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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Total fertility rate: 3.27 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malaysian(s) adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic divisions: Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian 9%

Religions: Peninsular Malaysia: Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians) Sabah: Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45% Sarawak: tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

Languages: Peninsular Malaysia: Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects, Tamil Sabah: English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate) Sarawak: English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 83.5% male: 89.1% female: 78.1%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Malaysia former: Malayan Union

Data code: MY

Type of government: constitutional monarchy note: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - self-governing state, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Paramount Ruler TUANKU JA'AFAR ibni Al-Marhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994) and Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1994) were elected for five-year terms by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981) was appointed by the paramount ruler; Deputy Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December 1993) cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the paramount ruler from among the members of Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) Senate (Dewan Negara): elected members serve six-year terms; elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (58 total, 32 appointed by the paramount ruler and 26 elected by the state legislatures) seats by party NA House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat): members elected for five-year terms; elections last held NA April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - National Front 63%, other 37%; seats - (192 total) National Front 162, DAP 9, PBS 8, PAS 7, Semangat'46 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the paramount ruler

Political parties and leaders: Peninsular Malaysia: National Front, a confederation of 13 political parties dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), MAHATHIR bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), S. Samy VELLU; Spirit of '46 (Semangat '46), Tengku Tan Sri RAZALEIGH, president Sabah: National Front, SALLEH Said Keruak, Sabah Chief Minister, Sakaran DANDAI, head of Sabah State; United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO), leader NA; Sabah United Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah, PBS), Datuk Seri Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan Sarawak: coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud; Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar James WONG Soon Kai; Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE; major opposition parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador DALI Mahmud Hashim chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2700 FAX: [1] (202) 483-7661 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador John R. MALOTT embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152 telephone: [60] (3) 2489011 FAX: [60] (3) 2422207

Flag: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and public management, has posted a remarkable record of 9% average annual growth in 1988-95. The official growth target for 1996 is 8.3%. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction in poverty and a marked rise in real wages. Manufactured goods exports expanded rapidly, and foreign investors continued to commit large sums in the economy. The government is aware of the inflationary potential of this rapid development and is closely monitoring fiscal and monetary policies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $193.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 9.5% (1995)

GDP per capita: $9,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 25% services: 67%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (1995)

Labor force: 7.627 million (1993)

Unemployment rate: 2.8% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $20.2 billion expenditures: $19.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.8 billion (1995 est.)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia: rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber Sabah: logging, petroleum production Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 12% (1994)

Electricity: capacity: 6,700,000 kW production: 31 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,528 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia: natural rubber, palm oil, rice Sabah: subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconut, rice Sarawak: rubber, pepper; timber

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe, and the Third World despite severe penalties for drug trafficking

Exports: $72 billion (1995) commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles partners: Singapore 21%, US 20%, Japan 12%, UK 4%, Thailand 4%, Germany 3% (1994)

Imports: $72.2 billion (1995) commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, petroleum products partners: Japan 26%, US 17%, Singapore 14%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4%, UK 3%, South Korea 3% (1993)

External debt: $27.4 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $45 million (1993)

Currency: 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.5567 (January 1996), 2.5044 (1995), 2.6243 (1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474 (1992), 2.7501 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,806 km (Peninsular Malaysia 1,672 km; Sabah 134 km; Sarawak 0 km) narrow gauge: 1,806 km 1.000-m gauge (Peninsular Malaysia 1,672 km; Sabah 134 km)

Highways: total: 92,545 km paved: 69,409 km (including 574 km of expressways) unpaved: 23,136 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: Peninsular Malaysia: 3,209 km Sabah: 1,569 km Sarawak: 2,518 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Ports: Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat, Lahad Datu, Labuan, Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Dickson, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjong Berhala, Tanjong Kidurong, Tawau

Merchant marine: total: 248 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,035,684 GRT/4,494,476 DWT ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 83, chemical tanker 13, container 31, liquefied gas tanker 12, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 55, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 4 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 105 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 11 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 with paved runways under 914 m: 74 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2,550,957 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: international service good domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations international: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 8.08 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 5,160,884 males fit for military service: 3,129,626 males reach military age (21) annually: 184,236 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Maldives ————



Map —-

Location: 3 15 N, 73 00 E — Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India



