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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540 FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Marshall F. McCALLIE embassy: Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek telephone: [264] (61) 221601 FAX: [264] (61) 229792

Flag: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 25% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. More than half the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood. Namibia must import some of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.8 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.6% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,600 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (1994)

Labor force: 500,000 by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%, services 8%, government 7%, mining 6% (1981 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35% in urban areas (1993 est.)

Budget: revenues: $941 million expenditures: $1.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $157 million (FY93/94)

Industries: meat packing, fish processing, dairy products; mining (diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1994)

Electricity: capacity: 406,000 kW production: 1.29 billion kWh consumption per capita: 658 kWh (1991)

Agriculture: millet, sorghum, peanuts; livestock; fish catch potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle, processed fish, karakul skins partners: Switzerland, South Africa, Germany, UK

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment partners: South Africa, Germany, US, Japan

External debt: about $385 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: South African rand (R) per US$1 - 3.6417 (January 1996), 3.6266 (1995), 3.5490 (1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7653 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,382 km (1995) narrow gauge: 2,382 km 1.067-m gauge; single track

Highways: total: 54,186 km paved: 4,056 km unpaved: 50,130 km (1987 est.)

Ports: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 108 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 14 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 10 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 17 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 58 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 89,722 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 40, shortwave 0

Radios: 195,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 27,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 377,687 males fit for military service: 224,682 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $64 million, 2.1% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Nauru ——-



Map —-

Location: 0 32 S, 166 55 E — Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands



Flag ——

Description: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 21 sq km land area: 21 sq km comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater; phosphate mining threatens limited remaining land resources natural hazards: periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Dumping; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Geographic note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator



People ———

Population: 10,273 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.33% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 18.03 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.68 years male: 64.3 years female: 69.18 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nauruan(s) adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic divisions: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%

Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Languages: Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Nauru conventional short form: Nauru former: Pleasant Island

Data code: NR

Type of government: republic

Capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, New Zealand-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Lagumot HARRIS (since 22 November 1995) was elected by Parliament; election last held 18 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 1998) cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president from among members of Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament: election last held 18 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 1998); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (18 total) independents 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: Nauru does not have an embassy in the US

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves of which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World. Few other resources exist, so most necessities must be imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. Substantial amounts of phosphate income are invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition. However, dividends from the trusts have declined sharply since 1990 and the government has been borrowing from the trusts to finance fiscal deficits.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $100 million (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $10,000 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3.6% (1993)

Labor force: by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $23.8 million expenditures: $69.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92/93)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 14,000 kW production: 30 million kWh consumption per capita: 3,036 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coconuts predominate

Exports: $25.3 million (f.o.b., 1991) commodities: phosphates partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $21.1 million (c.i.f., 1991) commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery partners: Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

External debt: $33.3 million

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January 1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2834 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 3.9 km; note - used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways: total: 27 km paved: 21 km unpaved: 6 km (1986 est.)

Ports: Nauru

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2,000 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: adequate local and international radiotelephone communications provided via Australian facilities domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1986 est.)

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: NA males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Navassa Island ———————

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 18 25 N, 75 02 W — Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of the way from Haiti to Jamaica



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Geographic coordinates: 18 25 N, 75 02 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 5.2 sq km land area: 5.2 sq km comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Haiti

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high) lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: unnamed location on southwest side 77 m

Natural resources: guano

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 10% forest and woodland: 0% other: 90%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus



People ———

Population: uninhabited; note - transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the island



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Navassa Island

Data code: BQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast Guard

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Nepal ——-



Map —-

Location: 28 00 N, 84 00 E — Southern Asia, between China and India



Flag ——

Description: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 140,800 sq km land area: 136,800 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: total: 2,926 km border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower potential, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 33% other: 37%

Irrigated land: 9,430 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: the almost total dependence on wood for fuel and cutting down trees to expand agricultural land without replanting has resulted in widespread deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution (use of contaminated water presents human health risks) natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks



