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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Infant mortality rate: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.88 years male: 72.6 years female: 77.29 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.45 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Jamaican(s) adjective: Jamaican

Ethnic divisions: African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian 3%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, other 1.2%

Religions: Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%, Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%, other, including some spiritual cults 39.1% (1982)

Languages: English, Creole

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1995 est.) total population: 85% male: 80.8% female: 89.1%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Jamaica

Data code: JM

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August) (1962)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), a hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor General Sir Howard COOKE (since 1 August 1991) who was appointed by the queen on recommendation of the prime minister head of government: Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992) and the Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993) were appointed by the governor general cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament Senate: consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general House of Representatives: elections last held 30 March 1993 (next to be held by March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) PNP 52, JLP 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's National Party (PNP), P. J. PATTERSON; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward SEAGA; National Democratic Movement (NDM), Bruce GOLDING

Other political or pressure groups: Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists); New Beginnings Movement (NBM)

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Leighton BERNAL chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660 FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081 consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador J. Gary COOPER embassy: Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [1] (809) 929-4850 through 4859 FAX: [1] (809) 926-6743

Flag: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Key sectors in this island economy are bauxite (alumina and bauxite account for more than half of exports) and tourism. Since assuming office in 1992, Prime Minister PATTERSON has consolidated the market-oriented reforms initiated by his predecessor, Michael MANLEY, to make Jamaica a regional leader in economic reform. PATTERSON has eliminated most price controls, streamlined tax schedules, and privatized government enterprises. Tight monetary and fiscal policies under an IMF program have helped slow inflation and stabilize the exchange rate, but, as a result, economic growth has slowed down and unemployment remains high. Jamaica's medium-term prospects depend largely on its ability to continue to attract foreign capital and limit speculation against the Jamaican dollar.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 0.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 7.9% industry: 28.1% services: 64% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25.5% (1995)

Labor force: 1,062,100 by occupation: services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry 19%, unemployed 17.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15.4% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.45 billion expenditures: $2 billion, including capital expenditures of $732 million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: bauxite, tourism, textiles, food processing, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 730,000 kW production: 2.6 billion kWh consumption per capita: 988 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine from Central and South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active cannabis eradication program

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum partners: US 47%, UK 11%, Canada 9%, Norway 7%, France 4% (1993)

Imports: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, fuel, food, chemicals partners: US 54%, Japan 4.0%, Mexico 6%, UK 4%, Venezuela 3% (1993)

External debt: $3.6 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $239 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 39.86 (December 1995), 33.086 (1994), 24.949 (1993), 22.960 (1992), 12.116 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 272 km standard gauge: 272 km 1.435-m gauge; note - 207 km belonging to the Jamaica Railway Corporation which were in common carrier service are no longer operational; the remaining track is privately owned and used to transport bauxite

Highways: total: 18,094 km paved: 12,528 km unpaved: 5,566 km (1988 est.)

Pipelines: petroleum products 10 km

Ports: Alligator Pond, Discovery Bay, Kingston, Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Longs Wharf, Rocky Point

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,435 GRT/6,105 DWT ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 27 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 21 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 212,257 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: fully automatic domestic telephone network domestic: NA international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.04 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8

Televisions: 330,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard and Air Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 680,965 males fit for military service: 481,616 males reach military age (18) annually: 25,810 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, NA% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Jan Mayen ————-

(territory of Norway)

Map —-

Location: 71 00 N, 8 00 W — Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea, northeast of Iceland



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Norway is used



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea, northeast of Iceland

Geographic coordinates: 71 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total area: 373 sq km land area: 373 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 124.1 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 10 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m highest point: Haakon VII Toppen (Beerenberg) 2,277 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: dominated by the volcano Beerenberg; volcanic activity resumed in 1970 international agreements: NA

Geographic note: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass



People ———

Population: no permanent inhabitants; note - there are personnel who man the Long Range Navigation (LORAN) C base and the weather and coastal services radio station



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Jan Mayen

Data code: JN

Type of government: territory of Norway

Capital: none

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

Executive branch: administered from Oslo, Norway, through a governor (sysselmann) resident in Longyearbyen (Svalbard); however, authority has been delegated to a station commander of the Norwegian Defense Communication Service

Flag: the flag of Norway is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on the island.

