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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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International disputes: claims Clipperton Island (French possession)

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus, and desert lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 39% forest and woodland: 24% other: 24%

Irrigated land: 51,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; serious air pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast, destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Gulf and Caribbean coasts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

Geographic note: strategic location on southern border of US



People ———

Population: 95,772,462 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 36% (male 17,732,725; female 17,125,562) 15-64 years: 59% (male 27,562,285; female 29,165,138) 65 years and over: 5% (male 1,911,968; female 2,274,784) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.87% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 26.24 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.58 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.67 years male: 70.07 years female: 77.45 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.03 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mexican(s) adjective: Mexican

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, Caucasian or predominantly Caucasian 9%, other 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%

Languages: Spanish, various Mayan dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 89.6% male: 91.8% female: 87.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: United Mexican States conventional short form: Mexico local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos local short form: Mexico

Data code: MX

Type of government: federal republic operating under a centralized government

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (since 1 December 1994) was elected for a six-year term by popular vote; election last held 21 August 1994 (next to be held NA 2000); results - Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (PRI) 50.18%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 17.08%, Diego FERNANDEZ DE CEVALLOS (PAN) 26.69%; other 6.049% cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union) Senate (Camara de Senadores): elections last held 21 August 1994 (next to be held NA July 1997 for one-quarter of the seats); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats in full Senate - (128 total; Senate expanded from 64 seats at the last election) PRI 93, PRD 25, PAN 10 Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 24 August 1994 (next to be held NA July 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (500 total) PRI 300, PAN 119, PRD 71, PT 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), judges are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Santiago ONATE Laborde; National Action Party (PAN), Carlos CASTILLO; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Porfirio MUNOZ Ledo; Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes; Democratic Forum Party (PFD), Pablo Emilio MADERO; Mexican Green Ecologist Party (PVEM), Jorge GONZALEZ Torres; Workers Party (PT), Alberto ANYA Gutierrez

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church; Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM); Confederation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN); Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce (CONCANACO); National Peasant Confederation (CNC); Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT); Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC); Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM); Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX); National Chamber of Transformation Industries (CANACINTRA); Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations (COECE); Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services (FESEBES)

International organization participation: AG (observer), APEC, BCIE, Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECD, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jesus SILVA Herzog Flores chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006 telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Albuquerque, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Loredo, McAllen (Texas), Midland (Texas), Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, Santa Ana, Seattle

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador James R. JONES embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal mailing address: P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087 telephone: [52] (5) 211-0042 FAX: [52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373 consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Mexico entered 1996 on the heels of its worst recession since the 1930s. Economic activity contracted about 7% in 1995 in the aftermath of the peso devaluation in late 1994. Although Mexico City was able to correct imbalances in its external accounts, meet international payments obligations, and dramatically improve its trade balance in 1995, the domestic economy suffered harshly as the ZEDILLO administration stuck to a strict austerity program. The tight monetary and fiscal policies helped prevent spiraling inflation and kept government spending under control but drove interest rates to record heights, making it difficult for most Mexicans to service their debts. At the same time, consumers' reduced purchasing power made buying even necessities difficult for some. Many small- and medium-sized firms were unable to survive under the twin burdens of high interest rates and depressed domestic demand for their goods. Business closures and cutbacks fueled unemployment; more than 1 million Mexicans lost their jobs. According to the government and most private sector observers, the recession bottomed out in the third quarter of 1995, but the difficult year fed growing dissatisfaction with the ruling party, led to a crisis of confidence in President ZEDILLO'S ability to lead, and spurred increased tensions within the ruling party. While the ZEDILLO administration is optimistic that 1996 will bring some recovery - the government is forecasting 3% growth and 21% inflation - Mexico will face several key vulnerabilities, including the financial health of the banking sector, shaky investor confidence that could be easily jarred by more political or economic shocks, and increasingly emboldened dissenters within the ruling party.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $721.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -6.9% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $7,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 8.5% industry: 28.4% services: 63.1%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 52% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 33.6 million (1994) by occupation: services 31.7%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing 28%, commerce 14.6%, manufacturing 11.1%, construction 8.4%, transportation 4.7%, mining and quarrying 1.5%