People ———

Population: 22,094,033 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 4,776,245; female 4,563,000) 15-64 years: 55% (male 6,172,821; female 5,945,626) 65 years and over: 3% (male 320,350; female 315,991) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.45% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.56 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female all ages: 1.04 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 79 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.63 years male: 53.35 years female: 53.93 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.06 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nepalese (singular and plural) adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas

Religions: Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981) note: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups

Languages: Nepali (official), 20 other languages divided into numerous dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 27.5% male: 40.9% female: 14%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal conventional short form: Nepal

Data code: NP

Type of government: parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991

Capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (succeeded to the throne 31 January 1972 following the death of his father King MAHENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev, crowned king 24 February 1975) is a constitutional monarch; Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 12 September 1995); note - in 1994, the king appointed Man Mohan ADHIKARI to be prime minister using the standard criterion - he was the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives following the last election; however, in September 1995, a parliamentary coalition of the Nepali Congress Party, the Rastriya Prajantra Party, the Nepal Sadbhavana Party, and independents voted against Prime Minister ADHIKARI; Sher Bahadur DEUBA, the leader of the Nepali Congress Party, then formed the new government and was appointed the new prime minister by the king cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the king on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament National Council: consists of 60 members (50 appointed by House of Representatives and 10 by the king) House of Representatives: elections last held 15 November 1994 (next to be held NA); results - NCP 33%, CPN/UML 31%, NDP 18%, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 3%, NWPP 1%; seats - (205 total) CPN/UML 88, NCP 83, NDP 20, NWPP 4, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 3, independents 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat), chief justice is appointed by the king on recommendation of the Constitutional Council, the other judges are appointed by the king on the recommendation of the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist and Leninist (CPN/UML), Man Mohan ADHIKARI, president; Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI (president), Girija Prasad KOIRALA, Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA; National Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Terai Rights Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party, Gajendra Narayan SINGH; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party (NWPP), leader NA; Nepal Sadbhavana Party, leader NA; Rastriya Prajantra Party, leader NA

Other political or pressure groups: numerous small, left-leaning student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Basudev Prasad DHUNGANA chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Sandra L. VOGELGESANG embassy: Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [977] (1) 411179 FAX: [977] (1) 419963

Flag: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over 80% of the population and accounting for about one-half of GDP. Industrial activity is limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for 85% of foreign exchange earnings in FY93/94. Apart from agricultural land and forests, exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, as compared with annual population growth of 2.6%. More than 40% of the population is undernourished. Since May 1991, the government has been moving forward with economic reforms particularly those that encourage trade and foreign investment, e.g., by eliminating business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify investment procedures. The government has also been cutting public expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state industries, and laying off civil servants. (In 1995 little progress was made in these areas because the communist government had trouble formulating and implementing policies.) The new coalition government is planning to pick up the pace of reforms in 1996, focusing primarily on raising revenues to develop the rural sector by increasing taxation and privatization. Prospects for foreign trade and investment, particularly in areas other than power development and tourism, will continue to remain poor because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, and its susceptibility to natural disaster. The international community provides funding for 62% of Nepal's developmental budget and for 34% of total budgetary expenditures.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $25.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 49.3% industry: 18.4% services: 32.3% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.7% (FY94/95)

Labor force: 8.5 million (1991 est.) by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2% note: severe lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%; substantial underemployment (1995)

Budget: revenues: $645 million expenditures: $1.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production

Industrial production growth rate: 14.7% (FY94/95 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 280,000 kW production: 920 million kWh consumption per capita: 41 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for heroin from Southeast Asia to the West

Exports: $430 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) but does not include unrecorded border trade with India commodities: carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain partners: India, US, Germany, UK

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10% partners: India, Singapore, Japan, Germany

External debt: $2.3 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $310 million (1993) note: western and Japanese bilateral aid $215 million; multilateral aid $43 million (1994-95)

Currency: 1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 56.636 (January 1996), 51.890 (1995), 49.398 (1994), 48.607 (1993), 42.718 (1992), 37.255 (1991)

Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 101 km; note - all in Terai close to Indian border narrow gauge: 101 km 0.762-m gauge

Highways: total: 9,933 km paved: 3,421 km unpaved: 6,512 km (1995 est.)