Electricity: capacity: 15,000 kW production: 40 million kWh consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)



Transportation ———————

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: total: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA note: radio and meteorological station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Norway



======================================================================



@Japan ——-



Map —-

Location: 36 00 N, 138 00 E — Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula



Flag ——

Description: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula

Geographic coordinates: 36 00 N, 138 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 377,835 sq km land area: 374,744 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than California note: includes Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait

International disputes: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m highest point: Fujiyama 3,776 m

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 1% forest and woodland: 67% other: 18%

Irrigated land: 28,680 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan's appetite for fish and tropical timber is contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere natural hazards: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: strategic location in northeast Asia



People ———

Population: 125,449,703 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16% (male 10,121,414; female 9,644,243) 15-64 years: 69% (male 43,624,464; female 43,359,249) 65 years and over: 15% (male 7,737,781; female 10,962,552) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.21% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.71 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.55 years male: 76.57 years female: 82.68 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Japanese (singular and plural) adjective: Japanese

Ethnic divisions: Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)

Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%)

Languages: Japanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.) total population: 99% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Japan

Data code: JA

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modeled after European civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989) is a constitutional monarch head of government: Prime Minister Ryutaro HASHIMOTO (since 11 January 1996) and Deputy Prime Minister Wataru KUBO (since 11 January 1996) were designated by the Diet and appointed by the emperor cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) House of Councillors (Sangi-in): half of the members elected every three years to six-year terms; elections last held 23 July 1995 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (252 total, with 126 up for election) LDP 110 (49 newly won), Shinshinto 56 (40 newly won), SDP 38 (16 newly won), JCP 14 (8 newly won), Sakigate 3 (3 newly won), others 19 (4 newly won), independents 12 (6 newly won); note - the distribution of seats as of 1 March 1996 is as follows - LDP 111, Heisei-kai 69, SDP 35, JCP 14, Sakigake 3, others and independents 19, vacancies 1 House of Representatives (Shugi-in): all members elected every four years to four-year terms; elections last held 18 July 1993 (next to be held by July 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (511 total) LDP 223, SDP 70, Shinseito 55, Komeito 51, JNP 35, JCP 15, DSP 15, Sakigake 13, others 4, independents 30; note - the distribution of seats as of 1 March 1996 is as follows - LDP 207, Shinshinto 170, SDP 63, Sakigake 22, JCP 15, others and independents 19, vacant 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the emperor after designation by the cabinet, all other justices are appointed by the cabinet

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Ryutaro HASHIMOTO, president and Koichi KATO, secretary general; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Tomiichi MURAYAMA, president and Kanju SATO, secretary general; Sakigake (Harbinger), Masayoshi TAKEMURA, chairman and Yukio HATOYAMA, secretary general; Shinshinto (New Frontier Party, NFP), Ichiro OZAWA, chairman and Takashi YONEZAWA, secretary general; Japan Communist Party (JCP), Tetsuzo FUWA, presidium chairman note: Shinshinto was formed in December 1994 by the merger of Shinseito (Japan Renewal Party, JRP), Komeito (Clean Government Party, CGP), Japan New Party (JNP), Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), and several minor groups; Heisei-kai is a joint bloc of Shinshinto and Komei members; Komei is a group formed from what remains of Komeito in the upper house

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 2, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kunihiko SAITO chancery: 2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6700 FAX: [1] (202) 328-2187 consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Portland (Oregon), San Francisco, and Seattle consulate(s): Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Walter F. MONDALE embassy: 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo mailing address: Unit 45004, Box 258, APO AP 96337-0001 telephone: [81] (3) 3224-5000 FAX: [81] (3) 3505-1862 consulate(s) general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo consulate(s): Fukuoka, Nagoya

Flag: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (roughly 1% of GDP) have helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most powerful economy in the world. One notable characteristic of the economy is the working together of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors in closely knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force; this guarantee is slowly eroding. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades overall economic growth had been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Growth came to a halt in 1992-95 largely because of the aftereffects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. At yearend 1995, the financial structure is shaky with banks holding hundreds of billions of dollars of suspect assets. At the same time, the continued basic strength of the economy has been reflected in substantial trade surpluses, sizable foreign investments, and remarkably low rates of unemployment, inflation, and social disorder. The crowding of the habitable land area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.6792 trillion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 0.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $21,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 2.1% industry: 40.2% services: 57.7% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.1% (1995)

Labor force: 65.87 million (December 1994) by occupation: trade and services 54%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 33%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%, government 3%, other 3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1995)

Budget: revenues: $595 billion expenditures: $829 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $122 billion (1995 est.)

