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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Agriculture: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India among the world's top 10 fishing nations

Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of hashish and methaqualone; produced 70 metric tons of illicit opium in 1995

Exports: $29.96 billion (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: clothing, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures, cotton yarn, and fabric partners: US, Japan, Germany, UK, Hong Kong

Imports: $33.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals partners: US, Germany, Saudi Arabia, UK, Belgium, Japan

External debt: $97.9 billion (March 1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1.237 billion (1993); US ODA bilateral commitments $171 million; US Ex-Im bilateral commitments $680 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA bilateral commitments $2.48 billion; OPEC bilateral aid $200 million; World Bank (IBRD) multilateral commitments $2.8 billion; Asian Development Bank (AsDB) multilateral commitments $760 million; International Finance Corporation (IFC) multilateral commitments $200 million; other multilateral commitments $554 million (1995-96)

Currency: 1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 35.766 (January 1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 62,462 km (11,793 km electrified; 12,617 km double track) broad gauge: 37,824 km 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 20,653 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,985 km 0.762-m and 0.610-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways: total: 2.037 million km paved: 981,834 km unpaved: 1,055,166 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural gas 1,700 km (1995)

Ports: Calcutta, Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Madras, Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam

Merchant marine: total: 310 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,787,834 GRT/11,296,222 DWT ships by type: bulk 133, cargo 65, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 3, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 73, passenger-cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 288 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 11 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 48 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 59 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 68 with paved runways under 914 m: 62 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 36 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 15 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 9.8 million (1995)

Telephone system: probably the least adequate telephone system of any of the industrializing countries; three of every four villages have no telephone service; only 5% of India's villages have long-distance service; poor telephone service significantly impedes commercial and industrial growth and penalizes India in global markets; slow improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but demand for communication services is also growing rapidly domestic: local service is provided mostly by open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems; within the last 10 years a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced for local service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by open wire, coaxial cable, and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985, however, significant trunk capacity has been added in the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system with over 100 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean Region); submarine cables to Malaysia and UAE

Radio broadcast stations: AM 96, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 70 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 274 (government controlled)

Televisions: 33 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, and Coast Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 260,624,007 males fit for military service: 153,176,413 males reach military age (17) annually: 9,770,331 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $8.0 billion, 2.7% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Indian Ocean ——————



Map —-

Location: 30 00 S, 80 00 E — body of water between Africa, Antarctica, Asia, and Australia



Geography ————-

Location: body of water between Africa, Antarctica, Asia, and Australia

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 80 00 E

Map references: World

Area: total area: 73.6 million sq km comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the US; third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean) note: includes Arabian Sea, Bass Straight, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, and other tributary water bodies

Coastline: 66,526 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge lowest point: Java Trench -7,258 m highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Environment: current issues: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea natural hazards: ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica from May to October international agreements: NA

Geographic note: major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait



Government —————

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes appendix



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes connecting the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the Americas. It carries a particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia. Its fish are of great and growing importance to the bordering countries for domestic consumption and export. Fishing fleets from Russia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and western Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.



Transportation ———————

Ports: Calcutta (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Jakarta (Indonesia), Madras (India), Melbourne (Australia), Mumbai (Bombay; India), Richard's Bay (South Africa)



Communications ———————

Telephone system: international: submarine cables from India to UAE and Malaysia and from Sri Lanka to Djibouti and Indonesia



======================================================================



@Indonesia ————-



Map —-

Location: 5 00 S, 120 00 E — Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 1,919,440 sq km land area: 1,826,440 sq km comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 2,602 km border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 3% meadows and pastures: 7% forest and woodland: 67% other: 15%

Irrigated land: 75,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean



People ———

Population: 206,611,600 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 33,354,840; female 32,414,363) 15-64 years: 64% (male 66,385,852; female 66,827,085) 65 years and over: 4% (male 3,380,567; female 4,248,893) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.53% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.67 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.38 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 63.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.64 years male: 59.51 years female: 63.88 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s) adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic divisions: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 83.8% male: 89.6% female: 78%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia conventional short form: Indonesia local long form: Republik Indonesia local short form: Indonesia former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Type of government: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968) and Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993) were elected for five-year terms by the People's Consultative Assembly cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR): elections last held 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - GOLKAR 68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%; seats - (500 total, 400 elected, 100 military representatives appointed) GOLKAR 282, PPP 62, PDI 56 note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of former Nationalist and Christian Parties), Megawati SUKARNOPUTRI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arifin Mohamad SIREGAR chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200 FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta mailing address: Box 1, APO AP 96520 telephone: [62] (21) 360360 FAX: [62] (21) 3862259 consulate(s) general: Medan, Surabaya

