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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi JAGAN; People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE; Good and Green Georgetown (GGG), Hamilton GREEN; Working People's Alliance (WPA), Eusi KWAYANA, Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph BACCHUS; The United Force (TUF), Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY; National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN; Guyana Labor Party (GLP), Nanda GOPAUL

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress (TUC); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action Committee (CLAC) note: the latter two organizations are small and active but not well organized

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900, 6901 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador David L. HOBBS embassy: 99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown telephone: [592] (2) 54900 through 54909, 57960 through 57969 FAX: [592] (2) 58497

Flag: green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between the yellow and the green



Economy ———-

Economic overview: In 1995, Guyana, one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, posted its fifth straight year of economic growth of 5% or better, with the advance led by gold mining and by production of rice, sugar, and forestry products for export. Favorable factors include recovery in the key agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiative, a more realistic exchange rate, a sharp drop in the inflation rate, and the continued support of international organizations. Serious underlying economic problems will continue. Electric power has been in short supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in national output. The government must persist in efforts to manage its $2 billion external debt, control inflation, and extend the privatization program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 26.5% industry: 27.8% services: 45.7% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (1995)

Labor force: 268,000 by occupation: industry and commerce 44.5%, agriculture 33.8%, services 21.7% note: public-sector employment amounts to 60%-80% of the total labor force (1985)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $209 million expenditures: $303 million, including capital expenditures of $109 million (1995 est.)

Industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 110,000 kW production: 230 million kWh consumption per capita: 286 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; development potential exists for fishing and forestry

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

Exports: $453 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: sugar, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses partners: UK 33%, US 31%, Canada 9%, France 5%, Japan 3% (1992)

Imports: $456 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food partners: US 37%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%, UK 11%, Italy 8%, Japan 5% (1992)

External debt: $2.2 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 140.3 (January 1996), 142.0 (1995), 138.3 (1994), 126.7 (1993), 125.0 (1992), 111.8 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 88 km standard gauge: 40 km 1.435-m gauge (dedicated to ore transport) narrow gauge: 48 km 0.914-m gauge (dedicated to ore transport)

Highways: total: 7,621 km paved: 547 km unpaved: 7,074 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km, respectively

Ports: Bartica, Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam, Parika

Merchant marine: total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,317 GRT/2,558 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 47 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 32 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 33,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: fair system for long-distance calling domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines international: tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 1

Radios: 398,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 32,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana National Service (GNS)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 197,548 males fit for military service: 149,646 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $7 million, 1.7% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Haiti ——-



Map —-

Location: 19 00 N, 72 25 W — Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 27,750 sq km land area: 27,560 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 275 km border country: Dominican Republic 275 km

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: to depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources: bauxite

Land use: arable land: 20% permanent crops: 13% meadows and pastures: 18% forest and woodland: 4% other: 45%

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and use as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)



People ———

Population: 6,731,539 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 1,568,943; female 1,523,406) 15-64 years: 50% (male 1,614,679; female 1,758,388) 65 years and over: 4% (male 132,460; female 133,663) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.77% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 38.15 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.96 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 103.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.26 years male: 47.26 years female: 51.35 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Haitian(s) adjective: Haitian

Ethnic divisions: black 95%, mulatto and European 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)

Languages: French (official) 10%, Creole

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 45% male: 48% female: 42.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Haiti conventional short form: Haiti local long form: Republique d'Haiti local short form: Haiti

Data code: HA

Type of government: republic

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution: approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles reinstated March 1989; in October 1991, government claimed to be observing the constitution; return to constitutional rule, October 1994

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Rene Garcia PREVAL (since 7 February 1996), was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held by December 2000); results - Rene PREVAL 88%, Leon JEUNE 2.5%, Victor BENOIT 2.3% head of government: Prime Minister Rosny SMARTH (since March 1996) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet; was chosen by prime minister in consultation with the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) Senate: elections last held 25 June 1995 with reruns on 13 August and runoffs on 17 September (next to be held 25 June 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - 27 total Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 25 June 1995 with reruns on 13 August and runoffs on 17 September; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - 83 total