Flag ——

Description: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates: 3 15 N, 73 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 300 sq km land area: 300 sq km comparative area: nearly twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 35-310 nm as defined by geographic coordinates; segment of zone coincides with maritime boundary with India territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Wilingili 24 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 3% forest and woodland: 3% other: 84%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies natural hazards: low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea level rise international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Geographic note: 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls; archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean



People ———

Population: 270,758 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 47% (male 65,559; female 62,399) 15-64 years: 50% (male 69,071; female 65,659) 65 years and over: 3% (male 4,336; female 3,734) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.52% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 41.88 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.64 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.16 male(s)/female all ages: 1.05 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.17 years male: 64.6 years female: 67.82 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.06 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Maldivian(s) adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic divisions: Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, African

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Maldivian Divehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 93.2% male: 93.3% female: 93%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Maldives conventional short form: Maldives

Data code: MV

Type of government: republic

Capital: Male

Administrative divisions: 19 districts (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution: 4 June 1968

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978) was reelected for a five-year term by secret ballot of the Majlis; election last held 1 October 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM was reelected with 92.76% of the vote cabinet: Ministry of Atolls was appointed by the president; note - need not be members of Majilis

Legislative branch: unicameral; members elected for five-year terms or appointed by the president Citizens' Council (Majlis): elections last held 2 December 1994 (next to be held NA December 1999); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (48 total, 40 elected, 8 appointed by the president) independents 40

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: although political parties are not banned, none exist

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: Maldives does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York, headed by Ahmed ZAKI

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic visits there

Flag: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: During the 1980s tourism became one of the most important and highest growth sectors of the economy. In 1994, tourism, Maldives largest industry, accounted for about 18% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Fishing is a second leading growth sector. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. The Maldivian Government initiated an economic reform program in 1989 initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign investment. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a minor role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods must be imported. In 1994, industry which consisted mainly of garment production, boat building, and handicrafts accounted for about 15% of GDP.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $390 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.6% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,560 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 21.5% industry: 15.3% services: 63.2% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.5% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 66,000 (est.) by occupation: fishing industry 25%

Unemployment rate: NEGL%

Budget: revenues: $88 million (excluding foreign grants) expenditures: $141 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 5,000 kW production: 30 million kWh consumption per capita: 123 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fishing

Exports: $75.3 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: fish, clothing partners: Sri Lanka, US, Germany, Singapore, UK

Imports: $195.1 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum products partners: Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand

External debt: $137.5 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laari

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 11.770 (January 1996), 11.770 (1995), 11.586 (1994), 10.957 (1993), 10.569 (1992), 10.253 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km; note - Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city (1988 est.)

Ports: Gan, Male

Merchant marine: total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 73,284 GRT/113,669 DWT ships by type: cargo 17, container 2, oil tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 8,523 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: minimal domestic and international facilities domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,284 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 7,309 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: National Security Service (paramilitary police force)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 59,179 males fit for military service: 33,016 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Mali ——



Map —-

Location: 17 00 N, 4 00 W — Western Africa, southwest of Algeria



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1.24 million sq km land area: 1.22 million sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 7,243 km border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina Faso and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina Faso and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast lowest point: Senegal River 23 m highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 25% forest and woodland: 7% other: 66%

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 9,653,261 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 2,310,294; female 2,308,941) 15-64 years: 49% (male 2,231,244; female 2,488,276) 65 years and over: 3% (male 149,370; female 165,136) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.95% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 51.38 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 19.49 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.84 years male: 45.12 years female: 48.6 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Malian(s) adjective: Malian

Ethnic divisions: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 31% male: 39.4% female: 23.1%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Mali conventional short form: Mali local long form: Republique de Mali local short form: Mali former: French Sudan

Data code: ML

Type of government: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held NA April 1992 (next to be held NA April 1997); Alpha KONARE was elected in runoff race against Montaga TALL head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since NA March 1994) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly: elections last held 8 March 1992 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (116 total) Adema 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy (Adema), Ibrahim Baubacar KEITA; National Congress for Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally (US/RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA; Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa; Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almamy SYLLA; Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa Balla COULIBALY; Rally for Democracy and Labor (RDT); Union of Democratic Forces for Progress (UFDP), Dembo DIALLO; Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa TRAORE; Malian Union for Democracy and Development (UMDD); Movement for the Independence, the Renaissance and Integration of Africa (MIRIA), Mohammed Lamine TRAORE

Other political or pressure groups: United Movement and Fronts of Azawad (MFUA); Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Kaye (MPGK)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador David RAWSON embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako telephone: [223] 22 54 70 FAX: [223] 22 37 12