Industries: among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical equipment, construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and parts, electronic and telecommunication equipment, machine tools, automated production systems, locomotives and railroad rolling stock, ships, chemicals; textiles, processed foods

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1995)

Electricity: capacity: 205,140,000 kW (1993) production: 915 billion kWh (1995) consumption per capita: 7,293 kWh (1995)

Agriculture: rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs; world's largest fish catch of 10 million metric tons in 1991

Exports: $442.84 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: manufactures 97% (including machinery 46%, motor vehicles 20%, consumer electronics 10%) partners: Southeast Asia 38%, US 27%, Western Europe 17%, China 5%

Imports: $336.09 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: manufactures 52%, fossil fuels 20%, foodstuffs and raw materials 28% partners: Southeast Asia 25%, US 22%, Western Europe 16%, China 11%

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $11.259 billion (1993) note: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-95), $143 billion

Currency: yen (Y)

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1 - 105.84 (January 1996), 94.06 (1995), 102.21 (1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 26,506 km standard gauge: 3,233 km 1.435-m gauge (entirely electrified) narrow gauge: 72 km 1.372-m gauge (72 km electrified); 23,154 km 1.067-m gauge (13,835 km electrified); 47 km 0.762-m gauge (47 km electrified) (1994)

Highways: total: 1,112,844 km paved: 790,119 km (including 5,054 km of expressways) unpaved: 322,725 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km

Ports: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate, Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Tomakomai

Merchant marine: total: 796 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,944,137 GRT/23,662,930 DWT ships by type: bulk 192, cargo 57, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 6, container 38, liquefied gas tanker 39, oil tanker 259, passenger 9, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 35, roll-on/roll-off cargo 43, short-sea passenger 28, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 77 note: Japan owns an additional 1,587 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 50,072,815 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Liberia, Vanuatu, The Bahamas, Singapore, Cyprus, Philippines, Hong Kong, and Malta (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 164 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 6 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 32 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 34 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 30 with paved runways under 914 m: 60 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 11 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 64 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service domestic: NA international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); submarine cables to China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 318, FM 58, shortwave 0

Radios: 97 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12,350 (1 kW or greater 196)

Televisions: 100 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 31,833,691 males fit for military service: 27,322,517 males reach military age (18) annually: 858,912 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $50.2 billion, 1% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Jarvis Island ——————-

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 0 22 S, 160 03 W — Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to the Cook Islands



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to the Cook Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 22 S, 160 03 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 4.5 sq km land area: 4.5 sq km comparative area: about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 23 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: no natural fresh water resources natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard international agreements: NA

Geographic note: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats



People ———

Population: uninhabited; note - Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Jarvis Island

Data code: DQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat landing area in the middle of the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island

Transportation note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard



======================================================================



@Jersey ———

(British crown dependency)

Map —-

Location: 49 15 N, 2 10 W — Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France



Flag ——

Description: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag



Geography ————-

Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 49 15 N, 2 10 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 117 sq km land area: 117 sq km comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 70 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 143 m

Natural resources: agricultural land

Land use: arable land: 57% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier



People ———

Population: 87,848 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 7,787; female 7,284) 15-64 years: 69% (male 29,928; female 30,395) 65 years and over: 14% (male 5,107; female 7,347) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.77% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.93 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.36 years male: 75.63 years female: 81.39 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Channel Islander(s) adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

Languages: English (official), French (official), Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey conventional short form: Jersey

Data code: JE

Type of government: British crown dependency

Capital: Saint Helier

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch: Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch Head of Government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Sir Michael WILKES (since NA 1995) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since NA 1995) were appointed by the queen cabinet: committees were appointed by the Assembly of the States

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States: elections last held NA (next to be held NA); results - no percent of vote by party since all are independents; seats - (56 total, 52 elected) independents 52

Judicial branch: Royal Court, judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (British crown dependency)

US diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is based largely on financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. In 1986 the finance sector overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the island's output. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $643.7 million expenditures: $597.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 50,000 kW standby production: power supplied by France consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

Agriculture: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; meat, dairy products

Exports: $NA commodities: light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs, textiles partners: UK

Imports: $NA commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals partners: UK

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Jersey pound (LJ) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (LJ) per US$1 - 0.6535 (January 1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 61,447 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: 3 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Johnston Atoll ———————

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 16 45 N, 169 30 W — Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 169 30 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 2.8 sq km land area: 2.8 sq km comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Summit Peak 5 m

Natural resources: NA; guano deposits worked until depletion about 1890

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: no natural fresh water resources natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 1,200 US military and civilian contractor personnel (July 1996 est.)