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with some central planning but with an emphasis on rapid deregulation and private enterprise. Real GDP growth in 1985-95 averaged about 7%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job generation. Industrial output is based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Foreign investment has also boosted manufacturing output and exports in recent years. Indeed, the economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid. Like some other rapidly developing countries in Southeast Asia, Indonesia is struggling to keep the economy from overheating.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $710.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 7.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 17% industry: 32.6% services: 50.4%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 67 million by occupation: agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%, transport and communications 3% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% official rate; underemployment 40% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $38.1 billion expenditures: $38.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.5 billion (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber

Industrial production growth rate: 13.9% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 12,100,000 kW production: 44 billion kWh consumption per capita: 207 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers; minor role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

Exports: $39.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: manufactures 51.9%, fuels 26.4%, foodstuffs 12.7%, raw materials 9.0% partners: Japan 27.4%, US 14.6%, Singapore 10.1%, South Korea 6.5%, Taiwan 4.1%, Netherlands 3.3%, China 3.3%, Hong Kong 3.3%, Germany 3.2%

Imports: $32 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: manufactures 75.3%, raw materials 9.0%, foodstuffs 7.8%, fuels 7.7% partners: Japan 24.2%, US 11.2%, Germany 7.7%, South Korea 6.8%, Singapore 5.9%, Australia 4.8%, Taiwan 4.5%, China 4.3%

External debt: $97.6 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $1.542 billion (1993)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (Rp)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,306.3 (January 1996), 2,248.6 (1995), 2,160.8 (1994), 2,087.1 (1993), 2,029.9 (1992), 1,950.3 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 6,458 km narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 283,516 km paved: 125,051 km unpaved: 158,465 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine: total: 457 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,098,958 GRT/3,056,040 DWT ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 265, chemical tanker 6, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 5, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 98, passenger 5, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 4 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 414 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 9 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 35 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 41 with paved runways under 914 m: 299 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 23 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1,276,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 618, FM 38, shortwave 0

Radios: 28.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 11.5 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 57,222,025 males fit for military service: 33,702,395 males reach military age (18) annually: 2,280,360 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, 1.4% of GNP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Iran ——



Map —-

Location: 32 00 N, 53 00 E — Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 1.648 million sq km land area: 1.636 million sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total: 5,440 km border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline: 2,440 km note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: natural prolongation exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the Persian Gulf territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway; Iran occupies two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); it jointly administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (called Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran); in 1992 the dispute over Abu Musa and the Tunb islands became more acute when Iran unilaterally tried to control the entry of third country nationals into the UAE portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran subsequently backed off in the face of significant diplomatic support for the UAE in the region, but in 1994 it increased its military presence on the disputed islands; periodic disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined; support to clients in Afghanistan

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use: arable land: 8% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 27% forest and woodland: 11% other: 54%

Irrigated land: 57,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along the Western border international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation



People ———

Population: 66,094,264 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 15,166,131; female 14,289,283) 15-64 years: 52% (male 17,326,388; female 16,731,470) 65 years and over: 3% (male 1,327,718; female 1,253,274) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 33.67 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female all ages: 1.05 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.39 years male: 66.12 years female: 68.72 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Iranian(s) adjective: Iranian

Ethnic divisions: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 10%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 1%

Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Baloch 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1994 est.) total population: 72.1% male: 78.4% female: 65.8%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran conventional short form: Iran local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran local short form: Iran

Data code: IR

Type of government: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 25 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshahan, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

Legal system: the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch: supreme leader (rahbar-e moazam) and functional chief of sta: Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989) was appointed for life by Council of Experts head of government: President Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI (since 3 August 1989) was elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage; First Vice President Hasan Ebrahim HABIBI (since NA August 1989); election last held 11 June 1993 (next to be held NA May 1997); results - Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI was elected with 63% of the vote cabinet: Council of Ministers was selected by the president with legislative approval