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The economy is beginning to turn around after contracting through 1992-93, largely because of enhanced exports and import substitute production in the wake of the 50% devaluation of 12 January 1994. Post-devaluation inflation peaked at 35% in 1994, and the government appears to be keeping on track with its IMF structural adjustment program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.4 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $600 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 42.4% industry: 15.4% services: 42.2%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.666 million (1986 est.) by occupation: agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $376 million expenditures: $697 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 90,000 kW production: 310 million kWh consumption per capita: 33 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $415 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: cotton, livestock, gold partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: $842 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials, petroleum, textiles partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

External debt: $2.8 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 641 km; note - linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes narrow gauge: 641 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 15,610 km paved: 1,661 km unpaved: 13,949 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports: Koulikoro

Airports: total: 24 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 7 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 11,000 (1982 est.)

Telephone system: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 430,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 11,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,925,205 males fit for military service: 1,100,599 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 2.2% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Malta ——-



Map —-

Location: 35 50 N, 14 35 E — Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)



Flag ——

Description: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in red



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 320 sq km land area: 320 sq km comparative area: less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Dingli Cliffs 245 m

Natural resources: limestone, salt

Land use: arable land: 38% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 59%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; increasing reliance on desalination natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Desertification

Geographic note: the country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Malta, Gozo, and Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors



People ———

Population: 375,576 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 42,067; female 39,958) 15-64 years: 67% (male 126,179; female 125,321) 65 years and over: 11% (male 17,766; female 24,285) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.01% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 14.79 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.83 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.11 years male: 75.77 years female: 80.6 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.17 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Maltese (singular and plural) adjective: Maltese

Ethnic divisions: Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%

Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.) total population: 84% male: 86% female: 82%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Malta conventional short form: Malta

Data code: MT

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administered directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964)

Constitution: 1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI (since 4 April 1994) was elected for a five-year term by the House of Representatives head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH ADAMI (since 12 May 1987) was appointed by the president; Deputy Prime Minister (since 14 May 1987) and Foreign Minister (since 1990) Dr. Guido DE MARCO cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president on advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives: elections last held 22 February 1992 (next to be held by February 1997); results - NP 51.8%, MLP 46.5%; seats - (usually 65 total) MLP 36, NP 29; note - additional seats are given to the party with the largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total: 69 (NP 36, MLP 33 after adjustment)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party (NP), Edward FENECH ADAMI; Malta Labor Party (MLP), Alfred SANT

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, NAM, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Albert Borg Olivier DE PUGET chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 462-3611, 3612 FAX: [1] (202) 387-5470 consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph R. PAOLINO, Jr. embassy: 2nd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, ======================================================================



@Man, Isle of ——————

(British crown dependency)

Map —-

Location: 54 15 N, 4 30 W — Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland



Flag ——

Description: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used



Geography ————-

Location: Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland

Geographic coordinates: 54 15 N, 4 30 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 588 sq km land area: 588 sq km comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 113 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley lowest point: Irish Sea 0 m highest point: Snaefell 620 m

Natural resources: lead, iron ore

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA% (extensive arable land and forests)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird sanctuary



People ———

Population: 73,837 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 6,606; female 6,348) 15-64 years: 65% (male 23,917; female 23,815) 65 years and over: 17% (male 5,239; female 7,912) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.94% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.43 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.09 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.15 years male: 73.56 years female: 80.91 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Manxman, Manxwoman adjective: Manx

Ethnic divisions: Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of Friends

Languages: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Isle of Man

Data code: IM

Type of government: British crown dependency

Capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor His Excellency Sir Timothy DAUNT (since NA 1995) who was appointed for a five-year term by the queen head of government: President of the Legislative Council Sir Charles KERRUISH (since NA 1990); was elected by the Tynwald cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral Tynwald Legislative Council: consists of a 10-member body composed of the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others named by the House of Keys House of Keys: elections last held NA November 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (24 total) independents 24

Judicial branch: High Court of Justice, justices are appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system; members sit as independents

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (British crown dependency)

US diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their shares of GDP. Banking now contributes about 45% to GDP. Trade is mostly with the UK. The Isle of Man enjoys free access to EU markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $780 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $10,800 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1992 est.)