Ports: none

Airports: total: 43 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 27 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 10 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 82,774 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service domestic: NA international: radiotelephone communications; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 88, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 690,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 45,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service, Nepalese Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 5,329,345 males fit for military service: 2,768,887 males reach military age (17) annually: 254,590 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $36 million, 1.2% of GDP (FY92/93)



======================================================================



@Netherlands —————-



Map —-

Location: 52 30 N, 5 45 E — Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer



Geography ————-

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 30 N, 5 45 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 37,330 sq km land area: 33,920 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 1,027 km border countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast lowest point: Prins Alexanderpolder -7 m highest point: Vaalserberg 321 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil

Land use: arable land: 26% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 32% forest and woodland: 9% other: 32%

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain natural hazards: the extensive system of dikes and dams, protects nearly one-half of the total area from being flooded international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)



People ———

Population: 15,568,034 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 1,457,694; female 1,393,402) 15-64 years: 68% (male 5,412,402; female 5,228,579) 65 years and over: 14% (male 836,934; female 1,239,023) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.56% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.08 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.73 years male: 74.91 years female: 80.68 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women) adjective: Dutch

Ethnic divisions: Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)

Religions: Roman Catholic 34%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 3%, other 2%, unaffiliated 36% (1991)

Languages: Dutch

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.) total population: 99% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands conventional short form: Netherlands local long form: Koninkrijk de Nederlanden local short form: Nederland

Data code: NL

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 17 February 1983

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory; judicial review in the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather than Acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980) is a constitutional monarch; Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), Prince of Orange, son of Queen BEATRIX head of government: Prime Minister Willem (Wim) KOK (since 22 August 1994) and Vice Prime Ministers Hans DIJKSTAL (since 22 August 1994) and Hans VAN MIERLO (since 22 August 1994) were appointed by the queen cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature (Staten Generaal) First Chamber (Eerste Kamer): members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils for four-year terms; election last held 9 June 1995 (next to be held 9 June 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (75 total) number of seats by party NA Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer): members directly elected for four-year terms; elections last held 3 May 1994 (next to be held in 1998); results - PvdA 24.3%, CDA 22.3%, VVD 20.4%, D'66 16.5%, other 16.5%; seats - (150 total) PvdA 37, CDA 34, VVD 31, D'66 24, other 24

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad), justices are nominated for life by the crown from a list compiled by the Second Chamber of the Staten Generaal

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Hans HELGERS; Labor (PvdA), Felix ROTTENBERG; Liberal (VVD), Frits BOLKESTEIN; Democrats '66 (D66), Hans VAN MIERLO; a host of minor parties

Other political or pressure groups: large multinational firms; Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; the nondenominational Federation of Netherlands Enterprises; and Interchurch Peace Council (IKV)

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Adriaan JACOBOVITS DE SZEGED chancery: (temporary) 4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300 FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Kirk Terry DORNBUSH embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ The Hague mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715 telephone: [31] (70) 310-9209 FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688 consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer



Economy ———-

Economic overview: This highly developed and affluent economy is based on private enterprise. The government makes its presence felt, however, through many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare programs affecting most aspects of economic activity. The trade and financial services sector contributes over 50% of GDP. Industrial activity provides about 25% of GDP and is led by the food-processing, oil-refining, and metalworking industries. The highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 4% of the labor force, but provides large surpluses for export and the domestic food-processing industry. Indeed, the Netherlands ranks third worldwide in value of agricultural exports, behind the US and France. High unemployment and a sizable budget deficit are currently the most serious economic problems. Many of the economic issues of the 1990s will reflect the course of European economic integration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $301.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $19,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 3.4% industry: 26.9% services: 69.7% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.25% (1995)

Labor force: 6.4 million (1993) by occupation: services 73%, manufacturing and construction 23%, agriculture 4% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (fourth quarter 1995)

Budget: revenues: $109.9 billion expenditures: $122.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction, microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 17,520,000 kW production: 72.4 billion kWh consumption per capita: 5,100 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Illicit drugs: important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; European producer of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs