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami): elections last held 8 March and 19 April 1996 (next to be held NA March 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (270 seats total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are at least 76 licensed parties, none are, as yet, openly active; the most important groupings are - Tehran Militant Clergy Association, leader NA; Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Servants of Reconstruction (G-6), leader NA

Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, and the Islamic Coalition Association; opposition groups include the Liberation Movement of Iran and the Nation of Iran party; armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran; the Society for the Defense of Freedom

International organization participation: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: none; note - Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy, headed by Faramarz FATH-NEJAD; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990

US diplomatic representation: none; note - protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. Over the past several years, the government has introduced several measures to liberalize the economy and reduce government intervention, but most of these changes have moved slowly or have been reversed because of political opposition. Iran has faced increasingly severe financial difficulties since mid-1992 due to an import surge that began in 1989 and general financial mismanagement. At yearend 1993 the Iranian Government estimated that it owed foreign creditors about $30 billion; an estimated $8 billion of this debt was in arrears. At yearend 1994, Iran rescheduled $12 billion in debt. Earnings from oil exports - which provide 85% of Iran's export revenues - are providing less relief to Iran than usual because of reduced oil prices. Iran's financial situation will remain tight in 1996 because the bulk of payments due under its rescheduling agreements in 1993-94 will be coming due.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $323.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 21% industry: 37% services: 42% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 15.4 million by occupation: agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21% note: shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 19,080,000 kW production: 50.8 billion kWh consumption per capita: 745 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international drug trade; produced 35-70 metric tons in 1993; net opiate importer but also a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe

Exports: $16 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: petroleum 85%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides, iron, steel partners: Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain, and Germany

Imports: $13 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products partners: Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, UAE

External debt: $30 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $40 million (1993)

Currency: 10 Iranian rials (IR) = 1 toman; note - domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of the toman

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 1,750 (January 1996), 1,747.93 (1995), 1,748.75 (1994), 1,267.77 (1993), 65.55 (1992), 67.51 (1991); black market rate: 4,000 rials per US$1 (December 1995); note - as of May 1995, the "official rate" of 1,750 rials per US$1 is used for imports of essential goods and services and for oil exports, wheras the "official export rate" of 3,000 rials per US$1 is used for non-oil exports and imports not covered by the official rate

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 5,093 km broad gauge: 96 km 1.676-m gauge standard gauge: 4,997 km 1.432-m gauge (146 km electrified) (1995)

Highways: total: 140,200 km paved: 42,700 km unpaved: 97,500 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use

Pipelines: crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km

Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Ahvaz, Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e 'Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Mah Shahr, Bandar-e Torkeman, Jazireh-ye Khark, Jazireh-ye Lavan, Jazireh-ye Sirri, Khorramshahr (limited operation since November 1992), Now Shahr

Merchant marine: total: 130 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,791,892 GRT/4,891,615 DWT ships by type: bulk 47, cargo 41, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 19, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 212 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 30 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 11 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 31 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 17 with paved runways under 914 m: 22 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 88 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 12 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 3.02 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in Tehran international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean Region); HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE

Radio broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 14.3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 3.9 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Revolutionary Guards (includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij-mobilization-forces), Law Enforcement Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 15,157,796 males fit for military service: 9,010,648 males reach military age (21) annually: 632,602 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: according to official Iranian data, Iran in 1994 budgeted 4,377 billion rials and in 1993 spent 2,182 billion rials, including $850 million in hard currency; note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using current exchange rates could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Iraq ——



Map —-

Location: 33 00 N, 44 00 E — Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 437,072 sq km land area: 432,162 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries: total: 3,631 km border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: not specified territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993), and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands; dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows which melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m highest point: Gundah Zhur 3,608 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 9% forest and woodland: 3% other: 75%

Irrigated land: 25,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Shi'a Muslims, who have inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Environmental Modification



People ———

Population: 21,422,292 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 48% (male 5,179,240; female 5,014,141) 15-64 years: 49% (male 5,342,529; female 5,228,802) 65 years and over: 3% (male 307,097; female 350,483) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.69% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.07 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.57 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.95 years male: 65.92 years female: 68.03 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.41 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Iraqi(s) adjective: Iraqi