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Johnston Atoll

Data code: JQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Capital: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity: supplied by the management and operations contractor



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Ports: Johnston Island

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: 52 telephone lines; excellent system domestic: 60-channel submarine cable, 22 DSN circuits by satellite, Autodin with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch, Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), UHF/VHF air-ground radio, a link to the Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network (PCTN) satellite, and amateur radio international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 5, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Jordan ———



Map —-

Location: 31 00 N, 36 00 E — Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven fundamental laws of the Koran



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 89,213 sq km land area: 88,884 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,619 km border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m highest point: Jabal Ram 1,754 m

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 0.5% meadows and pastures: 1% forest and woodland: 0.5% other: 94%

Irrigated land: 570 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea



People ———

Population: 4,212,152 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 44% (male 949,822; female 903,043) 15-64 years: 53% (male 1,153,360; female 1,091,416) 65 years and over: 3% (male 57,783; female 56,728) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.65% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 36.67 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 3.95 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female all ages: 1.05 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 31.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.48 years male: 70.62 years female: 74.45 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Jordanian(s) adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic divisions: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 86.6% male: 93.4% female: 79.4%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan conventional short form: Jordan local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah local short form: Al Urdun former: Transjordan

Data code: JO

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Ma'an

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: King HUSSEIN Bin Talal Al Hashimi (since 2 May 1953) is a constitutional monarch head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Karim al-KABARITI (since 4 February 1996) was appointed by the king cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-'Umma) House of Notables (Majlis al-A'ayan): consists of a 40-member body appointed by the king from designated categories of public figures House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1993 (next to be held NA November 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (80 total) IAF 16, Jordanian National Alliance Party 4, Al-Yaqazah Party 2, Al-Watan Party 2, Al-'Ahd Party 2, Jordanian Arab Democratic Party 2, Al-Mustaqbal Party 1, Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 1, Jordanian Democratic Progressive Party 1, Jordanian People's Democratic Party-Hashd 1, Jordanian Socialist Democratic Party 1, independents 47 note: the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by the king several times since 1974; in November 1989 the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Al-'Ahd (Pledge) Party, 'Abd al-Hadi al-MAJALI, secretary general; Al-Ahrar (Liberals) Party, Ahmad al-ZU'BI, secretary general; Al-Taqaddumi (Progressive) Party, Fawwaz al-ZUBI, secretary general; Al-Watan (Homeland) Party, 'Akif al-FAYIZ; Al-Yaqazah (Awakening) Party, 'Abd al-Ra'uf al-RAWABIDAH, secretary general; Constitutional Jordanian Arab Front Party, Milhim al-TALL; Democratic Arab Islamic Movement Party-Du'a', Yusuf Abu BAKR, secretary general; Democratic Arab Unionist Party-Wad, Anis al-MU'ASHIR, secretary general; Islamic Action Front (IAF), Ishaq al-FARHAN, secretary general; Jordanian Arab Masses Party, 'Abd al-Khaliq SHATAT, secretary general; Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'th Party, Taysir al-HIMSI, command first secretary; Jordanian Communist Party (JCP), Ya'qub ZAYADIN, secretary general; Jordanian Democratic Popular Unity Party, 'Azmi al-KHAWAJA, secretary general; Jordanian National Alliance Party, Mijhim al-KHURAYSHAH, secretary general; Jordanian People's Democratic Party-Hashd, Salim al-NAHHAS, secretary general; Jordanian Unionist Democratic Party, 'Isa MADANAT (secretary general), Ali AMIR (secretary general), Munis al-RAZZAZ (secretary general); Pan-Arab Action Front Party, Muhammad al-ZU'BI, secretary general; Popular Unity Party-the Unionists, Mustafa AL-'ISAWI, secretary general; Progress and Justice Party, 'Ali al-SA'D, secretary general; Progressive Arab Ba'th Party, Mahmud al-MA'AYITAH, command secretary; Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party, Sulayman 'ARAR, secretary general; Jordanian Arab Partisans Party, Muhammad al-MAJALI, leader, Muhammad SHURAYDAH, secretary general note: in 1995, the Jordanian Arab Democratic Party, the Jordanian Democratic Progressive Party, and the Jordanian Socialist Democratic Party merged to form the Jordanian Unionist Democratic Party