Exports: $146 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: metal products, chemicals, processed food and tobacco, agricultural products partners: EU 73% (Germany 28%, Belgium-Luxembourg 13%, UK 9%), Central and Eastern Europe 2%, US 5% (1994)

Imports: $133 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods, transportation equipment, crude oil, food products partners: EU 56% (Germany 21%, Belgium-Luxembourg 11%, UK 8.5%), US 8.6% (1994)

External debt: 0

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $2.525 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1 - 1.6365 (January 1996), 1.6057 (1995), 1.8200 (1994), 1.8573 (1993), 1.7585 (1992), 1.8697 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,891 km standard gauge: 2,891 km 1.435-m gauge; 2857 km are in common carrier service (1,991 km electrified) and 34 km serve tourists

Highways: total: 104,831 km paved: 92,251 km (including 2,118 km of expressways) unpaved: 12,580 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km

Ports: Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Groningen, Haarlem, Ijmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Utrecht

Merchant marine: total: 352 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,681,133 GRT/3,379,762 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 206, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk 3, container 34, liquefied gas tanker 13, livestock carrier 1, multifunction large-load carrier 2, oil tanker 38, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 16, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2 note: many Dutch-owned ships are operating under the registry of Netherlands Antilles (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 28 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 8 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 6 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 8.272 million (1983 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed and well maintained; extensive redundant system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by microwave radio relay domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; microwave radio relay international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (relays 3), FM 12 (repeaters 39), shortwave 0

Radios: 13.755 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (repeaters 7)

Televisions: 7.4 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal Constabulary

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 4,191,998 males fit for military service: 3,670,253 males reach military age (20) annually: 94,013 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $8.2 billion, 2.1% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Netherlands Antilles ——————————

(part of the Dutch realm)

Map —-

Location: 12 15 N, 68 45 W — Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - one includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela and the other is east of the Virgin Islands



Flag ——

Description: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a vertical red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - one includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela and the other is east of the Virgin Islands

Geographic coordinates: 12 15 N, 68 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 960 sq km land area: 960 sq km comparative area: more than five times the size of Washington, DC note: includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 92%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt, so are rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes from July to October international agreements: party to - Whaling (extended from Netherlands)



People ———

Population: 208,968 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.03% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15.98 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.29 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.06 years male: 74.78 years female: 79.46 years (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Netherlands Antillean(s) adjective: Netherlands Antillean

Ethnic divisions: mixed African 85%, Carib Indian, European, Latin, Oriental

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect predominates, English widely spoken, Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.) total population: 98% male: 98% female: 99%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Netherlands Antilles local long form: none local short form: Nederlandse Antillen

Data code: NT

Type of government: part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954

Capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Dutch realm)

Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (of the Netherlands since 30 April 1980) is a constitutional monarch, represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October 1989), who was appointed for a six-year term by the queen head of government: Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 25 February 1994) was appointed by the Staten cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the Staten

Legislative branch: unicameral Staten: elections last held 25 February 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (23 total) PAR 8, PNP 3, SPA 2, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, DP 1, WIPM 1, DP-St.E 1, DP-St.M 1, Nos Patria 1 note: the government of Prime Minister Miguel POURIER is a coalition of several parties

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: political parties are indigenous to each island Bonaire: Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS; Democratic Party of Bonaire (PDB), Broertje JANJA Curacao: Antillean Restructuring Party (PAR), Miguel POURIER; National People's Party (PNP), Maria LIBERIA-PETERS; New Antilles Movement (MAN), Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front (FOL), Wilson (Papa) GODETT; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK and Nelson MONTE; Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ; Nos Patria, Chin BEHILIA Saba: Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Ray HASSELL; Saba Democratic Labor Movement, Steve HASSELL; Saba Unity Party, Carmen SIMMONDS Sint Eustatius: Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E), Julian WOODLEY; Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius Alliance (SEA), Ingrid WHITFIELD Sint Maarten: Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M), Sarah WESTCOTT-WILLIAMS; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), Vance JAMES; Serious Alternative People's Party (SAPP) Julian ROLLOCKS

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS consulate general(s): J.B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao telephone: [599] (9) 61-3066 FAX: [599] (9) 61-6489

Flag: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed on a vertical red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Tourism and offshore finance are the mainstays of this small economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with Venezuela and the US being the major suppliers. Poor soils and inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.92 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1.8% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $10,400 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 89,000 by occupation: government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1993 est.)