Ethnic divisions: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%

Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 58% male: 70.7% female: 45%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Iraq conventional short form: Iraq local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah local short form: Al Iraq

Data code: IZ

Type of government: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional Constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991) were elected by a two-thirds majority of the Revolutionary Command Council head of government: Prime Minister SADDAM Husayn (since NA May 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979) Revolutionary Command Council: Chairman SADDAM Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani): elections last held 24 March 1996 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (250 total, 30 appointed by SADDAM Husayn to represent three northern provonces of Dahuk, Arbil, and As Sulaymaniyah) note: in northern Iraq, a "Kurdish Assembly" was elected in May 1992 and calls for Kurdish self-determination within a federated Iraq; the assembly is not recognized by the Baghdad government

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Ba'th Party, SADDAM Husayn, central party leader

Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity severely restricted; opposition to regime from disaffected members of the Ba'th Party, Army officers, tribes, and Shi'a religious and ethnic Kurdish dissidents; the Green Party (government-controlled)

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: none; note - Iraq has an Interest Section in the Algerian Embassy; address: Iraqi Interests Section, Algerian Embassy, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500; FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066

US diplomatic representation: none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Polish Embassy in Baghdad, which is in the Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club); address: P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad; telephone: [964] (1) 719-6138, 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791; Telex 212287

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran, led the government to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq suffered economic losses of at least $100 billion from the war. After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the government, also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically changed the economic picture. Industrial and transportation facilities, which suffered severe damage, have been partially restored. Oil exports remain at less than 5% of the previous level. Shortages of spare parts continue. Living standards deteriorated even further in 1994 and 1995; consumer prices have more than doubled in both 1994 and 1995. The UN-sponsored economic embargo has reduced exports and imports and has contributed to the sharp rise in prices. The Iraqi Government has been unwilling to abide by UN resolutions so that the economic embargo can be removed. The government's policies of supporting large military and internal security forces and of allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have exacerbated shortages. In brief, per capita output for 1994-95 is well below the 1989-90 level, but any estimate has a wide range of error.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $41.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $2,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 4.4 million (1989) by occupation: services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22% note: severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about 1,600,000 (July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 7,170,000 kW production: 25.7 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,247 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit, cotton; cattle, sheep

Exports: $NA commodities: crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur partners: US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)

Imports: $NA commodities: manufactures, food partners: Germany, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)

External debt: $50 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35 billion owed to Gulf Arab states

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.2169 (fixed official rate since 1982); black-market rate (December 1995) US$1 = 2,900 Iraqi dinars; semi-official rate US$1 = 1,000 Iraqi dinars

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,032 km standard gauge: 2,032 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways: total: 45,554 km paved: 38,402 km (including 976 km of expressways) unpaved: 7,152 km (1989 est.)

Waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf war

Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km

Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited functionality

Merchant marine: total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 795,346 GRT/1,432,292 DWT ships by type: cargo 14, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 102 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 21 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 34 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 8 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 with paved runways under 914 m: 16 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 5 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 632,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been rebuilt domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably nonoperational

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.02 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 13

Televisions: 1 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Republican Guard and Special Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Internal Security Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 4,832,001 males fit for military service: 2,711,312 males reach military age (18) annually: 237,843 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Ireland ———-



Map —-

Location: 53 00 N, 8 00 W — Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red



Geography ————-

Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 70,280 sq km land area: 68,890 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total: 360 km border country: UK 360 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: not specified exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Carrauntoohill 1,041 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use: arable land: 14% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 71% forest and woodland: 5% other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 60 miles of Dublin



People ———

Population: 3,566,833 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 23% (male 424,558; female 402,062) 15-64 years: 65% (male 1,175,383; female 1,157,960) 65 years and over: 12% (male 173,150; female 233,720) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.22% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.22 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.93 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.58 years male: 72.88 years female: 78.46 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural) adjective: Irish

Ethnic divisions: Celtic, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)

Languages: Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard, English is the language generally used

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1981 est.) total population: 98% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Ireland