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD), Evans PAUL and Turneb DELPE; National Cooperative Action Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH; National Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor BENOIT; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary Party (PANPRA), Serge GILLES; National Patriotic Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean BELIZAIRE; National Agricultural and Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis DEJOIE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene THEODORE; Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Fritz PIERRE; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Labor Party (PNT), Remy ZAMOR; Mobilization for National Development (MDN), Hubert DE RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti (MODELH), Francois LATORTUE; Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire EUGENE; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE; Democratic Unity Confederation (KID), Evans PAUL; National Lavalas Political Organization (OPL), Gerard PIERRE-CHARLES; Open the Gate Party (PLB), Renaud BERNARDIN; Haitian National Democratic Progressive Party (PNDPH), Turneb DELPE

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church; Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS); Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular Assembly (APN); Papaye Peasants Movement (MPP)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, Caricom (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jean CASIMIR chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090 through 4092 FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING embassy: 5 Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince telephone: [509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, 22-0612 FAX: [509] 23-1641

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: About 75% of the population lives in abject poverty. Nearly 70% of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming and employs about two-thirds of the economically active work force. The country has experienced only moderate job creation since President ARISTIDE was returned to power in October 1994. Failure to reach agreement with multilateral lenders in late 1995 led to rising deficit spending and subsequently increasing inflation and a drop in the value of the Haitian currency in the final months of 1995. Potential investors, both foreign and domestic, have been reluctant to risk their capital, planning to "wait and see" what happens in the months following the inauguration of newly elected President Rene PREVAL and the drawdown of UN peacekeeping forces. The PREVAL government will have to grapple with implementing necessary, although unpopular, economic reforms in order to obtain badly needed foreign aid and improve Haiti's ability to attract foreign capital if the Haitian economy is to gain momentum. Haiti will continue to depend heavily on foreign aid in the medium term.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 34.8% industry: 23% services: 42.2% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.5% (FY 94/95)

Labor force: 2.3 million by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9% note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

Unemployment rate: 60% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $242 million expenditures: $299.4 million including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95)

Industries: sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 150,000 kW production: 590 million kWh consumption per capita: 86 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route to the US and Europe

Exports: $161 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8% partners: US 81%, Europe 12% (1993)

Imports: $537 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9% partners: US 51%, Europe 16%, Latin America 18% (1993)

External debt: $827 million (September 1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1 - 16.783 (January 1996), 16.160 (1995), 12.947 (1994), 12.805 (1993), 10.953 (1992), 8.240 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 40 km (single track; privately owned industrial line)-closed in early 1990's narrow gauge: 40 km 0.760-m gauge

Highways: total: 3,978 km paved: 944 km unpaved: 3,034 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

Ports: Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Jeremie, Cayes, Miragoane, Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Saint-Marc

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 11 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 4 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 50,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: domestic facilities barely adequate, international facilities slightly better domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 33, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 320,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 32,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Haitian National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,379,116 males fit for military service: 746,617 males reach military age (18) annually: 67,287 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Heard Island and McDonald Islands ————————————————-

(territory of Australia)

Map —-

Location: 53 06 S, 72 31 E — Southern Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica



Flag ——

Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica

Geographic coordinates: 53 06 S, 72 31 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total area: 412 sq km land area: 412 sq km comparative area: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101.9 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with a quiescent volcano; McDonald Islands - small and rocky lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Big Ben 2,745 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: Heard Island is dominated by a dormant volcano called Big Ben international agreements: NA

Geographic note: primarily used for research stations



People ———

Population: uninhabited



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands conventional short form: Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Data code: HM

Type of government: territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



======================================================================



@Holy See (Vatican City) ———————————-



Map —-

Location: 41 54 N, 12 27 E — Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)



Flag ——

Description: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 27 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 0.44 sq km land area: 0.44 sq km comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 3.2 km border country: Italy 3.2 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill lowest point: unnamed location 19 m highest point: unnamed location 75 m

Natural resources: none

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: NA international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution, Environmental Modification

Geographic note: urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights



People ———

Population: 840 (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: none adjective: none

Ethnic divisions: Italians, Swiss

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian, Latin, various other languages



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: The Holy See (State of the Vatican City) conventional short form: Holy See (Vatican City) local long form: Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano) local short form: Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)