Labor force: 31,829 (1991) by occupation: manufacturing 11%, construction 11%, transport and communication 6%, retail distribution 9%, professional and scientific services 17%, public administration 7%, banking and finance 8%

Unemployment rate: 1% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $130.4 million expenditures: $114.4 million, including capital expenditures of $18.1 million (1985 est.)

Industries: financial services, light manufacturing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 61,000 kW production: 190 million kWh consumption per capita: 2,965 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: cereals, vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

Exports: $NA commodities: tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, beef, lamb partners: UK

Imports: $NA commodities: timber, fertilizers, fish partners: UK

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Manx pound (LM) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Manx pounds (LM) per US$1 - 0.6537 (January 1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 52 km (27 km electrified)

Highways: total: 640 km paved: 320 km unpaved: 320 km

Ports: Castletown, Douglas, Peel, Ramsey

Merchant marine: total: 83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,099,888 GRT/3,569,632 DWT ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 10, chemical tanker 4, container 12, liquefied gas tanker 8, oil tanker 18, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2 note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 10 ships, Switzerland 2, South Africa 2, Denmark 1, and Netherlands 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 41,000 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Marshall Islands ————————



Map —-

Location: 9 00 N, 168 00 E — Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea



Flag ——

Description: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 181.3 sq km land area: 181.3 sq km comparative area: about the size of Washington, DC note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims US territory of Wake Island

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 60% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water natural hazards: occasional typhoons international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

Geographic note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range



People ———

Population: 58,363 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 51% (male 15,043; female 14,435) 15-64 years: 47% (male 14,084; female 13,399) 65 years and over: 2% (male 657; female 745) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.85% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 45.75 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.28 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female all ages: 1.04 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 46.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.81 years male: 62.25 years female: 65.45 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.83 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Marshallese (singular and plural) adjective: Marshallese

Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant)

Languages: English (universally spoken and is the official language), two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 93% male: 100% female: 88%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands conventional short form: Marshall Islands former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

Data code: RM

Type of government: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1 May (1979)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Amata KABUA (since NA 1979) was elected for a four-year term by the Nitijela from among its own members; election last held 20 November 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results - President Amata KABUA was reelected cabinet: Cabinet; president selects from among the members of Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Nitijela): elections last held 20 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 1999); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (33 total) seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: government: Our Islands Party, President Amata KABUA opposition: Ralik/Ratak Democratic Party (RRDP), Ramsey REIMERS

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414 FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236 consulate(s) general: Honolulu and Los Angeles

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Joan PLAISTED embassy: Oceanside, Long Island, Majuro mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379; Majuro, 20521-4380 (pouch) telephone: [692] 247-4011 FAX: [692] 247-4012

Flag: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few cattle ranches supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry is the primary source of foreign exchange and employs about 10% of the labor force. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. The government is drafting economic reforms designed to increase revenue and compensate for reductions in US Government grants - in 1994, the US Government provided grants of $50 million, equal to 55% of the Marshall Islands' GDP. About 25% of the government's 1995/96 budget is devoted to debt repayment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $94 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,680 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 4,800 (1986) by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 16% (1991 est.)

Budget: revenues: $67.2 million expenditures: $79.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls, offshore banking (embryonic)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 42,000 kW production: 80 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,840 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs, chickens

Exports: $21.3 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: coconut oil, fish, live animals, trochus shells partners: US, Japan, Australia

Imports: $69.9 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, beverages and tobacco, fuels partners: US, Japan, Australia

External debt: $170 million (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports: Majuro

Merchant marine: total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,068,782 GRT/5,073,125 DWT ships by type: bulk carrier 43, cargo 4, combination ore/oil 1, container 17, oil tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 1, vehicle carrier 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 16 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 5 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 7 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 800 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: telex services domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: no regular military forces (a coast guard may be established); Police Force

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Martinique —————

(overseas department of France)

Map —-

Location: 14 40 N, 61 00 W — Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad and Tobago



Flag ——

Description: a light blue background is divided into four quadrants by a white cross; in the center of each rectangle is a white snake; the flag of France is used for official occasions



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 1,100 sq km land area: 1,060 sq km comparative area: slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Montagne Pelee 1,397 m

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 8% meadows and pastures: 30% forest and woodland: 26% other: 26%

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity (an average of one major natural disaster every five years) international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: 399,151 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23% (male 46,851; female 45,300) 15-64 years: 67% (male 132,161; female 135,707) 65 years and over: 10% (male 16,542; female 22,590) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 16.92 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.85 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.81 years male: 76.07 years female: 81.68 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Martiniquais (singular and plural) adjective: Martiniquais