Unemployment rate: 10% (1995 est.) plus considerable underemployment

Budget: revenues: $56 billion (1995 est.) expenditures: $54 billion (1995 est.), including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: -7.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 28,780,000 kW production: 122 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,239 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis continues in spite of increasing government eradication; major supplier of heroin and marijuana to the US market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America; increasingly involved in the production and distribution of methamphetamine

Exports: $80 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.), includes in-bond industries commodities: crude oil, oil products, coffee, silver, engines, motor vehicles, cotton, consumer electronics partners: US 85%, Japan 1.6%, EU 4.6% (1994 est.)

Imports: $72 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.), includes in-bond industries commodities: metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts partners: US 69%, Japan 6%, EU 12% (1994 est.)

External debt: $155 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $85 million (1993) note: US commitments, (Emergency Stabilization Fund), $13.5 billion; IMF, $13 billion (1995-96)

Currency: 1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 7.6647 (December 1995), 6.4194 (1995), 3.3751 (1994), 3.1156 (1993), 3,094.9 (1992), 3,018.4 (1991) note: the new peso replaced the old peso on 1 January 1993; 1 new peso = 1,000 old pesos

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 20,567 km standard gauge: 20,477 km 1.435-m gauge (246 km electrified) narrow gauge: 90 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 245,433 km paved: 88,601 km (including 4,286 km of expressways) unpaved: 156,832 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km

Ports: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, La Paz, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz

Merchant marine: total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 875,314 GRT/1,245,932 DWT ships by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 29, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 1,411 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 9 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 25 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 88 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 66 with paved runways under 914 m: 815 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 50 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 358 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 11,890,868 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed system with extensive microwave radio relay links; privatized in December 1990 domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); launched Solidaridad I satellite in November 1993 and Solidaridad II in October 1994, giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections

Radio broadcast stations: AM 679, FM 0, shortwave 22

Radios: 22.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 238

Televisions: 13.1 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: National Defense (includes Army and Air Force), Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 23,945,962 males fit for military service: 17,451,706 males reach military age (18) annually: 1,057,538 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.24 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1996)



======================================================================



@Micronesia, Federated States of ———————————————-



Map —-

Location: 6 55 N, 158 15 E — Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia



Flag ——

Description: light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 15 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 702 sq km land area: 702 sq km comparative area: four times the size of Washington, DC note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk) Islands, Yap Islands, and Kosrae

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional severe damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Totolom 791 m

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: typhoons (June to December) international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

Geographic note: four major island groups totaling 607 islands



People ———

Population: 125,377 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: 35% (est.) 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.34% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 27.94 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.22 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 35.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.99 years male: 66.02 years female: 69.99 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.96 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Micronesian(s) adjective: Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic divisions: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, other and none 3%

Languages: English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 89% male: 91% female: 88%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia conventional short form: none former: Kosrae, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) abbreviation: FSM

Data code: FM

Type of government: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986

Capital: Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei) note: a new capital is being built about 10 km southwest in the Palikir valley

Administrative divisions: 4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk (Truk), Yap

Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia, 10 May (1979)

Constitution: 10 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Bailey OLTER (since 21 May 1991) and Vice President Jacob NENA (since 21 May 1991) were elected by the Congress from among the four Senators-at-Large; election last held 11 May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1999); results - Bailey OLTER reelected to a second term as president; Jacob NENA reelected to a second term as vice president cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress: elections last held 7 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (14 total) independents 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU chancery: 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4383 FAX: [1] (202) 223-4391 consulate(s) general: Honolulu and Tamuning (Guam)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador March Fong EU embassy: address NA, Kolonia mailing address: P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia 96941 telephone: [691] 320-2187 FAX: [691] 320-2186

Flag: light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the US is the primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1 billion in the islands in the 1990s. Geographical isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $205 million (1994 est.) note: GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging perhaps $100 million annually

GDP real growth rate: 1.4% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,700 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1994 est.)