Data code: VT

Type of government: monarchical-sacerdotal state

Capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978) (John Paul II) note: Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Executive branch: chief of state: Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978) was elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); results - Karol WOJTYLA was elected for life by the College of Cardinals head of government: Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal SODANO (since NA 1991) was appointed by the pope cabinet: Pontifical Commission was appointed by Pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)

International organization participation: IAEA, ICFTU, Intelsat, IOM (observer), ITU, OAS (observer), OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WIPO, WToO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino CACCIAVILLAN chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond L. FLYNN embassy: Villa Domiziana, Via Delle Terme Deciane 26, Rome 00153 mailing address: PSC 59, APO AE 09624 telephone: [39] (6) 46741 FAX: [39] (6) 5758346, 57300682

Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.

Labor force: NA by occupation: dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers who live outside the Vatican

Budget: revenues: $175.5 million expenditures: $175 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994)

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Electricity: capacity: 5,000 kW standby production: power supplied by Italy consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

Currency: 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,583.8 (January 1996), 1,629.6 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991); note - the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 862 meters; note - connects to Italy's network at Rome's Saint Peter's station narrow gauge: 862 meters 1.435-m gauge

Highways: none; all city streets

Ports: none

Airports: none



Communications ———————

Telephones: 2,000

Telephone system: automatic exchange domestic: tied into Italian system international: uses Italian system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at entrances to Vatican City



======================================================================



@Honduras ————



Map —-

Location: 15 00 N, 86 30 W — Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Nicaragua



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Nicaragua

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 86 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 112,090 sq km land area: 111,890 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total: 1,520 km border countries: Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km

Coastline: 820 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: land boundary dispute with El Salvador mostly resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required; maritime boundary dispute with Nicaragua

Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish

Land use: arable land: 14% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 30% forest and woodland: 34% other: 20%

Irrigated land: 900 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of freshwater) with heavy metals as well as several rivers and streams natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Tropical Timber 94



People ———

Population: 5,605,193 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 1,220,188; female 1,177,725) 15-64 years: 54% (male 1,496,625; female 1,520,918) 65 years and over: 3% (male 91,126; female 98,611) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 33.38 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.83 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.42 years male: 66.01 years female: 70.96 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.41 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Honduran(s) adjective: Honduran

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian 7%, black 2%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority

Languages: Spanish, Indian dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 72.7% male: 72.6% female: 72.7%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Honduras conventional short form: Honduras local long form: Republica de Honduras local short form: Honduras

Data code: HO

Type of government: republic

Capital: Tegucigalpa

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (since 27 January 1994) was elected for a four-year term by a simple majority of the people; First Vice President General (Ret.) Walter LOPEZ; Second Vice President Juan DE LA CRUZ Avelar; Third Vice President Guadeloupe JEREZANO; election last held 28 November 1993 (next to be held November 1997); results - Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (PLH) 53%, Oswaldo RAMOS Soto (PNH) 41%, other 6% cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional): elections last held on 27 November 1993 (next to be held November 1997); results - PNH 53%, PLH 41%, PDCH 1.0%, PINU-SD 2.5%, other 2.5%; seats - (134 total) PNH 55, PLH 77, PINU-SD 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica), judges are elected for four-year terms by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PLH), Rafael PINEDA Ponce, president; National Party of Honduras (PNH), Oswaldo RAMOS Soto, president; National Innovation and Unity Party (PINU), Olban VALLADARES, president; Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Efrain DIAZ Arrivillaga, president

Other political or pressure groups: National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council of Private Enterprise (COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH); National Union of Campesinos (UNC); General Workers Confederation (CGT); United Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH); Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH); Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations (CCOP)

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto FLORES Bermudez chancery: 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702, 2604, 5008, 4596 FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico) consulate(s): Boston, Detroit, and Jacksonville

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador William T. PRYCE embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No 3453, Tegucigalpa mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa telephone: [504] 36-9320, 38-5114 FAX: [504] 36-9037

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, employs nearly two-thirds of the labor force and produces two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low. Manufacturing, still in its early stages, employs about 9% of the labor force, and generates 20% of exports. Many basic problems face the economy, including rapid population growth, high unemployment, inflation, a lack of basic services, a large and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of the export sector mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations. A far-reaching reform program, initiated by former President CALLEJAS in 1990 and scaled back by President REINA, is beginning to take hold.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,980 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 30% industry: 20% services: 50% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 1.3 million by occupation: agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%, construction 3%, other 6% (1985)

Unemployment rate: 10%; underemployed 30%-40% (1992)

Budget: revenues: $527 million expenditures: $668 million, including capital expenditures of $166 million (1993 est.)