Data code: EI

Type of government: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990) was elected for a seven-year term by popular vote; election last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held NA November 1997); results - Mary Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2% head of government: Prime Minister John BRUTON (since 15 December 1994) was nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by president with previous nomination of the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) Senate (Seanad Eireann): elections last held NA February 1992 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 26, Fine Gael 16, Labor 9, Progressive Democrats 2, Democratic Left 1, independents 6 House of Representatives (Dail Eireann): elections last held 25 November 1992 (next to be held by NA November 1997); results - Fianna Fail 39.1%, Fine Gael 24.5%, Labor Party 19.3%, Progressive Democrats 4.7%, Democratic Left 2.8%, Sinn Fein 1.6%, Workers' Party 0.7%, independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total) Fianna Fail 68, Fine Gael 45, Labor Party 33, Progressive Democrats 10, Democratic Left 4, Greens 1, independents 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president on the advice of the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Left, Proinsias DE ROSSA; Fianna Fail, Bertie AHERN; Labor Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael, John BRUTON; Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN; Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS; Progressive Democrats, Mary HARNEY; The Workers' Party, Marion DONNELLY; Green Alliance, Bronwen MAHER note: Prime Minister BRUTON heads a three-party coalition consisting of the Fine Gael, the Labor Party, and the Democratic Left

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dermot A. GALLAGHER chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Kennedy SMITH embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [353] (1) 6688777 FAX: [353] (1) 6689946

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is small and trade dependent. Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for 38% of GDP, about 80% of exports, and employs 28% of the labor force. Although exports remain the primary engine for Ireland's robust growth, the economy is also benefiting from a rise in consumer spending and recovery in both construction and business investment. Ireland has substantially reduced its external debt since 1987, to 40% of GDP in 1994. Over the same period, inflation has fallen sharply and chronic trade deficits have been transformed into annual surpluses. Unemployment remains a serious problem, however, and job creation is the main focus of government policy. To ease unemployment, Dublin aggressively courts foreign investors and recently created a new industrial development agency to aid small indigenous firms. Government assistance is constrained by Dublin's continuing deficit reduction measures.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $54.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $15,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 6.8% industry: 35.3% services: 57.9% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 1.37 million by occupation: services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 28%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 13.5%, energy and mining 1.5% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 13.5% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $19.3 billion expenditures: $20.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.6 billion (1994)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

Industrial production growth rate: 8.9% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 3,930,000 kW production: 14.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 3,938 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; meat and dairy products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to the UK and Netherlands

Exports: $29.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery, live animals, animal products partners: EU 73% (UK 27%, Germany 14%, France 9%), US 9%

Imports: $25.3 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: food, animal feed, data processing equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, textiles, clothing partners: EU 58% (UK 36%, Germany 7%, France 4%), US 18%

External debt: $19.5 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $81 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Irish pound (LIr) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (LIr) per US$1 - 0.6315 (January 1996), 0.6235 (1995), 0.6676 (1994), 0.6816 (1993), 0.5864 (1992), 0.6190 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,944 km broad gauge: 1,944 km 1.600-m gauge (37 km electrified; 485 km double track) (1995)

Highways: total: 92,327 km paved: 86,787 km (including 32 km of expressways) unpaved: 5,540 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Pipelines: natural gas 225 km

Ports: Arklow, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Foynes, Galway, Limerick, New Ross, Waterford

Merchant marine: total: 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 129,027 GRT/155,371 DWT ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 27, chemical tanker 1, container 3, oil tanker 2, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 40 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 with paved runways under 914 m: 29 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 900,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay domestic: microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 45, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.2 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 86 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 1.025 million (1990 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army (includes Naval Service and Air Corps), National Police (Garda Siochana)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 939,237 males fit for military service: 761,048 males reach military age (17) annually: 35,904 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $618 million, 1.3% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Israel ———

(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)

Note: The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the data below. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations are being conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives, and Israel and Syria, to achieve a permanent settlement between them. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace.

Map —-

Location: 31 30 N, 34 45 E — Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon



Flag ——

Description: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon

Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 20,770 sq km land area: 20,330 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 1,006 km border countries: Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: to depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

Land use: arable land: 17% permanent crops: 5% meadows and pastures: 40% forest and woodland: 6% other: 32%

Irrigated land: 2,140 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: there are 202 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 24 in the Gaza Strip, and 26 in East Jerusalem (August 1995 est.)