Labor force: NA by occupation: two-thirds are government employees

Unemployment rate: 27% (1989)

Budget: revenues: $45 million expenditures: $31 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 18,000 kW production: 40 million kWh consumption per capita: 380 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: black pepper, tropical fruits and vegetables, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, chickens

Exports: $29.1 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: fish, garments, bananas, black pepper partners: Japan, US, Guam

Imports: $141.1 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, beverages partners: US, Japan, Australia

External debt: $129 million

Economic aid: recipient: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 226 km paved: 39 km unpaved: 187 km

Ports: Colonia (Yap), Kolonia (Pohnpei), Lele, Moen

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 5 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 960

Telephone system: domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 17,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,290 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Midway Islands ———————

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 28 13 N, 177 22 W — Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo

Geographic coordinates: 28 13 N, 177 22 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 5.2 sq km land area: 5.2 sq km comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC note: includes Eastern Island and Sand Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 4 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: a coral atoll; closed to the public



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 453 US military personnel (July 1995 est.)



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Midway Islands

Data code: MQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US formerly administered by the US Navy, under Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division; this facility has been operationally closed since 10 September 1993 and is currently undergoing transfer of accountability and responsibility to the US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is based on providing support services for remaining activities located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity: supplied by US Military



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 32 km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports: Sand Island

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Moldova ———-



Map —-

Location: 47 00 N, 29 00 E — Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania



Flag ——

Description: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total area: 33,700 sq km land area: 33,700 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries: total: 1,389 km border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea lowest point: Nistru River 2 m highest point: Mount Balaneshty 430 m

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum

Land use: arable land: 50% permanent crops: 13% meadows and pastures: 9% forest and woodland: 0% other: 28%

Irrigated land: 2,920 sq km (1990)

Environment: current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 4,463,847 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 592,245; female 573,452) 15-64 years: 64% (male 1,381,017; female 1,496,428) 65 years and over: 10% (male 155,908; female 264,797) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.18% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 16.3 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.75 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female all ages: 0.91 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.14 years male: 60.77 years female: 69.73 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.17 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s) adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic divisions: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures) note: internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Dniester region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000 members) (1991) note: the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.) total population: 96% male: 99% female: 94%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Moldova conventional short form: Moldova local long form: Republica Moldova local short form: none former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Data code: MD

Type of government: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; new districts possible under new constitution in 1994

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and OSCE documents

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990) was elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last held 8 December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1996); results - Mircea SNEGUR ran unopposed and won 98.17% of vote; note - President SNEGUR was named executive president by the Supreme Soviet on 3 September 1990 and was confirmed by popular election on 8 December 1991 head of government: Prime Minister Andrei SANGHELI (since 1 July 1992; reappointed 5 April 1994 after elections for new legislature) was appointed by Parliament; First Deputy Prime Minister Ion GUTU (since NA April 1994) cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament: elections last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (104 total) PDAM 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, FPCDM 9; note - seats as of June-July 1995 were as follows: PDAM 45, PSM/UN 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, PRCM 11, FPCDM 9 note: the comparative breakdown of seats by faction is approximate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Popular Front (FPCDM - formerly Moldovan Popular Front), Iurie ROSCA, chairman; Socialist Unity Faction (US) of the Socialist Party of Moldova (PSM), Vladimir SOLONARI, leader; Social Democratic Party of Moldova (PSDM), Anatol TARAN, chairman; Agrarian Democratic Party of Moldova (PDAM), Dumitru MOTPAN, chairman; Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc, Mihai GHIMPU, leader; Liberal Party of Modova (PLM), Mircea RUSU, chairman; Socialist Party of Moldova (PSM), Valeriu SENIC and Victor MOREV, cochairmen; Party of Rivival and Conciliation of Moldova (PRCM), Mircea SNEGUR, chairman; Moldovan Party of Democratic Forces (PFDM), Valeriu MATEI, chairman; Party for Social Progress (PPSM), Eugen SOBOR, chairman; Communist Party (PCM), Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman; Yedinstvo Intermovement, Vladimir SOLONARI, chairman, note - this party may not be in existence now