Budget: revenues: $209 million expenditures: $232 million, including capital expenditures of $8 million (1992 est.)

Industries: tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 200,000 kW production: 810 million kWh consumption per capita: 4,054 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: aloes, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, tropical fruit

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transshipment point for South American cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: petroleum products 98% partners: US 39%, Brazil 9%, Colombia 6%

Imports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures partners: Venezuela 26%, US 18%, Colombia 6%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5%

External debt: $1.95 billion (December 1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins (NAf.) per US$1 - 1.790 (fixed rate since 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 944 km paved: 299 km unpaved: 645 km (1985 est.)

Ports: Kralendijk, Philipsburg, Willemstad

Merchant marine: total: 119 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,141,003 GRT/1,490,958 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 38, chemical tanker 7, combination bulk 1, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 4, multifunction large-load carrier 18, oil tanker 9, passenger 4, refrigerated cargo 27, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 4 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: generally adequate facilities domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 205,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 64,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal Netherlands Air Force, National Guard, Police Force

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands



======================================================================



@New Caledonia ——————-

(overseas territory of France)

Map —-

Location: 21 30 S, 165 30 E — Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia



Flag ——

Description: three horizontal bands, blue (top), red, and green, with a yellow disk enclosing a black symbol centered to the hoist side; the flag of France is used for official occasions



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 165 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 19,060 sq km land area: 18,575 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Matthew and Hunter Islands claimed by France and Vanuatu

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 14% forest and woodland: 51% other: 35%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: typhoons most frequent from November to March international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: 187,784 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30% (male 28,941; female 27,929) 15-64 years: 64% (male 61,263; female 59,673) 65 years and over: 6% (male 4,750; female 5,228) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.72% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 21.75 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.88 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.35 years male: 71.06 years female: 77.8 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.53 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: New Caledonian(s) adjective: New Caledonian

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

Languages: French, 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.) total population: 91% male: 92% female: 90%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies conventional short form: New Caledonia local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie

Data code: NC

Type of government: overseas territory of France since 1956

Capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and Sud

Independence: none (overseas territory of France; a referendum on independence will be held in 1998)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands; formerly under French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) represented by High Commissioner and President of the Council of Government Dominque BUR (since NA), who was appointed by the French Ministry of the Interior head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Pierre FROGIER (since NA) was elected by the members of the Assembly cabinet: Consultative Committee

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly: elections last held 9 July 1995 (next to be held NA July 2001); results - percent by party NA; seats - (54 total) RPCR 22, NCPT 7, other anti-independence parties 6, FLNKS 12, other pro-independence parties 7 French Senate: elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA September 2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) RPCR 1 French National Assembly: elections last held 21 March 1993 (next to be held 21 and 28 March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) RPCR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: white-dominated Rassemblement pour la Caledonie dans la Republique (RPCR), conservative, Jacques LAFLEUR, president - affiliated to France's Rassemblement pour la Republique (RPR; also called South Province Party); Melanesian proindependence Kanaka Socialist National Liberation Front (FLNKS), Rock WAMYTAN; Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist Liberation (LKS), Nidoish NAISSELINE; National Front (FN), extreme right, Guy GEORGE; Caledonie Demain (CD), right-wing, Bernard MARANT; Union Oceanienne (UO), conservative, Michel HEMA; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak (FULK), proindependence, Clarence UREGEI; Union Caledonian (UC), Francois BURCK, president; "1999" (new party calling for an autonomous state), Philippe PENTECOST; Nouvelle-Caledonie Pour Toute (NCPT)

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas territory of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag: three horizontal bands, blue (top), red, and green, with a yellow disk enclosing a black symbol centered to the hoist side; the flag of France is used for official occasions