People ———

Population: 5,421,995 (July 1996 est.) note: includes 127,600 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, 14,800 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 5,000 in the Gaza Strip, and 153,700 in East Jerusalem (August 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 29% (male 793,712; female 756,735) 15-64 years: 62% (male 1,670,082; female 1,669,481) 65 years and over: 9% (male 230,082; female 301,903) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.11% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 20.31 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.26 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.01 years male: 76.16 years female: 79.96 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.77 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Israeli(s) adjective: Israeli

Ethnic divisions: Jewish 82% (Israel-born 50%, Europe/Americas/Oceania-born 20%, Africa-born 7%, Asia-born 5%), non-Jewish 18% (mostly Arab) (1993 est.)

Religions: Judaism 82%, Islam 14% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2%, Druze and other 2%

Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992 est.) total population: 95% male: 97% female: 93%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: State of Israel conventional short form: Israel local long form: Medinat Yisra'el local short form: Yisra'el

Data code: IS

Type of government: republic

Capital: Jerusalem note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May 1948 (Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May)

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law

Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Ezer WEIZMAN (since 13 May 1993) was elected for a five-year term by the Knesset; election last held 24 March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998); results - Ezer WEIZMAN elected by Knesset head of government: Prime Minister Shimon PERES (since 15 November 1995) was appointed by the president following the assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak RABIN cabinet: Cabinet was selected from and approved by the Knesset

Legislative branch: unicameral parliament (Knesset): elections last held NA June 1992 (next to be held 29 May 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) Labor 44, Likud 32, MERETZ 12, Tzomet 8, National Religious Party 6, SHAS 6, United Torah Jewry 4, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash) 3, Moledet 3, Arab Democratic Party 2; note - the distribution of seats as of January 1996 is as follows - Labor Party 45, Likud bloc 33, MERETZ 12, National Religious Party 6, SHAS 6, Tzomet 5, United Torah Jewry 4, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash) 3, Moledet 2, Arab Democratic Party 2, Yi'ud 1 (in coalition), Right of Israel 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: members of the government: Labor Party, Prime Minister Shimon PERES; MERETZ, Minister of Environment Yossi SARID; Yi'ud, Gonen SEGEV not in coalition but voting with the government: Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash), Hashim MAHAMID; Arab Democratic Party, Abd al Wahab DARAWSHAH opposition parties: Likud Party, Binyamin NETANYAHU; Tzomet, Rafael EITAN; National Religious Party, Zevulun HAMMER; United Torah Jewry, Avraham SHAPIRA; Moledet, Rehavam ZEEVI; Peace Guard (independent), Shaul GUTMAN; SHAS, Arieh DERI; Right of Israel, leader NA note: Israel currently has a coalition government comprising three parties that hold 58 seats of the Knesset's 120 seats

Other political or pressure groups: Gush Emunim, Israeli nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and is critical of government's Lebanon policy

International organization participation: AG (observer), BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Itamar RABINOVICH chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500 FAX: [1] (202) 364-5610 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin S. INDYK embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv mailing address: PSC 98, Box 100, APO AE 09830 telephone: [972] (3) 519-7575 FAX: [972] (3) 517-3227 consulate(s) general: Jerusalem

Flag: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Israel has a market economy with substantial government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Industry employs about 22% of Israeli workers, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.5%, and services the rest. Israel is largely self-sufficient in food production except for grains. Diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are leading exports. Israel usually posts current account deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, which is its major source of economic and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel has been targeting high-technology niches in international markets, such as medical scanning equipment. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR, which topped 525,000 during the period 1990-95, increased unemployment, intensified housing problems, and strained the government budget. At the same time, the immigrants bring to the economy valuable scientific and professional expertise.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $80.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 7.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $15,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5% industry: 22% services: 74.5%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.1% (1995)

Labor force: 1.9 million (1992) by occupation: public services 29.3%, industry 22.1%, commerce 13.9%, finance and business 10.4%, personal and other services 7.4%, construction 6.5%, transport, storage, and communications 6.3%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.5%, other 0.6% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $41 billion expenditures: $53 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996)

Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles and apparel, chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment, electrical equipment, potash mining, high-technology electronics, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 10.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 4,140,000 kW production: 23 billion kWh consumption per capita: 4,290 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: citrus and other fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products

Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse and trafficking

Exports: $28.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: machinery and equipment, cut diamonds, chemicals, textiles and apparel, agricultural products, metals partners: US, EU, Japan

Imports: $40.1 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.) commodities: military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, oil, other productive inputs, consumer goods partners: EU, US, Japan

External debt: $18.5 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: total receipts $12.14 billion of which $11.38 billion from the US (1990-93)

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.1295 (January 1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 526 km standard gauge: 526 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways: total: 13,461 km paved: 13,461 km (including 56 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km

Ports: Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat, Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv-Yafo

Merchant marine: total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 577,747 GRT/701,459 DWT ships by type: cargo 5, container 20, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 50 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8 with paved runways under 914 m: 22 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2.425 million (1990 est.)

Telephone system: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 45, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.25 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 20

Televisions: 1.5 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Israel Defense Forces (includes ground, naval, and air components), Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal), Frontier Guard, Chen (women); note - historically there have been no separate Israeli military services

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,390,603 females age 15-49: 1,363,986 males fit for military service: 1,139,137 females fit for military service: 1,112,947 males reach military age (18) annually: 50,508 females reach military age (18) annually: 48,176 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9.2 billion, about 9.8% of GDP (1996)



======================================================================



@Italy ——-



Map —-

Location: 42 50 N, 12 50 E — Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 42 50 N, 12 50 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 301,230 sq km land area: 294,020 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Land boundaries: total: 1,935.2 km border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 235 km, Switzerland 740 km

Coastline: 7,600 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Italy is negotiating with Slovenia over property and minority rights issues dating from World War II

Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

Land use: arable land: 32% permanent crops: 10% meadows and pastures: 17% forest and woodland: 22% other: 19%

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification

Geographic note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe



People ———

Population: 57,460,274 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 15% (male 4,419,636; female 4,167,860) 15-64 years: 68% (male 19,656,546; female 19,629,291) 65 years and over: 17% (male 3,902,426; female 5,684,515) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.13% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 9.87 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.82 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.06 years male: 74.85 years female: 81.48 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Italian(s) adjective: Italian

Ethnic divisions: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south), Sicilians, Sardinians

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%

Languages: Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 97% male: 98% female: 96%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Italian Republic conventional short form: Italy local long form: Repubblica Italiana local short form: Italia former: Kingdom of Italy

Data code: IT

Type of government: republic

Capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular - regione); Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)

Executive branch: chief of state: President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992) was elected for a seven-year term by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the President of the Council of Ministers) Romano PRODI (since 18 May 1996) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was nominated by the President of the Council (i.e., Prime Minister) and approved by the President of the Republic

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) Senate (Senato della Repubblica): elections last held 22 April 1996 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (326 total, 315 elected, 11 appointed senators-for-life) Olive Tree 157, Freedom Alliance 116, Northern League 27, Refounded Communists 10, regional lists 3, Social Movement-Tricolor Flames 1, Panella Reformers 1 Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati): elections last held 22 April 1996 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (630 total) Olive Tree 284, Freedom Alliance 246, Northern League 59, Refounded Communists 35, Southern Tyrol List 3, Autonomous List 2, other 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale), composed of 15 judges (one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts)

Political parties and leaders: Olive Tree: Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), Massimo D'ALEMA; Greens, Carlo RIPA DI MEANA; Italian Renewal, Lamberto DINI; Southern Tyrols List (German speakers) Freedom Alliance: Forza Italia (FI), Silvio BERLUSCONI; National Alliance (AN), Gianfranco FINI; Christian Democratic Center (CCD), Pier Ferdinando CASINI; Democratic Union Party, Antonio MACCANICO other: Northern League (NL), Umberto BOSSI; Italian Social Movement, Pino RAUTI; Communist Refoundation (RC), Fausto BERTINOTTI; Italian Socialists, Enrico BOSELLI; Rete (The Network), Leoluca ORLANDO; Christian Socialists, Luciano GUERZONI; Democratic Pact for Italy, Mario SEGNI; Italian Popular Party (PPI), Gerardo BIANCO; Pannella's Reformers, Marco PANNELLA; Christian Democratic Union (United Christian Democrats - CDU), Rocco BUTTIGLIONE; Democratic Alliance, Willer BORDON; Union for the New Republic, Raffaele COSTA; Unitary Communists, Famiano CRUCIANELLI; Autonomous List (a group of minor parties); Social Movement-Tricolor Flames