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Fayiz A. TARAWNEH chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664 FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Wesley W. EGAN, Jr. embassy: Jabel Amman, Amman mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; APO AE 09892-0200 telephone: [962] (6) 820101 FAX: [962] (6) 820159

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven fundamental laws of the Koran



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil and coal. Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom of the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual real GNP growth averaged more than 10%. In the remainder of the 1980s, however, reductions in both Arab aid and worker remittances slowed real economic growth to an average of roughly 2% per year. Imports - mainly oil, capital goods, consumer durables, and food - outstripped exports, with the difference covered by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian Government began debt-rescheduling negotiations and agreed to implement an IMF-supported program designed to gradually reduce the budget deficit and implement badly needed structural reforms. The Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990, however, aggravated Jordan's already serious economic problems, forcing the government to shelve the IMF program, stop most debt payments, and suspend rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker remittances, and trade contracted; and refugees flooded the country, producing serious balance-of-payments problems, stunting GDP growth, and straining government resources. The economy rebounded in 1992, largely due to the influx of capital repatriated by workers returning from the Gulf, but the recovery was uneven throughout 1994 and 1995. The government is implementing the reform program adopted in 1992 and continues to secure rescheduling and write-offs of its heavy foreign debt. Debt, poverty, and unemployment remain Jordan's biggest on-going problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 11% industry: 25% services: 64% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 600,000 (1992) by occupation: industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 10.5%, construction 10.0%, transport and communications 8.7%, agriculture 7.4%, other services 52.0% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $640 million (1996 est.)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 1,050,000 kW production: 4.2 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,072 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry

Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactures partners: India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, EU, Indonesia, UAE

Imports: $3.8 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live animals, manufactured goods partners: EU, US, Iraq, Japan, Turkey

External debt: $6.9 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $238 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7090 (January 1996), 0.7005 (1995), 0.6987 (1994), 0.6928 (1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 676 km narrow gauge: 676 km 1.050-m gauge; note - an additional 110 km stretch of the old Hedjaz railroad is out of use

Highways: total: 5,680 km paved: 5,680 km (including 1,712 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1991 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 209 km

Ports: Al'Aqabah

Merchant marine: total: 3 bulk ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,960 GRT/67,515 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 14 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 10 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 81,500 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: adequate telephone system domestic: microwave radio relay, cable, and radiotelephone links international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria; microwave radio relay to Lebanon is inactive; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 and 1 TV receive-only satellite link

Televisions: 350,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air Force); Ministry of the Interior's Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or crisis situations)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,011,588 males fit for military service: 721,460 males reach military age (18) annually: 45,406 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $589 million, 8.2% of GDP (1996)



======================================================================



@Juan de Nova Island —————————-

(possession of France)

Map —-

Location: 17 03 S, 42 45 E — Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique



Flag ——

Description: the flag of France is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 S, 42 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 4.4 sq km land area: 4.4 sq km comparative area: about seven times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24.1 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 12 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth the of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 10 m

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 90% other: 10%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: periodic cyclones international agreements: NA

Geographic note: wildlife sanctuary



People ———

Population: uninhabited



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Juan de Nova Island local long form: none local short form: Ile Juan de Nova

Data code: JU

Type of government: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: NA km; short line going to a jetty

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: total: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Kazakstan ————-



Map —-

Location: 48 00 N, 68 00 E — Central Asia, northwest of China



Flag ——

Description: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow



Geography ————-

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total area: 2,717,300 sq km land area: 2,669,800 sq km comparative area: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 12,012 km border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) note: Kazakstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m highest point: Zhengis Shingy 7,439 m

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

Land use: arable land: 15% permanent crops: NEGL% meadows and pastures: 57% forest and woodland: 4% other: 24%

Irrigated land: 23,080 sq km (1990)

Environment: current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salinization from faulty irrigation practices natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 16,916,463 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30% (male 2,576,204; female 2,486,937) 15-64 years: 63% (male 5,203,035; female 5,451,404) 65 years and over: 7% (male 384,341; female 814,542) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.15% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 19.02 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.65 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -10.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.47 male(s)/female all ages: 0.93 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.09 years male: 58.56 years female: 69.9 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.36 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Kazakstani(s) adjective: Kazakstani