Industries: sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1992 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 290,000 kW production: 2.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 445 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp;

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption

Exports: $843 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber partners: US 53%, Germany 11%, Belgium 8%, UK 5%

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f. 1994) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs partners: US 50%, Mexico 8%, Guatemala 6%

External debt: $3.7 billion (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1 - 10.3432 (December 1994), 10.3432 (1995), 9.4001 (1994), 7.2600 (1993), 5.8300 (1992), 5.4000 (1991); the lempira was allowed to float in 1992

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 595 km narrow gauge: 190 km 1.067-m gauge; 128 km 1.057-m gauge; 277 km 0.914-m gauge note: in 1993, there was a total of 988 km of track (1995)

Highways: total: 14,203 km paved: 2,533 km unpaved: 11,670 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft

Ports: La Ceiba, Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela, Puerto Lempira

Merchant marine: total: 257 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 769,518 GRT/1,148,423 DWT ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 165, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk 1, container 7, liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 3, oil tanker 19, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 16, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 1 note: a flag of convenience registry; Russia owns 8 ships, Vietnam 4, North Korea 2, Greece 1, Japan 1, US 1, Iran 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 111 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 with paved runways under 914 m: 79 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 21 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 105,000 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: inadequate system domestic: NA international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 176, FM 0, shortwave 7

Radios: 2.115 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces (FUSEP)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,322,525 males fit for military service: 787,889 males reach military age (18) annually: 64,378 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $41 million, about 0.4% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Hong Kong ————-

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 22 15 N, 114 10 E — Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield



Geography ————-

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area: total area: 1,040 sq km land area: 990 sq km comparative area: six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 30 km border country: China 30 km

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north lowest point: South China Sea 0 m highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use: arable land: 7% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 1% forest and woodland: 12% other: 79%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: air and water pollution from rapid urbanization natural hazards: occasional typhoons international agreements: NA

Geographic note: more than 200 islands



People ———

Population: 6,305,413 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19% (male 609,493; female 593,687) 15-64 years: 70% (male 2,312,141; female 2,094,156) 65 years and over: 11% (male 307,186; female 388,750) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.77% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.23 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female all ages: 1.05 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82.19 years male: 78.88 years female: 85.71 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Chinese adjective: Chinese

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 95%, other 5%

Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1995 est.) total population: 92.2% male: 96% female: 88.2%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Hong Kong abbreviation: HK

Data code: HK

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK scheduled to revert to China on 1 July 1997

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 professionals of electoral college and functional constituencies

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council Christopher Francis PATTEN (since 9 July 1992) was appointed by the Queen; Chief Secretary Anson CHAN Fang On-Sang (since 29 November 1993) cabinet: Executive Council was appointed by the Governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council: indirect and direct elections last held 17 September 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 30 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 20 directly elected, 10 elected by election committee) Democratic Party 21, Liberal Party 10, Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 6, other parties and independents 23

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Martin LEE, chairman; Liberal Party, Allen LEE, chairman; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, TSANG Yuk-shing, chairman; Hong Kong Democratic Foundation, Dr. Patrick SHIU Kin-ying, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL), Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal Democratic Federation, HU Fa-kuang, chairman; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China), LEE Chark-tim, president; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy), LEE Cheuk-yan, chairman; Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, CHEUNG Man-kwong, president; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China, Szeto WAH, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICFTU, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Consul General Richard W. MUELLER consulate general(s): 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002 telephone: [852] 2523-9011 FAX: [852] 2845-1598

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Manufacturing and construction account for about 18% of GDP. Goods and services exports account for about 50% of GDP. Real GDP growth averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90, and picked up to 4.2% in 1991, 5.0% in 1992, 5.2% in 1993, 5.5% in 1994, and 5.0% in 1995. Unemployment, which has been declining since the mid-1980s, edged up from 2% to 3.5% in 1995. Notwithstanding, a shortage of labor continues to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living. Prospects for 1996 remain bright so long as major trading partners continue to be reasonably prosperous and so long as investors feel China will support free market practices after the takeover in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $152.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $27,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 0.2% industry: 18.4% services: 81.4% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.4% (1995)