Other political or pressure groups: United Council of Labor Collectives (UCLC), Igor SMIRNOV, chairman; The Ecology Movement of Moldova (EMM), G. MALARCHUK, chairman; The Christian Democratic League of Women of Moldova (CDLWM), L. LARI, chairman; National Christian Party of Moldova (NCPM), D. TODIKE, M. BARAGA, V. NIKU, leaders; The Peoples Movement Gagauz Khalky (GKh), S. GULGAR, leader; The Democratic Party of Gagauzia (DPG), G. SAVOSTIN, chairman; The Alliance of Working People of Moldova (AWPM), G. POLOGOV, president; Christian Alliance for Greater Romania; Stefan the Great Movement; Liberal Convention of Moldova; Association of Victims of Repression; Christian Democratic Youth League

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae TAU chancery: Suites 329, 333, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 783-3012 FAX: [1] (202) 783-3342

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador John Todd STEWART embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevich #103, Chisinau 277014 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72 FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas. Energy shortages have contributed to sharp production declines since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Moldovan Government has been making steady progress on an ambitious economic reform agenda, and the IMF has called Moldova a model for the region. As part of its reform efforts, Chisinau has introduced a stable convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises and backed their steady privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. Chisinau appears strongly committed to continuing these reforms in 1996. Published estimates probably overstated the decline in output in 1991-94; the $2,310 per capita figure for GDP thus is a minimum estimate.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.4 billion (1995 estimate extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: -3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,310 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 33% industry: 36% services: 31% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 24% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.03 million (January 1994) by occupation: agriculture 34.4%, industry 20.1%, other 45.5% (1985 figures)

Unemployment rate: 1.2% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (December 1995)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA note: budget deficit for 1995 approximately 5% of GDP

Industries: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -6% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 3,000,000 kW production: 8.2 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,830 kWh (1994)

Agriculture: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; meat, milk

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

Exports: $720 million (1995) commodities: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear, machinery, chemicals partners: Russia, Kazakstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany

Imports: $822 million (1995) commodities: oil, gas, coal, steel, machinery, foodstuffs, automobiles, and other consumer durables partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany

External debt: $550 million (of which $250 million to Russia)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $46 million (1993) note: commitments, $1,335 million ($500 million disbursements), 1992-95

Currency: the leu (plural lei) was introduced in late 1993

Exchange rates: lei per US$1 - 4.5460 (January 1996), 4.4990 (1995), 4.2700 (1994), 3.6400 (1993), 0.4145 (1992), 0.0017 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,328 km broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways: total: 14,508 km paved: 12,346 km unpaved: 2,162 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports: none

Airports: total: 26 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 3 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telecommunication system not well developed; 215,000 unsatisfied requests for telephone service (1991 est.) domestic: NA international: international connections to other former Soviet republics by landline and microwave radio relay through Ukraine and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth stations - 1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 5, shortwave NA (1994)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one national and one private) (1995)

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,125,538 males fit for military service: 888,757 males reach military age (18) annually: 37,183 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 203 million lei, 2.5% of GDP (1995); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Monaco ———



Map —-

Location: 43 44 N, 7 24 E — Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red



Geography ————-

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 1.9 sq km land area: 1.9 sq km comparative area: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 4.4 km border country: France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Geographic note: second smallest independent state in world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban



People ———

Population: 31,719 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 2,737; female 2,685) 15-64 years: 63% (male 9,746; female 10,318) 65 years and over: 20% (male 2,288; female 3,945) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.59% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.66 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.11 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female all ages: 0.87 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.07 years male: 74.38 years female: 81.93 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s) adjective: Monacan or Monegasque

Ethnic divisions: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Principality of Monaco conventional short form: Monaco local long form: Principaute de Monaco local short form: Monaco

Data code: MN

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since NA November 1949) is a hereditary monarch; Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958) head of government: Minister of State Jaques DUPONT (since NA 1995) was appointed by the prince from a list of three candidates presented by the French Government cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the prince

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council (Conseil National): elections last held 24 and 31 January 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total) Campora List 15, Medecin List 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union (UND); Campora List, Anne-Marie CAMPORA; Medecin List, Jean-Louis MEDECIN

International organization participation: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in US: Monaco does not have an embassy in the US consulate(s): New York honorary consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico) honorary consulate(s): Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited to ======================================================================