Economy ———-

Economic overview: New Caledonia has more than 20% of the world's known nickel resources. In recent years, the economy has suffered because of depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 35% services: 60% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (1990)

Labor force: 70,044 (1988) by occupation: agriculture 32%, industry 20%, services 40%, mines 8% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1994)

Budget: revenues: $540 million expenditures: $540 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

Industries: nickel mining and smelting

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 250,000 kW production: 1.2 billion kWh consumption per capita: 6,178 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: vegetables; beef, other livestock products

Exports: $477 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: nickel metal 22%, nickel ore partners: France 32.2%, Japan 23.5%, Germany 6.7%, US 3.6%, India 1.2%

Imports: $926 million (c.i.f., 1992) commodities: foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical equipment partners: France 46.3%, ECE 14.9%, Australia 10.2%, Japan 6.3%, New Zealand 4.4%

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 91.00 (January 1996), 90.75 (1995), 100.93 (1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 6,340 km paved: 634 km unpaved: 5,706 km (1987 est.)

Ports: Mueo, Noumea, Thio

Merchant marine: total: 1 roll-on/roll-off ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,079 GRT/724 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 28 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 12 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 12 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 7 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 38,748 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 97,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7

Televisions: 47,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: French Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie); Police Force

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@New Zealand —————-



Map —-

Location: 41 00 S, 174 00 E — Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 268,680 sq km land area: 268,670 sq km comparative area: about the size of Colorado note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 53% forest and woodland: 38% other: 7%

Irrigated land: 2,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: about 80% of the population lives in cities



People ———

Population: 3,547,983 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23% (male 420,900; female 400,159) 15-64 years: 65% (male 1,161,522; female 1,154,536) 65 years and over: 12% (male 177,182; female 233,684) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.12% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15.78 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.72 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.01 years male: 73.96 years female: 80.21 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: New Zealander(s) adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic divisions: European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander 2.9%, other 0.2%

Religions: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 99%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: New Zealand abbreviation: NZ

Data code: NZ

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions (Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*, Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne, Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*, Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie, Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*, Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato, South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa, Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch, represented by Governor General Sir Michael HARDIE BOYS (since 21 March 1996) head of government: Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October 1990) and Deputy Prime Minister Donald McKINNON (since 2 November 1990) were appointed by the governor general cabinet: Executive Council was appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (commonly called Parliament): elections last held 6 November 1993 (next must be called by November 1996); results - NP 35.2%, NZLP 34.7%, Alliance 18.3%, New Zealand First 8.3%; seats - (99 total) NP 50, NZLP 45, Alliance 2, New Zealand First Party 2

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: National Party (NP, government), James BOLGER; New Zealand Labor Party (NZLP, opposition), Helen CLARK; Alliance, Jim ANDERTON; Democratic Party, Dick RYAN; New Zealand Liberal Party, Hanmish MACINTYRE and Gilbert MYLES; Green Party, no official leader; Mana Motuhake, Sandra LEE; Socialist Unity Party (SUP, pro-Soviet), leader NA; New Zealand First, Winston PETERS; United New Zealand (UNZ), Clive MATTHEWSON; Conservative Party (formerly Right of Centre Party), Trevor ROGERS; Association of Consumers and Taxpayers, New Zealand (ACT), Richard PREBBLE; Christian Democrats, Graeme LEE; Christian Heritage Party (CH), Rev. Graham CAPILL note: the New Zealand Liberal, New Labor, Democratic, and Mana Motuhake parties formed a coalition called the Alliance Party in September 1991; the Green Party joined the coalition in May 1992; the National Party government formed a coalition with the United New Zealand Party in February 1996; the coalition will be valid through the 1996 elections

International organization participation: ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel John WOOD chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800 consulate(s) general: Apia (Western Samoa), Los Angeles