Ethnic divisions: Kazak (Qazaq) 41.9%, Russian 37%, Ukrainian 5.2%, German 4.7%, Uzbek 2.1%, Tatar 2%, other 7.1% (1991 official data)

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Languages: Kazak (Qazaqz) official language spoken by over 40% of population, Russian (language of interethnic communication) spoken by two-thirds of population and used in everyday business

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.) total population: 98% male: 99% female: 96%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Kazakstan conventional short form: Kazakstan local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy local short form: none former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: KZ

Type of government: republic

Capital: Almaty

Administrative divisions: 19 oblystar (singular - oblys) and 1 city (qalalar, singular - qala)*; Almaty Qalasy*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Kokshetau Oblysy, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Semey Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay Oblysy, Zhambyl Oblysy, Zhezqazghan Oblysy note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from oblys name

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1991)

Constitution: adopted 28 January 1993; has been amended in April 1995 and August 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (since 22 February 1990) was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet 22 February 1990, and president by popular election 1 December 1991; was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 2000); results - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed; note - President NAZARBAYEV's term was extended to the year 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995 head of government: Prime Minister Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since 12 October 1994) and First Deputy Prime Ministers Nigmatzhan ISINGARIN (since 12 October 1994) were appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister note: President NAZARBAYEV has expanded his presidential powers by decree: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament Senate: elections (indirect) last held 5 December 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) "independent" state officials 25, progovernment parties 11, other parties 2, vacant 9 (of which 7 are to be nominated by the president) Majilis: elections last held 9 December and 23 December 1995 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (67 total) seats by party NA; note - 172 candidates were forwarded by parties and social organizations and 113 candidates were independents

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: ALASH party; People's Unity Party (PUP; was Union of People's Unity), Akhan BIZHANOV, chairman; Democratic Party, Tulegen ZHUKEYEV and Altynbek SARSENBAYEV, cochairmen; People's Congress of Kazakstan (PCK), Olzhas SULEYMENOV, chairman; Socialist Party of Kazakstan (SPK; former Communist Party), Petr SVOIK, chairman; Communist Party, Baidabek TULEPBAYEV; National Democratic Party, Kamal ORMANTAYEV, chairman; AZAT party, Khasen KOZH-AKHMET, chairman; Confederation of Trade Unions of the Republic of Kazakstan; Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakstan (KPU); Slavic Movement LAD, Aleksandra DOKUCHAYEVA, chairman; Party for Social Justice and Economic Revival "Tagibat"; Social Democratic Party, Dos KUSHIMOV, cochairman; People's Cooperative Party, Umirzak SARSENOV, chairman; Organization of Veterans; Republican Party

Other political or pressure groups: Independent Trade Union Center, Leonid SOLOMIN, president; Kazakstani-American Bureau on Human Rights, Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director; Democratic Committee on Human Rights; Independent Miners Union

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bolat NURGALIYEV chancery: (temporary) 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 333-4504 through 4507 FAX: [1] (202) 333-4509

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador A. Elizabeth JONES embassy: 99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakstan 480012 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [7] (3272) 63-39-05, 63-13-75, 63-24-26 FAX: [7] (3272) 63-29-42

Flag: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Kazakstan, the second largest of the former Soviet states in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil-fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. The government has pursued a moderate program of economic reform and privatization, resulting in a gradual lifting of state controls over economic activity and a shifting of assets into the private sector. Nevertheless, government control over key sectors of the economy remains strong. Moreover, continued lack of pipeline transportation for expanded oil exports has closed off a likely source of economic recovery.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $46.9 billion (1995 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: -8.9% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 28.5% industry: 41.5% services: 30% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60.3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 7.356 million by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 26%, other 43% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 1.4% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers (September 1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials; much of industrial capacity is shut down and/or is in need of repair

Industrial production growth rate: -8% (1995)

Electricity: capacity: 17,380,000 kW production: 65.7 billion kWh consumption per capita: 3,700 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture: grain, mostly spring wheat, cotton; wool, meat

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North America from Southwest Asia

Exports: $5.1 billion (1995) commodities: oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat, coal partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Imports: $3.9 billion (1995) commodities: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas partners: Russia and other former Soviet republics, China