@Mongolia ————



Map —-

Location: 46 00 N, 105 00 E — Northern Asia, between China and Russia



Flag ——

Description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 1.565 million sq km land area: 1.565 million sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 8,114 km border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 79% forest and woodland: 10% other: 10%

Irrigated land: 770 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia



People ———

Population: 2,496,617 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38% (male 486,321; female 471,931) 15-64 years: 58% (male 722,485; female 723,065) 65 years and over: 4% (male 39,704; female 53,111) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.69% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 25.55 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.65 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.75 years male: 58.8 years female: 62.8 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s) adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic divisions: Mongol 90%, Kazak 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4% note: previously limited religious activity because of communist regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1988 est.) total population: 82.9% male: 88.6% female: 77.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Mongolia local long form: none local short form: Mongol Uls former: Outer Mongolia

Data code: MG

Type of government: republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: adopted 13 January 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990) was nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected in general presidential elections for a four-year term; election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with 57.8% of the vote, other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP) head of government: Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH (since NA October 1992) and Choijilsurengiyn PUREVDORJ (since NA September 1990) were appointed by the State Great Hural cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the State Great Hural

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural: elections held for the first time 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA June 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) MPRP 71, United Party of Mongolia 4, MSDP 1 note: the People's Small Hural no longer exists

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval of the Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Budragchagiin DASH-YONDON, secretary general; Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP), D. GANBOLD, chairman; Mongolian Social Democratic Party (MSDP), B. BATBAYAR, chairman; United Party of Mongolia, leader NA note: opposition parties were legalized in May 1990

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117 FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [976] (1) 329095, 329606 FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important sectors. The Mongolian leadership has been gradually making the transition from Soviet-style central planning to a market economy through privatization and price reform and has been soliciting support from international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy, however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid. The country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships, with one-fourth of the population below the poverty line.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,970 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 28% industry: 35% services: 37% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 53% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 1.115 million (mid-1993 est.) by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural note: over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.5 billion expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: copper, construction materials, mining (particularly coal); food and beverage, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 900,000 kW production: 3.1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,267 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses

Exports: $400 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals partners: former CMEA countries 62%, China 17%, EC 8% (1992)

Imports: $223 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea partners: USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5% (1991)

External debt: $473.7 million (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 4465.39 (October 1995), 412.72 (1994), 42.56 (1992), 9.52 (1991), 5.63 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,928 km broad gauge: 1,928 km 1.524-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 46,700 km paved: 1,000 km unpaved: 45,700 km (1988 est.)

Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Ports: none

Airports: total: 34 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 89,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 220,000

Television broadcast stations: 1 (provincial repeaters 18)

Televisions: 120,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and Frontier Guards), Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 638,560 males fit for military service: 417,620 males reach military age (18) annually: 27,386 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million, 1% of GDP (1992)



======================================================================



@Montserrat —————

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 16 45 N, 62 12 W — Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around a black cross



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 100 sq km land area: 100 sq km comparative area: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Chances Peak 914 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 10% forest and woodland: 40% other: 30%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic eruptions (there are seven active volcanoes on the island) international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: 12,771 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.28% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15.08 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.83 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 11.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.65 years male: 73.89 years female: 77.46 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.93 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Montserratian(s) adjective: Montserratian

Ethnic divisions: black, Europeans

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970 est.) total population: 97% male: 97% female: 97%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Montserrat

Data code: MH

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Plymouth

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter's

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday of June)

Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989

Legal system: English common law and statute law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Frank SAVAGE (since NA February 1993) was appointed by the queen head of government: Chief Minister Reuben T. MEADE (since NA October 1991) cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministries, the attorney general, and the finance secretary

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council: elections last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) NPP 4, NDP 1, PLM 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia)

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party (NPP), Reuben T. MEADE; People's Liberation Movement (PLM), Noel TUITT; National Development Party (NDP), Bertrand OSBORNE