Ethnic divisions: African and African-white-Indian mixture 90%, white 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

Languages: French, Creole patois

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982 est.) total population: 93% male: 92% female: 93%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Department of Martinique conventional short form: Martinique local long form: Departement de la Martinique local short form: Martinique

Data code: MB

Type of government: overseas department of France

Capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995); Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA) was appointed by the French Ministry of the Interior head of government: President of the General Council Claude LISE (since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council Emile CAPGRAS (since 22 March 1992);

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Assembly General Council: elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44 total) number of seats by party NA; note - the PPM won a plurality Regional Assembly: elections last held on 22 March 1992 (next to be held by March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) RPR-UDF 16, MIM 9, PPM 9, PCM 5, independents 2 French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1 French National Assembly: elections last held 21 March 1993 (next to be held NA June 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4 total) RPR 2, UDF 1, PPM 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alex URSULET; Union for a Martinique of Progress (UMP); Martinique Progressive Party (PPM), Aime CESAIRE; Socialist Federation of Martinique (FSM), Jean CRUSOL; Martinique Communist Party (PCM), George ERICHOT; Martinique Patriots (PM); Union for French Democracy (UDF), Miguel LAVENTURE; Martinique Independence Movement (MIM), Alfred MARIE-JEANNE; Republican Party (PR), Jean BAILLY

Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP); Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group (GRS); Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC); Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc PULVAR; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Parti Martiniquais Socialiste (PMS); Association for the Protection of Martinique's Heritage (ecologist)

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

Flag: a light blue background is divided into four quadrants by a white cross; in the center of each rectangle is a white snake; the flag of France is used for official occasions



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 6% of GDP and the small industrial sector for 11%. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is employed in the service sector and in administration. Banana workers launched protests late in 1992 because of falling banana prices and fears of greater competition in the European market from other producers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.95 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $10,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 6% industry: 11% services: 83% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1990)

Labor force: 121,600 by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 17%, services 73% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 32.1% (1990)

Budget: revenues: $657 million expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 113,100 kW production: 761 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,677 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables, sugarcane for rum

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

Exports: $218 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples partners: France 57%, Guadeloupe 31%, French Guiana (1991)

Imports: $1.76 billion (c.i.f., 1993) commodities: petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods partners: France 62%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US (1991)

External debt: $180 million (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: French aid $600 million (1989-93); EU aid $137 million

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January 1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,690 km paved: 1,300 km unpaved: 390 km

Ports: Fort-de-France, La Trinite

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 159,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: domestic facilities are adequate domestic: NA international: microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 74,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10

Televisions: 65,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Mauritania —————



Map —-

Location: 20 00 N, 12 00 W — Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara



Flag ——

Description: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 12 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1,030,700 sq km land area: 1,030,400 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 5,074 km border countries: Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary with Senegal in dispute

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills lowest point: Sebkha de Ndrhamcha -3 m highest point: Kediet Ijill 910 m

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 38% forest and woodland: 5% other: 56%

Irrigated land: 120 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal which is the only perennial river natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April; periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: most of the population concentrated along the Senegal River in the southern part of the country



People ———

Population: 2,336,048 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 568,828; female 562,342) 15-64 years: 49% (male 560,540; female 592,914) 65 years and over: 3% (male 21,753; female 29,671) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.17% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 46.92 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.24 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 81.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.01 years male: 46.09 years female: 52.06 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.84 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mauritanian(s) adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic divisions: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 37.7% male: 49.6% female: 26.3%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania conventional short form: Mauritania local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah local short form: Muritaniyah

Data code: MR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular - region); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza note: there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution: 12 July 1991

Legal system: three-tier system: Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special courts, and state security courts (in the process of being eliminated)

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984) was reelected for a six-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 17 January 1992 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA was reelected head of government: Prime Minister Cheikh El Afia Ould Mohamed KHOUNA (since NA January 1996) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature Senate (Majlis al-Shuyukh): elections last held 15 April 1994 (next to be held 12 April 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats (56 total, with 17 up for election every two years) PRDS 16, UFD/NE 1 National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani): elections last held 6 and 13 March 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) UFD/NE 67, PMR 1, RDU 1, independents 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: legalized by constitution passed 12 July 1991, however, politics continue to be tribally based; emerging parties include Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS), led by President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA; Union of Democratic Forces-New Era (UFD/NE), headed by Ahmed Ould DADDAH; Assembly for Democracy and Unity (RDU), Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA; Popular Social and Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH; Mauritanian Party for Renewal (PMR), Hameida BOUCHRAYA; National Avant-Garde Party (PAN), Khattry Ould JIDDOU; Mauritanian Party of the Democratic Center (PCDM), Bamba Ould SIDI BADI