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Josiah Horton BEEMAN embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001 telephone: [64] (4) 472-2068 FAX: [64] (4) 472-3537 consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market toward a more industrialized, open, free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, broaden and deepen the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The initial results were mixed: inflation is down from double-digit levels, but growth was sluggish in 1988-91. In 1992-93, growth picked up to 3% annually, a sign that the new economic approach was beginning to pay off. Business confidence strengthened in 1994, and export demand picked up in the Asia-Pacific region, resulting in 6.2% growth. Growth continued strong in 1995, and inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world. The government announced its first budget surplus in 16 years in FY94/95 and forecasts a surplus of $5.0 billion in FY97/98. The government intends to use the surplus to reduce the debt, increase social spending, and cut taxes - by $1.35 billion over two years beginning in 1996. Per capita GDP now is up to the levels of the big West European economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $62.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $18,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 7.3% industry: 25.9% services: 66.8% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (FY95/96)

Labor force: 1,634,500 (September 1995) by occupation: services 64.6%, industry 25.0%, agriculture 10.4% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 6.1% (October 1995)

Budget: revenues: $22.18 billion expenditures: $20.28 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 7,520,000 kW production: 30.5 billion kWh consumption per capita: 8,401 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, meat, dairy products; fish catch reached a record 503,000 metric tons in 1988

Exports: $13.41 billion (1995) commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fish, cheese, chemicals, forestry products, fruits and vegetables, manufactures partners: Australia 20%, Japan 15%, US 12%, UK 6%

Imports: $13.62 billion (1995) commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, consumer goods partners: Australia 21%, US 18%, Japan 16%, UK 6%

External debt: $38.5 billion (September 1994)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $98 million (1993)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5138 (January 1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 3,973 km narrow gauge: 3,973 km 1.067-m gauge (504 km electrified)

Highways: total: 93,348 km paved: 54,142 km (including 141 km of expressways) unpaved: 39,206 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; condensate (liquefied petroleum gas - LPG) 150 km

Ports: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington

Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 162,220 GRT/213,749 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 3, railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 113 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 8 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 31 with paved runways under 914 m: 50 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 21 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1.7 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: excellent international and domestic systems domestic: NA international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 64, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.215 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 14 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 1.53 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 927,212 males fit for military service: 780,976 males reach military age (20) annually: 27,433 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $556 million, 1% of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Nicaragua ————-



Map —-

Location: 13 00 N, 85 00 W — Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 85 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 129,494 sq km land area: 120,254 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

Land boundaries: total: 1,231 km border countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 25-nm security zone continental shelf: natural prolongation territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; with respect to the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) referred the disputants to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required; maritime boundary dispute with Honduras

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish

Land use: arable land: 9% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 43% forest and woodland: 35% other: 12%

Irrigated land: 850 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and occasionally severe hurricanes international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea



People ———

Population: 4,272,352 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 951,254; female 938,599) 15-64 years: 53% (male 1,105,069; female 1,164,144) 65 years and over: 3% (male 49,027; female 64,259) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 33.83 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.72 years male: 63.41 years female: 68.13 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.03 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Nicaraguan(s) adjective: Nicaraguan

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%

Languages: Spanish (official) note: English- and Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 65.7% male: 64.6% female: 66.6%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua conventional short form: Nicaragua local long form: Republica de Nicaragua local short form: Nicaragua