International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, WCL

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around a black cross



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is small and open, with economic activity centered on tourism and related services. Tourism accounts for roughly one-quarter of Montserrat's national income. The island's main export is electronic components which are mainly shipped to the US. The agriculture sector is small; cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, and onions are grown for the domestic market; additionally, some hot peppers and live plants are exported to the US and Europe. The threat of a volcanic eruption in late 1995 led to the repeated evacuation of Montserrat's capital, Plymouth, and deep ash from the volcano destroyed much of the yearend crops. As a result, production in 1995 dropped precipitously. The likely slow recovery of tourism and the continued danger of an eruption dim the prospects for rapid recovery in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $55.6 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 0.5% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,500 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 4.8% industry: 18.4% services: 76.8% (1990 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (1994)

Labor force: 5,100 by occupation: community, social, and personal services 40.5%, construction 13.5%, trade, restaurants, and hotels 12.3%, manufacturing 10.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%, other 14.4% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $15.7 million expenditures: $15.6 million including capital expenditures of $NA (1994)

Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 5,271 kW production: 17 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,106 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: tomatoes, onions, peppers; livestock products

Exports: $2.3 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle partners: US, Ireland

Imports: $80.6 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials partners: NA

External debt: $10.2 million (December 1994)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 280 km paved: 200 km unpaved: 80 km

Ports: Plymouth

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 3,000

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 6,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Police Force

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Morocco ———-



Map —-

Location: 32 00 N, 5 00 W — Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara



Flag ——

Description: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 446,550 sq km land area: 446,300 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 2,002 km border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km note: excludes the length of the boundary between the places of sovereignty and Morocco

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

Land use: arable land: 18% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 28% forest and woodland: 12% other: 41%

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar



People ———

Population: 29,779,156 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38% (male 5,696,731; female 5,522,077) 15-64 years: 58% (male 8,577,918; female 8,700,521) 65 years and over: 4% (male 613,712; female 668,197) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.05% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 27.39 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.77 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.52 years male: 67.53 years female: 71.61 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.58 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Moroccan(s) adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 43.7% male: 56.6% female: 31%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco conventional short form: Morocco local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah local short form: Al Maghrib

Data code: MO

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 36 provinces and 5 wilayas*; Agadir, Al Hoceima, Assa-Zag, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Es Smara, Fes*, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech*, Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King HASSAN II's accession to the throne)

Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961) is a hereditary monarch head of government: Prime Minister Abdellatif FILALI (since 29 May 1994) was appointed by the king cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Representatives (Majlis Nawab): two-thirds elected by direct, universal suffrage and one-third by an electoral college of government, professional, and labor representatives; direct, popular elections last held 15 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (333 total, 222 directly elected) USFP 48, IP 43, MP 33, RNI 28, UC 27, PND 14, MNP 14, PPS 6, PDI 3, SAP 2, PA 2, OADP 2; indirect, special interest elections last held 17 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (333 total, 111 indirectly elected) UC 27, MP 18, RNI 13, MNP 11, PND 10, IP 7, Party of Shura and Istiqlal 6, USFP 4, PPS 4, CDT 4, UTM 3, UGTM 2, SAP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the king

Political parties and leaders: opposition: Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Mohammad al-YAZGHI; Istiqlal Party (IP), M'Hamed BOUCETTA; Party of Progress and Socialism (PPS), Ali YATA; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action (OADP), Mohamed Ben SAID pro-government: Constitutional Union (UC), Maati BOUABID; Popular Movement (MP), Mohamed LAENSER; National Democratic Party (PND), Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI; National Popular Movement (MNP), Mahjoubi AHARDANE independents: National Rally of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN; Democracy and Istiqlal Party (PDI), leader NA; Action Party (PA), Abdullah SENHAJI; Non-Obedience Candidates (SAP), leader NA labor unions and community organizations (indirect elections: Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT), Nabir AMAOUI; General Union of Moroccan Workers (UGTM), Abderrazzak AFILAL; Moroccan Union of Workers (UTM), leader NA; Party of Shura and Istiqlal, leader NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed BENAISSA chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982 FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Marc C. GINSBERG embassy: 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat mailing address: PSC 74, Box 003, APO AE 09718 telephone: [212] (7) 76 22 65 FAX: [212] (7) 76 56 61 consulate(s) general: Casablanca