Other political or pressure groups: Mauritanian Workers Union (UTM)

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ismail Ould IYAHI chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 232-5700

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Dorothy Myers SAMPAS embassy: address NA, Nouakchott mailing address: B. P. 222, Nouakchott telephone: [222] (2) 526-60, 526-63 FAX: [222] (2) 515-92

Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam



Economy ———-

Economic overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have resulted in a substantial buildup of foreign debt. The government has begun the second stage of an economic reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the IMF, and major donor countries. Short-term growth prospects are gloomy because of the heavy debt service burden, rapid population growth, and vulnerability to climatic conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 27.1% industry: 29.5% services: 43.4% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980) by occupation: agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce 14%, government 10%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1991 est.)

Budget: revenues: $254 million expenditures: $280 million, including capital expenditures of $94 million (1994 est.)

Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 110,000 kW production: 135 million kWh consumption per capita: 61 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; cattle, sheep; fish products

Exports: $390 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: iron ore, fish and fish products partners: Japan 27%, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

Imports: $355 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods partners: Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%, France, Germany, Spain, Italy

External debt: $1.9 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiyas (UM) per US$1 - 135.690 (January 1996), 129.768 (1995), 123.575 (1994), 120.806 (1993), 87.027 (1992), 81.946 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 704 km (single track); note - owned and operated by government mining company standard gauge: 704 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 7,496 km paved: 1,342 km unpaved: 6,154 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports: Bogue, Kaedi, Nouadhibou, Nouakchott, Rosso

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 24 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 2 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 17,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations (improvements being made) domestic: mostly cable and open-wire lines international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 2 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 50,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 500,754 males fit for military service: 244,546 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $33 million, 2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Mauritius ————-



Map —-

Location: 20 17 S, 57 33 E — Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar



Flag ——

Description: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 20 17 S, 57 33 E

Map references: World

Area: total area: 1,860 sq km land area: 1,850 sq km comparative area: almost 11 times the size of Washington, DC note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and Rodrigues

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims the island of Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims French-administered Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central plateau lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Piton de la Petite Riviere Noire 828 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: arable land: 54% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 4% forest and woodland: 31% other: 7%

Irrigated land: 170 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: water pollution natural hazards: cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification



People ———

Population: 1,140,256 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 27% (male 157,174; female 152,980) 15-64 years: 67% (male 379,840; female 383,295) 65 years and over: 6% (male 27,429; female 39,538) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.23% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 18.97 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.67 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.53 years male: 66.72 years female: 74.33 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.24 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mauritian(s) adjective: Mauritian

Ethnic divisions: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%

Religions: Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 2.3%), Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%

Languages: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 82.9% male: 87.1% female: 78.8%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Mauritius conventional short form: Mauritius

Data code: MP

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart, Rodrigues*, Savanne

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Constitution: 12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of English common law in certain areas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992) and Vice President Rabindranath GHURBURRON (since 1 July 1992) were elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly head of government: Prime Minister Navin RAMGOOLAM (since 27 December 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Paul BERENGER (since 27 December 1995) were appointed by the president and are responsible to the National Assembly cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly: elections last held on 20 December 1995 (next to be held by December 2000); results - MMM/MLP 65%, MSM/RMM 20%, other 15%; seats - (66 total; 62 elected, 4 appointed) MLP 35, MMM 25, allies of MLP and MMM on Rodrigues Island 2; appointed were Rodrigues Movement 2, Gaetan Duval Party 1, Hizballah 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: government coalition: MLP/MMM alliance - Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLAM; Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), Paul BERENGER opposition: Organization of the People of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis Serge CLAIR; Rodrigues Movement, Nicolas VONMALLY; Gaetan Duval Party, Gaetan DUVAL; Hizbullah, Imam Mustapha BEEHARRY; Militant Socialist Movement (MSM); Mauritian Militant Resurgence (MMR)