External debt: $2.5 billion (of which $1.3 billion to Russia)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993) note: commitments, 1992-95, $4,780 million ($1,795 million disbursements)

Currency: national currency, the tenge, introduced on 15 November 1993

Exchange rates: tenges per US$1 - 64 (yearend 1995), 54 (yearend 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 13,841 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 13,841 km 1.520-m gauge (3,299 km electrified) (1992)

Highways: total: 87,873 km public roads paved: 82,568 km unpaved: 5,305 km (1994)

Waterways: 4,002 km on the Syrdariya River and Ertis River

Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)

Ports: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)

Airports: total: 352 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 23 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 11 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 with paved runways under 914 m: 9 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 9 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 8 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 25 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 65 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 190 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2.2 million

Telephone system: service is poor domestic: landline and microwave radio relay international: international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and through 8 international telecommunications circuits at the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and a new satellite earth station established at Almaty of unknown type

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: 4.088 million (with multiple speakers for program diffusion 6.082 million)

Television broadcast stations: NA; Orbita (TV receive only) earth station

Televisions: 4.75 million



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops); Kazakstan may also be establishing a maritime force - navy or coast guard - on the Caspian Sea

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 4,399,356 males fit for military service: 3,516,583 males reach military age (18) annually: 154,750 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 18.9 billion tenges, NA% of GDP (1995); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Kenya ——-



Map —-

Location: 1 00 N, 38 00 E — Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 582,650 sq km land area: 569,250 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries: total: 3,446 km border countries: Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 7% forest and woodland: 4% other: 85%

Irrigated land: 520 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value



People ———

Population: 28,176,686 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 6,362,160; female 6,226,333) 15-64 years: 53% (male 7,413,876; female 7,448,733) 65 years and over: 2% (male 328,649; female 396,935) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.27% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 33.38 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.3 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.61 years male: 55.53 years female: 55.69 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.45 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Kenyan(s) adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic divisions: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%, other 15%

Religions: Protestant (including Anglican) 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs 26%, other 8%

Languages: English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 78.1% male: 86.3% female: 70%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Kenya conventional short form: Kenya former: British East Africa

Data code: KE

Type of government: republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978) elected for a five-year term from the National Assembly by direct popular vote; election last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held by early 1998); results - President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected with 37% of the vote; Kenneth MATIBA (FORD-ASILI) 26%; Mwai KIBAKI (DP) 19%, Oginga ODINGA (FORD-Kenya) 17%; Vice President George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge): election last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (188 total) KANU 100, FORD-Kenya 31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller parties 3; president nominates 12 additional members; note - as of 9 April 1996 seat distribution was: KANU 106, FORD-Kenya 32, FORD-Asili 22, DP 22, smaller parties and vacancies 6 note: first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law in 1991

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; High Court

Political parties and leaders: ruling party is Kenya African National Union (KANU), President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI; opposition parties include Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD-Kenya), Michael WAMALWA; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD-Asili), Kenneth MATIBA; Democratic Party of Kenya (DP), Mwai KIBAKI

Other political or pressure groups: labor unions; Roman Catholic Church; unregistered SAFINA party with which prominent naturalist Richard Leakey is associated

International organization participation: ACP, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Benjamin Edgar KIPKORIR chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101 FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Aurelia E. BRAZEAL embassy: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi mailing address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831 telephone: [254] (2) 334141 FAX: [254] (2) 340838

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Kenya in recent years has had one of the highest natural rates of growth in population, but the statistics have been complicated by the large-scale movement of nomadic groups and of Somalis back and forth across the border. Population growth has been accompanied by deforestation, deterioration in the road system, the water supply, and other parts of the infrastructure. In industry and services, Nairobi's reluctance to embrace IMF-supported reforms had held back investment and growth in 1991-93. Nairobi's push on economic reform in 1994, however, helped support a 3.3% increase in output. The strong economy continued into 1995 with inflation cut sharply and GDP growth at 5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $36.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 27% industry: 19% services: 54% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1995 est.)