Labor force: 2,915,400 (1994) by occupation: manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and real estate 9.2%, transport and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $19 billion expenditures: $14.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $289 million (FY94/95)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1993 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 8,930,000 kW production: 33 billion kWh consumption per capita: 4,628 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fresh vegetables; poultry

Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and money-laundering center; increasing indigenous amphetamine abuse

Exports: $177.1 billion (including re-exports)(f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys partners: China 33%, US 22%, Germany 5%, Japan 5%, UK 3% (1993)

Imports: $195.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum; a large share is re-exported partners: China 38%, Japan 17%, Taiwan 9%, US 7% (1993)

External debt: none (1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.800 (1995), 7.800 (1994), 7.800 (1993), 7.741 (1992), 7.771 (1991); note - linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 35 km standard gauge: 35 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways: total: 1,661 km paved: 1,661 km unpaved: 0 km (1994 est.)

Ports: Hong Kong

Merchant marine: total: 238 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,632,224 GRT/14,820,657 DWT ships by type: bulk 129, cargo 32, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 4, combination ore/oil 3, container 39, liquefied gas tanker 3, multifunction large load carrier 1, oil tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 5, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 3 note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 17 countries among which are UK 51, China 11, Belgium 8, South Africa 8, US 8, Japan 7, Bermuda 6, Switzerland 6, Germany 3, and Israel 3 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.) note: new international airport to be commissioned in 1997/98

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 4.13 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (British Broadcasting Corporation repeater 1; British Forces Broadcasting Service repeater 1)

Televisions: 1.75 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,895,535 males fit for military service: 1,442,072 males reach military age (18) annually: 46,248 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $207 million, 0.2% of GDP (FY92/93); this represents 65% of the total cost of defending the colony, the remainder being paid by the UK

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK until 1 July 1997, when China will assume command



======================================================================



@Howland Island ———————

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 0 48 N, 176 38 W — Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia



Flag ——

Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 48 N, 176 38 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 1.6 sq km land area: 1.6 sq km comparative area: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6.4 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 5% other: 95%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: no natural fresh water resources natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard international agreements: NA

Geographic note: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats



People ———

Population: uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Howland Island

Data code: HQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable

Transportation note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt; named in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard



======================================================================



@Hungary ———-



Map —-

Location: 47 00 N, 20 00 E — Central Europe, northwest of Romania



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green



Geography ————-

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 93,030 sq km land area: 92,340 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 2,009 km border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border lowest point: Tisza River 78 m highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use: arable land: 51% permanent crops: 6% meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 18% other: 12%

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: an early-1996 government study identified 179 areas that suffer from air pollution, 54 areas with polluted soil, and 32 areas with polluted underground water; the study estimated clean-up costs at $350 million, but the 1996 government budget allocates only about $7 million for this purpose international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin



People ———

Population: 10,002,541 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 18% (male 907,963; female 867,536) 15-64 years: 68% (male 3,325,529; female 3,464,588) 65 years and over: 14% (male 538,106; female 898,819) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.68% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.72 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.06 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female all ages: 0.91 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.02 years male: 64.23 years female: 74.04 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Hungarian(s) adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic divisions: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 99% male: 99% female: 98%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Hungary conventional short form: Hungary local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag local short form: Magyarorszag

Data code: HU

Type of government: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer, Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August (commemorates the founding of Hungarian state circa 1000 AD)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president from 2 May 1990) was elected for a four-year term by the National Assembly; election last held 19 June 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results - President GONCZ elected by parliamentary vote with a total of 259 votes out of 335 head of government: Prime Minister Gyula HORN (since 15 July 1994) was elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was elected by the National Assembly on recommendation of the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules): elections last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held spring 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) MSzP 209, SzDSz 70, MDF 37, FKgP 26, KDNP 22, FiDeSz 20, other 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), Lajos FUR, chairman; Independent Smallholders (FKgP), Jozsef TORGYAN, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP), Gyula HORN, president; Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP), Gyorgy GICZY, president; Federation of Young Democrats (FiDeSz), Viktor ORBAN, chairman; Alliance of Free Democrats (SzDSz), Ivan PETO, chairman note: the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSzMP) renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP) in October 1989; there is still a small MMP