Other political or pressure groups: the Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL which is PDS-dominated, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL which is centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL which is center-left); Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinando SALLEO chancery: 1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 328-5500 FAX: [1] (202) 483-2187 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco consulate(s): Detroit and New Orleans

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Reginald BARTHOLOMEW embassy: Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, Rome; APO AE 09624 telephone: [39] (6) 46741 FAX: [39] (6) 488-2672 consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Since World War II, the Italian economy has changed from one based on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large public enterprises. Most raw materials needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. In the second half of 1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of not qualifying to participate in EU plans for economic and monetary union later in the decade; thus, it finally began to address its huge fiscal imbalances. Subsequently, the government has adopted fairly stringent budgets, abandoned its inflationary wage indexation system, and started to scale back its generous social welfare programs, including pension and health care benefits. Monetary officials were forced to withdraw the lira from the European monetary system in September 1992, when it came under extreme pressure in currency markets. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of pushing ahead with fiscal reform, refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing pollution in major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new competitive forces accompanying the ongoing expansion and economic integration of the EU.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.0886 trillion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $18,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 2.9% industry: 31.6% services: 65.5% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1995)

Labor force: 23.988 million by occupation: services 58%, industry 32.2%, agriculture 9.8% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (January 1995)

Budget: revenues: $339 billion expenditures: $431 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Industrial production growth rate: 5.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 61,630,000 kW production: 209 billion kWh consumption per capita: 4,033 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; meat and dairy products; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market

Exports: $190.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: metals, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transportation equipment, chemicals partners: EU 53.4%, US 7.8%, OPEC 3.8% (1994)

Imports: $168.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: industrial machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, petroleum, metals, food, agricultural products partners: EU 56.3%, OPEC 5.3%, US 4.6% (1994)

External debt: $67 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $3.043 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,583.8 (January 1996), 1,629.6 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 18,961 km standard gauge: 17,981 km 1.435-m gauge; Italian Railways (FS) operates 16,118 km of the total standard gauge routes (10,560 km electrified) narrow gauge: 113 km 1.000-m gauge (113 km electrified); 867 km 0.950-m gauge (144 km electrified)

Highways: total: 305,388 km (including 45,076 km major roads, 112,111 km secondary roads, 6,301 km motorways) paved: 271,674 km unpaved: 33,714 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value

Pipelines: crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km

Ports: Ancona, Augusta, Bari, Cagliari (Sardinia), Catania, Gaeta, Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Oristano (Sardinia), Palermo (Sicily), Piombino, Porto Torres (Sardinia), Ravenna, Savona, Trieste, Venice

Merchant marine: total: 419 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,480,320 GRT/7,919,064 DWT ships by type: bulk 35, cargo 57, chemical tanker 39, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 16, liquefied gas tanker 37, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 123, passenger 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 53, short-sea passenger 31, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 7 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 132 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 34 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 15 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 24 with paved runways under 914 m: 32 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 20 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 25.6 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 135, FM 28 (repeaters 1,840), shortwave 0

Radios: 45.7 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 83 (repeaters 1,000)

Televisions: 24.35 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 14,739,097 males fit for military service: 12,769,628 males reach military age (18) annually: 358,884 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $20.4 billion, 1.9% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Jamaica ———-



Map —-

Location: 18 15 N, 77 30 W — Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba



Flag ——

Description: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 77 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 10,990 sq km land area: 10,830 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

Land use: arable land: 19% permanent crops: 6% meadows and pastures: 18% forest and woodland: 28% other: 29%

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions natural hazards: hurricanes (especially July to November) international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

Geographic note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal



People ———

Population: 2,595,275 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 430,609; female 411,966) 15-64 years: 61% (male 781,626; female 795,808) 65 years and over: 7% (male 77,725; female 97,541) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.8% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 22.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.57 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

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