Flag: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Morocco faces the typical problems of developing countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private activity and foreign trade, and keeping inflation within bounds. Since the early 1980s the government has pursued an economic program toward these objectives with the support of the IMF, the World Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The economy has substantial assets to draw on: the world's largest phosphate reserves, diverse agricultural and fishing resources, a sizable tourist industry, a growing manufacturing sector, and remittances from Moroccans working abroad. A severe drought in 1992-93 depressed economic activity and held down exports. Real GDP contracted by 4.4% in 1992 and 1.1% in 1993. Despite these setbacks, initiatives to relax capital controls, strengthen the banking sector, and privatize state enterprises went forward in 1993-94. Favorable rainfall in 1994 boosted agricultural production by 40%. In 1995, Morocco suffered from a drought said to be the worst in 30 years. Servicing the large debt, high unemployment, and vulnerability to external economic forces remain long-term problems for Morocco.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $87.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -6.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 14.3% industry: 32.2% services: 53.5% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1994)

Labor force: 7.4 million by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9% (1985)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $8.1 billion expenditures: $8.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0.1%

Electricity: capacity: 2,620,000 kW production: 9.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 361 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe

Exports: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%, phosphates 17% partners: EC 70%, Japan 5%, US 4%, Libya 3%, India 2% (1993)

Imports: $7.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 9% partners: EC 59%, US 8%, Saudi Arabia 5%, UAE 3%, Russia 2% (1993)

External debt: $20.5 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $297 million (1993) note: $2.8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991)

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 8.607 (January 1996), 8.540 (1995), 9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993), 8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,907 km standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1003 km electrified; 246 km double track) (1994)

Highways: total: 59,474 km paved: 29,440 km (including 73 km of expressways) unpaved: 30,034 km (1991 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products 491 km (abandoned); natural gas 241 km

Ports: Agadir, Al Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine: total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 175,962 GRT/257,449 DWT ships by type: cargo 8, chemical tanker 7, container 2, oil tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 9, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 63 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 11 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 12 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 11 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 15 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 270,100 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat; secondary centers are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 5.527 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (repeaters 26)

Televisions: 1.21 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air Force, Royal Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 7,541,745 males fit for military service: 4,782,028 males reach military age (18) annually: 330,344 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.38 billion, 4.1% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Mozambique —————



Map —-

Location: 18 15 S, 35 00 E — Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 801,590 sq km land area: 784,090 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total: 4,571 km border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 56% forest and woodland: 20% other: 20%

Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: civil strife and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters natural hazards: severe droughts and floods occur in central and southern provinces; devastating cyclones international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea



People ———

Population: 17,877,927 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 4,141,915; female 4,115,191) 15-64 years: 51% (male 4,324,102; female 4,868,518) 65 years and over: 3% (male 184,606; female 243,595) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.65% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 45.51 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 18.97 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.) note: by the end of 1994, an estimated 1.6 million Mozambican refugees, who fled to Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa in earlier years from the civil war, had returned; an estimated 100,000 refugees remain to be repatriated from those countries

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 125.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.34 years male: 43.21 years female: 45.5 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s) adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic divisions: indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages: Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 40.1% male: 57.7% female: 23.3%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique conventional short form: Mozambique local long form: Republica Popular de Mocambique local short form: Mocambique

Data code: MZ

Type of government: republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986) was elected for a five-year term by popular vote head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since December 1994) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica): the members are elected by direct, universal, adult suffrage on a secret ballot for a term of five years; election last held 27-29 October 1994 (next to be held NA October 1999); results - percent vote by party NA, seats (250 total) FRELIMO won a slim majority note: the presidential and legislative elections took place as called for in the 1992 peace accords; RENAMO participated in the elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president and judges elected by the Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, chairman; Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO), Afonso DHLAKAMA, president; Democratic Union (DU), Antonio PALANGE, General Secretary

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hipolito Pereira Zozimo PATRICIO chancery: Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146 FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis Coleman JETT embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo telephone: [258] (1) 492797 FAX: [258] (1) 490114