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gyorgy BANLAKI chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730 FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135 consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald M. BLINKEN embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest mailing address: Am Embassy, Unit 1320, APO AE 09213-1320 telephone: [36] (1) 267-4400, 269-9331 FAX: [36] (1) 269-9326

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Hungary, probably the most Western-oriented economy in East Europe before the transition to a market system began in 1990, made good progress in the initial years of transition. The reform process slowed in 1993-94, however, in part because of the May 1994 elections and the resulting change in government. By 1994 the privatization of state firms had ground to a halt, while both the budget and current account deficits soared to unsustainable levels - about 8% and 10% of GDP, respectively. The situation improved sharply in 1995; an austerity program introduced in March reduced both deficits, and a renewed privatization effort later in 1995 resulted in more than $3 billion worth of sales of state firms to foreign investors - money that will be used to reduce Hungary's large foreign debt. As for other macroeconomic developments, real GDP increased 2.9% in 1994 - following several years of steep decline - and about 1.5% in 1995. Unemployment reached 14% in early 1993 before gradually falling back to 10% in 1995. Inflation has oscillated; it reached 40% in mid-1991, dropped to 17% in early 1994, and then jumped back to 31% by mid-1995. Prospects for 1996 are good. With the government still committed to austerity, both the budget and current account deficits should fall to about 4% of GDP. Economic growth is expected to be about 2% and unemployment at about 10%, with inflation falling to 20% by yearend. In March 1996 the IMF signed a new standby loan agreement with Budapest, and the OECD approved Hungary's application for admission.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $72.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1.5% (1995)

GDP per capita: $7,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 7.3% industry: 37.5% services: 55.2%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 28.3% (1995)

Labor force: 4.8 million (1995) by occupation: services, trade, government, and other 47.2%, industry 29.7%, agriculture 16.1%, construction 7.0% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 10.4% (yearend 1995)

Budget: revenues: $12.6 billion expenditures: $13.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 6,740,000 kW production: 31 billion kWh consumption per capita: 3,012 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals

Exports: $13 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: raw materials and semi-finished goods 36.4%, consumer goods 26.7%, food and agriculture 20.5%, capital goods 13.1%, fuels and energy 3.3% (1994) partners: Germany 28.2%, Austria 10.9%, Italy 8.5%, Russia 7.5%, US 4.0% (1994)

Imports: $15 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: fuels and energy 11.0%, raw materials and semi-finished goods 36.9%, capital goods 23.3%, consumer goods 22.0%, food and agriculture 6.8% (1994) partners: Germany 23.4%, Austria 12.0%, Russia 12.0%, Italy 7.0%, UK 4.0% (1994)

External debt: $32.7 billion (October 1995)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $136 million (1993) note: assistance received from OECD countries and international organizations, $3,700 million (1990-93)

Currency: 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints per US$1 - 144 (January 1996), 125.681 (1995),105.160 (1994), 91.933 (1993), 78.988 (1992), 74.735 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 7,685 km broad gauge: 35 km 1.524-m gauge standard gauge: 7,474 km 1.435-m gauge (2,162 km electrified; 1,236 km double track) narrow gauge: 176 km mostly 0.760-m gauge (1995) note: Hungry and Austria jointly manage the cross-border standard-gauge railway between Gyor, Sopron, Ebenfurti, and Vasut, a distance of about 100 km

Highways: total: 158,711 km paved: 69,992 km (including 441 km of expressways) unpaved: 88,719 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Ports: Budapest, Dunaujvaros

Merchant marine: total: 10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,121 GRT/61,613 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 78 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 9 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 14 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 34 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 1.52 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: 14,213 telex lines; automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system; 608,000 telephones on order; 12-15 year wait for a telephone; 49% of all telephones are in Budapest (1991 est.); note - the former state-owned telecommunications firm MATAV - now privatized and managed by a US/German consortium - has ambitious plans to upgrade the inadequate system, including a contract with the German firm Siemens and the Swedish firm Ericsson to provide 600,000 new phone lines during 1996-98 domestic: microwave radio relay international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 32, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (Russian repeaters 8)