Data code: NU

Type of government: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 2 autonomous regions* (regions autonomista, singular - region autonomista); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Atlantica Norte*, Atlantica Sur*, Rio San Juan, Rivas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990) was elected for a six-year term (amended to a five-year term in July 1995) by universal suffrage; Vice President Julia MENA Rivera (since 22 October 1995) replaced Virgilio GODOY, who resigned to run for the presidency in 1996 as required by law; election last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held 20 October 1996); results - Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 40.8%, other 4.5% cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional): elections last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held NA October 1996); results - UNO coalition 53.9%, Sandinista bloc 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats - (92 total) UNO coalition 53 (Center Group 9, UDC 6, PSD 5, APC 5, PLC 5, PLI 4, PND 3, PAN 3, PNC 3, MDN 2, PCdeN 2, independents 6) and Sandinista bloc 39 (MRS 16, BUS-Sandinista 9, FSLN 8, Sandinista Group of Reflection 4, FSLN-independents 2)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges elected for a six-year term (amended to a seven-year term in July 1995) by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: right: Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Arnold ALEMAN; Conservative Popular Alliance Party (APC), Myriam ARGUELLO; Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN), Carlos GUERRA Gallardo; Conservative Action Movement (MAC); Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN - formed in 1992 by the merger of the Conservative Social Party or PSC with the Democratic Conservative Party or PCD and the Conservative party of Labor or PCL), Fernando AGUERO; National Conservative Party (PNC), Adolfo CALERO, Noel VIDUARRE center right: Neoliberal Party (PALI), Ricardo VEGA Garcia; Nicaraguan Resistance Party (PRN), Fabio GADEA, Enrique QUINONEZ; Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO; National Project (PRONAL), Antonio LACAYO Oyanguren; Nicaraguan Democratic Alliance Party (PADENIC), Pedro MAYORGA Knilands; Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN), Roberto CASTILLO Quant; Party for Liberal Unity (PUL), Haroldo MONTEALEGRE; Fuerza '96, Francesco MAYORGA center left: Christian Democratic Union (UDC), Luis Humberto GUZMAN; Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Alfredo GUZMAN; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Adolfo JARQUIN; National Justice Party (PJN), Jorge DIAZ Cruz; National Action Party (PAN), Delvis MONTIEL; Renovating Action Movement (MAR), Pablo HERNANDEZ; Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS), Sergio RAMIREZ; Social Christian Party (PCS), Erick RAMIREZ; Democratic Action Party (PAD), Eden PASTORA; "Up with Nicaragua" (Arriba Nicaragua), Alvaro ROBELO; National Democratic Party (PND), Alfredo CESAR Aquirre; Communist Party of Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli ALTIMIRANO Perez left: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA; Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA; Popular Action Movement-Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ; Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo TABLADA; Unidad Nicaraguense de Obreros, Campesinos, y Profesionales (UNOCP), Rosalio GONZALEZ Urbina; Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS Echaverry note: the UNO coalition that won the 1990 elections no longer exists; the different blocs that formerly were united under the UNO umbrella and their opposition to the Sandinistas now act and vote independently

Other political or pressure groups: National Workers Front (FNT) is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions: Sandinista Workers' Central (CST); Farm Workers Association (ATC); Health Workers Federation (FETASALUD); National Union of Employees (UNE); National Association of Educators of Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists of Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations (CONAPRO); and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers (UNAG); Permanent Congress of Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions: Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS); Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent General Confederation of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a confederation of business groups

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto Genaro MAYORGA Cortes chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570 consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador John F. MAISTO embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua mailing address: APO AA 34021 telephone: [505] (2) 666010 through 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032 through 33 FAX: [505] (2) 669074

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Nicaraguan economy, devastated during the 1980s by economic mismanagement and civil war, is beginning to rebound. Since March 1991, when President CHAMORRO launched an ambitious economic stabilization program, Nicaragua has had considerable success in reducing inflation and obtaining substantial economic aid from abroad. Annual inflation fell from more than 750% in 1991 to less than 5% in 1992. After rising again to an estimated 20% in 1993, the annual inflation rate was 11.7% in 1994 and 11.4% in 1995. While economic growth was flat in 1992 and negative in 1993, the 1995 growth rate is about 4%, thanks to surges in most export categories. Recent legislation (November 1995) authorizing the privatization of the TELCOR telecommunications company and resolving the issue of property confiscated by the previous Sandinista government may reassure potential investors. The government's efforts to liberalize trade include a December 1995 decision to stop requiring exporters to bring their foreign exchange earnings into Nicaragua. On the debt front, the Nicaraguan Government launched a successful debt buyback program in 1995, purchasing 73% of its $1.373 billion commercial debt inherited from previous governments. Progress also occurred on reducing bilateral debt in November 1995 as Nicaragua reached an agreement with Germany, reducing Nicaragua's $616 million debt to the former GDR by 80%. Debt reduction agreements with Paris Club creditors and rescheduling with the US also took place. Unemployment remains a pressing problem, however, with roughly half the country's population unemployed or underemployed.

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