Other political or pressure groups: various labor unions

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anund Priyay NEEWOOR chancery: Suite 441, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 244-1491, 1492 FAX: [1] (202) 966-0983

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie M. ALEXANDER embassy: 4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [230] 208-2347, 208-2354, 208-9763 through 9767 FAX: [230] 208-9534

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a low income, agriculturally based economy to middle income diversified economy with growing industrial and tourist sectors. For most of the period, annual growth has been of the order of 5% to 6%. This remarkable achievement has been reflected in increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality, and a much improved infrastructure. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area and accounts for 40% of export earnings. The government's development strategy centers on industrialization (with a view to modernization and to exports), agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance in 1991-93 continued strong with solid real growth and low unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $9,600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.4% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 335,000 by occupation: government services 29%, agriculture and fishing 27%, manufacturing 22%, other 22%

Unemployment rate: 2.4% (1991 est.)

Budget: revenues: $653 million expenditures: $567 million, including capital expenditures of $143 million (FY92/93 est.)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing apparel, chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5.8% (1992)

Electricity: capacity: 340,000 kW production: 920 million kWh consumption per capita: 777 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses; cattle, goats; fish

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; heroin consumption and transshipment are growing problems

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10% partners: EU and US have preferential treatment, EU 77%, US 15%

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%, petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7% partners: EU, US, South Africa, Japan

External debt: $996.8 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 17.842 (January 1996), 17.386 (1995), 17.960 (1994), 17.648 (1993), 15.563 (1992), 15.652 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 1,831 km paved: 1,703 km (including 29 km of expressways) unpaved: 128 km (1991 est.)

Ports: Port Louis

Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 221,446 GRT/308,478 DWT ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 9, container 4, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 4 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 65,000 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: small system with good service domestic: primarily microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 395,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 151,096 (1991 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: National Police Force (includes the paramilitary Special Mobile Force or SMF, Special Support Units or SSU, and National Coast Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 327,403 males fit for military service: 166,466 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $11.2 million, 0.4% of GDP (FY92/93)



======================================================================



@Mayotte ———-

(territorial collectivity of France)

Map —-

Location: 12 50 S, 45 10 E — Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique



Flag ——

Description: the flag of France is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 50 S, 45 10 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 375 sq km land area: 375 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Comoros

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

Terrain: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Benara 660 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: cyclones during rainy season international agreements: NA

Geographic note: part of Comoro Archipelago



People ———

Population: 100,838 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 50% (male 25,099; female 24,881) 15-64 years: 48% (male 24,790; female 23,727) 65 years and over: 2% (male 1,152; female 1,189) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.78% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 47.93 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.12 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.7 years male: 56.43 years female: 61.05 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.63 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Mahorais (singular and plural) adjective: Mahoran

Ethnic divisions: NA

Religions: Muslim 99%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)

Languages: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte conventional short form: Mayotte

Data code: MF

Type of government: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: Mamoutzou

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) represented by Prefect Alain WEIL (since NA), who was appointed by the French Ministry of the Interior head of government: President of the General Council Younoussa BAMANA (since NA 1976)

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (Conseil General): elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) MPM 12, RPR 4, independents 3 French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1995 (next to be held 24 September 2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) MPM 1 French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - UDF-CDS 54.3%, RPR 44.3%; seats - (1 total) UDF-CDS 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Younoussa BAMANA; Party for the Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche MAOULIDA; Mahoran Rally for the Republic (RPR), Mansour KAMARDINE; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Maoulida AHMED; Center of Social Democrats (CDS)

International organization participation: FZ

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territorial collectivity of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development of the island are heavily dependent on French financial assistance. Mayotte's remote location is an obstacle to the development of tourism.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $54 million (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $600 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $37.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985 est.)

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: NA kW production: NA kWh consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture: vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, copra

Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: ylang-ylang (perfume essence), vanilla, copra partners: France 80%, Comoros 15%, Reunion

Imports: $87.5 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: building materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour partners: France 63%, South Africa 11%, Thailand 9%, Singapore

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January 1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 93 km paved: 72 km unpaved: 21 km

Ports: Dzaoudzi

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 450

Telephone system: small system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications domestic: NA international: microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communications to Comoros and other international connections

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 30,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 3,500 (1994 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Mexico ———



Map —-

Location: 23 00 N, 102 00 W — Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the US



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the US

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references: North America

Area: total area: 1,972,550 sq km land area: 1,923,040 sq km comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 4,538 km border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

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