Labor force: by occupation: agriculture 75%-80% (1993 est.), non-agriculture 20%-25% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35% urban (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $2.4 billion expenditures: $2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $740 million (1990 est.)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing; oil refining, cement; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 810,000 kW production: 3.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 117 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, tea, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana and qat (chat); most locally consumed; transit country for Southwest Asian heroin moving to West Africa and onward to Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: tea 25%, coffee 18%, petroleum products 11% (1990) partners: EC 47%, Africa 23%, Asia 11%, US 4%, Middle East 3% (1991)

Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 29%, petroleum and petroleum products 15%, iron and steel 7%, raw materials, food and consumer goods (1989) partners: EC 46%, Asia 23%, Middle East 20%, US 5% (1991)

External debt: $7 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $589 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 56.715 (January 1996), 51.430 (1995), 56.051 (1994), 58.001 (1993), 32.217 (1992), 27.508 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,652 km narrow gauge: 2,652 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways: total: 62,573 km paved: 8,322 km unpaved: 54,251 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of ======================================================================



@Kingman Reef ——————

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 6 24 N, 162 24 W — Oceania, reef in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to American Samoa



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, reef in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 6 24 N, 162 24 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 1 sq km land area: 1 sq km comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

Terrain: low and nearly level lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 1 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of about 1 meter makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard international agreements: NA

Geographic note: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public



People ———

Population: uninhabited



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Kingman Reef

Data code: KQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy; however, it is awash the majority of the time, so it is not usable and is uninhabited

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Kiribati ————



Map —-

Location: 1 25 N, 173 00 E — Oceania, group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the equator and the International Date Line, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia



Flag ——

Description: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the equator and the International Date Line, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 1 25 N, 173 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 717 sq km land area: 717 sq km comparative area: four times the size of Washington, DC note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,143 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Banaba 81 m

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 51% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 3% other: 46%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk natural hazards: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

Geographic note: 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and Nauru



People ———

Population: 80,919 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 27.13 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 52.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.02 years male: 60.25 years female: 64.03 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.21 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural) adjective: I-Kiribati

Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%, Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)

Languages: English (official), Gilbertese

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati conventional short form: Kiribati note: pronounced kiribas former: Gilbert Islands

Data code: KR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands note: in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina; note - one council for each of the inhabited islands)

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President (Beretitenti) Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994) was elected by popular vote; note - the House of Assembly chooses the presidential candidates from among their members and then those candidates compete in a general election; election last held 30 September 1994 (next to be held by NA 1999); results - Teburoro TITO 51.2%, Tewareka TENTOA 18.3%, Roniti TEIWAKI 16.0%, Peter Taberannang TIMEON 14.5%; Vice President (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu): elections last held 22 July 1994 (next to be held by NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total, 39 elected) Maneaban Te Mauri 13, National Progressive Party 7, independents 19

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges at all levels are appointed by the president; High Court, judges at all levels are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party, Teatao TEANNAKI; Christian Democratic Party, Teburoro TITO; New Movement Party, leader NA; Liberal Party, Tewareka TENTOA; Maneaban Te Mauri Party, Roniti TEIWAKI note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: Kiribati does not have an embassy in the US

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati

Flag: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean



Economy ———-

Economic overview: A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP growth has declined from about 10% in 1988 to about 2.6% in 1995. Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. The financial sector is at an early stage of development. Foreign financial aid, largely from the UK and Japan, is a critical supplement to GDP, equal in amount to 25%-50% of GDP in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $68 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $860 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $32.5 million expenditures: $54.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1992 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 5,000 kW production: 13 million kWh consumption per capita: 131 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; fish

Exports: $6.3 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: copra 50%, seaweed 16%, fish 15% partners: Denmark, Fiji, US

Imports: $38.6 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuel partners: Australia 40%, Japan 18%, Fiji 17%, NZ 6%, US 4% (1991)

External debt: $2 million (December 1989 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January 1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991)

Fiscal year: NA



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 640 km (1987 est.) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km

Waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands

Ports: Banaba, Betio, English Harbor, Kanton

Merchant marine: total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,248 GRT/4,496 DWT ships by type: oil tanker 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 20 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 5 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 11 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1,400 (1984 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 15,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 0 (1988 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: no regular military forces; Police Force (carries out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; small police posts are on all islands)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: NA males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Korea, North ——————



Map —-

Location: 40 00 N, 127 00 E — Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South Korea



Flag ——

Description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South Korea

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 127 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 120,540 sq km land area: 120,410 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries: total: 1,673 km border countries: China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm military boundary line: 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are banned

International disputes: short section of boundary with China is indefinite; Demarcation Line with South Korea

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m

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