviet republics; connection through Moscow international gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and 1 Intersputnik (Intelsat provides service to Turkey and through Turkey to 200 more countries; Intersputnik provides direct service to New York)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (1 state-owned radio broadcast station)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 note: domestic and Russian TV programs are received locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an Intelsat satellite through a receive-only earth station

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Maritime Border Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,952,390 males fit for military service: 1,574,813 males reach military age (18) annually: 68,006 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 33.5 billion manats, NA% of GDP (1994); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Bahrain ———-



Map —-

Location: 26 00 N, 50 33 E — Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia



Flag ——

Description: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 620 sq km land area: 620 sq km comparative area: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Qatar

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 6% forest and woodland: 0% other: 90%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for all water needs natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity

Geographic note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean



People ———

Population: 590,042 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (male 92,455; female 89,554) 15-64 years: 67% (male 236,048; female 156,556) 65 years and over: 2% (male 7,956; female 7,473) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.27% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.58 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 3.29 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.51 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female all ages: 1.33 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.27 years male: 71.78 years female: 76.83 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.08 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bahraini(s) adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic divisions: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim 25%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 85.2% male: 89.1% female: 79.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: State of Bahrain conventional short form: Bahrain local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn local short form: Al Bahrayn

Data code: BA

Type of government: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalites (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah; note - all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1971)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961) is a traditional Arab monarch; Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January 1949) head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970) was appointed by the amir cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Other political or pressure groups: several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active; following the arrest of a popular Shi'a cleric, Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically from late 1994 to September 1995, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR al-Abdallah chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741, 342-0742 FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador David M. RANSOM embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama (International Mail) telephone: [973] 273-300 FAX: [973] 272-594

Flag: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side



Economy ———-

Economic overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $12,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 140,000 by occupation: industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 3% (1982) note: 42% of labor force is Bahraini

Unemployment rate: 25% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.38 billion expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: 13% (1992)

Electricity: capacity: 1,050,000 kW production: 3.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 5,453 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Exports: $3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7% partners: India 20%, Japan 14%, Saudi Arabia 7%, US 6%, UAE 5% (1994)

Imports: $3.29 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41% partners: Saudi Arabia 37%, US 12%, UK 6%, Japan 5%, Germany 4% (1994)

External debt: $2.6 billion (1993)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 2,671 km paved: 2,011 km unpaved: 660 km (1991 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km

Ports: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 117,060 GRT/194,061 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 73,552 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern system; good domestic services and excellent international connections domestic: NA international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 320,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 270,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Coast Guard, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 213,792 males fit for military service: 118,702 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $247 million, 5.5% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Baker Island ——————

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 0 13 N, 176 31 W — Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 1.4 sq km land area: 1.4 sq km comparative area: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: no natural fresh water resources natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard international agreements: NA

Geographic note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife



People ———

Population: uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located near the middle of the west coast



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Baker Island

Data code: FQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

Transportation note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard



======================================================================



@Bangladesh —————



Map —-

Location: 24 00 N, 90 00 E — Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India



Flag ——

Description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is the traditional color of Islam



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 144,000 sq km land area: 133,910 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total: 4,246 km border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 nm continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: a portion of the boundary with India in dispute; water-sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Reng Tlang 957 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use: arable land: 67% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 4% forest and woodland: 16% other: 11%

Irrigated land: 27,380 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe overpopulation natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely flooded during the summer monsoon season international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea



People ———

Population: 123,062,800 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39% (male 24,434,219; female 23,436,359) 15-64 years: 58% (male 36,607,942; female 34,603,628) 65 years and over: 3% (male 2,175,017; female 1,805,635) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.85% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 30.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.86 years male: 56.02 years female: 55.69 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.57 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Bangladeshi(s) adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic divisions: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million

Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 38.1% male: 49.4% female: 26.1%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh conventional short form: Bangladesh former: East Pakistan

Data code: BG

Type of government: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi note: there may be two new divisions named Barisal and Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991) was elected for a five-year term by National Parliament; election last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results - Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Muhammad Habibur RAHMAN (since 31 March 1996) was appointed by the president (see note under Legislative branch entry) cabinet: Advisory Council was appointed by the president on 3 April 1996

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad): elections last held 15 February 1996 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for women) seats by party NA; note - the election was held despite the fact that it was boycotted by the major opposition parties; Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN's party won a landslide victory, but, under continuing pressure from the opposition, who called for an annulment of the results, National Parliament passed a bill that established a caretaker government to oversee new elections on a date yet to be determined; President BISWAS then dissolved Parliament and named a caretaker prime minister to replace Prime Minister ZIAur RAHMAN

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League (AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD (in jail); Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Motiur Rahman NIZAMI; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, Rashid Khan MENON; Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN; Ganotantri Party, leader NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR; Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

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