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book



Economy ———-

Economic overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to exploit the economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an economic reform policy, resulted in successive years of economic growth in the late 1980s, but aid has declined steadily since 1989. Agricultural output is at only 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Industry operates at only 20%-40% of capacity. The economy depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat. Peace accords between civil warring factions, signed in October 1992, improved chances of foreign investment, aided IMF-supported economic reforms, and supported continued economic recovery. Elections held in 1994 diverted government attention from the economy, resulting in slippage and delays in the economic reform program. Nonetheless, growth continued in 1994-95, and the economy should move forward in the late 1990s, given continued foreign help in meeting debt obligations. One key event in 1995 was the conclusion of negotiations with Enron of Houston, Texas, for a $700 million project to exploit the Pande natural gas fields.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -2.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 33% industry: 12% services: 55% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1994 est.)

Labor force: NA by occupation: 90% engaged in agriculture

Unemployment rate: 50% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues: $252 million expenditures: $607 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 5.8% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 2,360,000 kW production: 1.7 billion kWh consumption per capita: 58 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, rice, tropical fruits; beef, poultry

Exports: $170 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: shrimp 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, copra, citrus partners: Spain, South Africa, US, Portugal, Japan

Imports: $1.14 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum partners: South Africa, UK, France, Japan, Portugal

External debt: $5 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 10,908.0 (December 1995), 9,024.3 (1995), 6,038.6 (1994), 3,874.2 (1993), 2,516.5 (1992), 1,434.5 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 3,131 km narrow gauge: 2,988 km 1.067-m gauge; 143 km 0.762-m gauge (1994)

Highways: total: 27,287 km paved: 4,693 km unpaved: 22,594 km (1991 est.) note: highway traffic impeded by land mines not removed at end of civil war

Waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Pipelines: crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

Ports: Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba

Merchant marine: total: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,694 GRT/9,724 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 131 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 with paved runways under 914 m: 67 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 12 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 32 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 59,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: fair system of tropospheric scatter, open-wire lines, and microwave radio relay domestic: microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 700,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 44,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 3,767,855 males fit for military service: 2,162,388 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $84 million, 5.3% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Namibia ———-



Map —-

Location: 22 00 S, 17 00 E — Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa



Flag ——

Description: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 825,418 sq km land area: 825,418 sq km comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 3,824 km border countries: Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855 km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,572 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite; quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with Botswana over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved in December 1995, and the parties agreed to refer the matter to the ICJ

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Konigstein 2,606 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 64% forest and woodland: 22% other: 13%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes



People ———

Population: 1,677,243 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 370,090; female 362,185) 15-64 years: 52% (male 428,488; female 449,726) 65 years and over: 4% (male 28,599; female 38,155) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 37.29 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.98 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.48 years male: 62.85 years female: 66.16 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Namibian(s) adjective: Namibian

Ethnic divisions: black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4% note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups are: Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%

Religions: Christian 80% to 90%, Lutheran 50% at least, other Christian denominations 30%, native religions 10% to 20%

Languages: English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1960 est.) total population: 38% male: 45% female: 31%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Namibia conventional short form: Namibia

Data code: WA

Type of government: republic

Capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 13 regions; Erongo, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Caprivi (Liambezi), Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa

Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 7-8 December 1994 (next to be held NA December 1999); results - Sam NUJOMA elected president; percent of vote NA cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from the members of National Assembly

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature National Council: elections last held 30 November-3 December 1992 (next to be held by December 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (26 total) SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1 National Assembly: elections last held 7-8 December 1994 (next to be held NA December 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) SWAPO 53, DTA 15, UDF 2, MAG 1, DCN 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA; SWAPO for Justice, Zacharia NJOMBA; DTA of Namibia (formerly Democratic Turnhalle Alliance) (DTA), Mishake MUYONGO; United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus GAROEB; Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Keiphas CONRADIE; Monitor Action Group (MAG), Kosie PRETORIUS; Workers Revolutionary Party (WRP); Southwest African National Union (SWANU), Hitjevi VEII; Democratic Coalition of Namibia (DCN), Moses K. KATJIUONGUA; National Patriotic Front (NPF), Moses K. KATJIUONGUA

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

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