Televisions: 4.38 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial Defense

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,552,794 males fit for military service: 2,036,399 males reach military age (18) annually: 82,040 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $620 million, 1.7% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Iceland ———-



Map —-

Location: 65 00 N, 18 00 W — Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK



Flag ——

Description: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK

Geographic coordinates: 65 00 N, 18 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area: total area: 103,000 sq km land area: 100,250 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,988 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Hvannadalshnukur 2,119 m

Natural resources: fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 20% forest and woodland: 1% other: 78%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater treatment natural hazards: earthquakes and volcanic activity international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European country; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe



People ———

Population: 270,292 (July 1996 est.) note: population data estimates based on average growth rate may differ slightly from official population data because of volatile migration rates

Age structure: 0-14 years: 24% (male 33,605; female 31,933) 15-64 years: 64% (male 88,064; female 85,724) 65 years and over: 12% (male 13,916; female 17,050) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.83% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 16.94 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.17 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.08 years male: 77.68 years female: 82.6 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.24 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Icelander(s) adjective: Icelandic

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and Celts

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, none 1% (1988)

Languages: Icelandic

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.) total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Iceland conventional short form: Iceland local long form: Lyoveldio Island local short form: Island

Data code: IC

Type of government: republic

Capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and 14 independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*, Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla, Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la, Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June (1944)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980) was elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 29 June 1988 (next to be held June 1996); results - there was no election in 1992 as President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was unopposed head of government: Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991) was appointed by the president cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Althing): elections last held on 8 April 1995 (next to be held by April 1999); results - Independence Party 37.1%, Progressive Party 23.3%, Social Democratic Party 11.4%, Socialists 14.3%, People's Movement 7.2%, Women's Party 4.9%; seats - (63 total) Independence 25, Progressive 15, Social Democratic 7, Socialists 9, People's Movement 4, Women's Party 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur), justices are appointed for life by the president

Political parties and leaders: Independence Party (conservative), David ODDSSON; Progressive Party (liberal), Halldor ASGRIMSSON; Social Democratic Party, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON; People's Alliance (left socialist), Margret FRIMANNSDOTTIR; Women's Party, Kristin ASTGEIRSDOTTIR; People's Movement (centrist); National Awakening (People's Revival Party), Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Einar BENEDIKTSSON chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653 through 6655 FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Parker W. BORG embassy: Laufasvegur 21, Reykjavik mailing address: US Embassy, PSC 1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340 telephone: [354] 5629100 FAX: [354] 5629139

Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, but with an extensive welfare system, low unemployment, and comparatively even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings and employs 12% of the work force. In the absence of other natural resources - except energy - Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. The economy, in recession since 1988, began to recover in 1993, posting 0.4% growth, but was still hampered by cutbacks in fish quotas as well as falling world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon. The center-right government plans to continue its policies of reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The government, however, remains divided on the issue of EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders' concern about losing control over their fishing resources.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $18,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 9.6% industry: 22.1% services: 68.3% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 127,900 by occupation: commerce, transportation, and services 60.0%, manufacturing 12.5%, fishing and fish processing 11.8%, construction 10.8%, agriculture 4.0%, other 0.9% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 3.9% (December 1995)

Budget: revenues: $1.9 billion expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $297 million (1994 est.)

Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production, geothermal power

Industrial production growth rate: 1.75% (1991 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 1,070,000 kW production: 4.7 billion kWh consumption per capita: 16,458 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: potatoes, turnips; cattle, sheep; fish catch of about 1.1 million metric tons in 1992

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, ferrosilicon, diatomite partners: EC 68% (UK 25%, Germany 12%), US 11%, Japan 8% (1992)

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles partners: EC 53% (Germany 14%, Denmark 10%, UK 9%), Norway 14%, US 9% (1992)

External debt: $2.5 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 65.970 (January 1996), 64.692 (1995), 69.944 (1994), 67.603 (1993), 57.546 (1992), 58.996 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 11,373 km paved: 2,513 km unpaved: 8,860 km (1992 est.)

Ports: Akureyri, Hornafjordur, Isafjordur, Keflavik, Raufarhofn, Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur, Straumsvik, Vestmannaeyjar

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 30,025 GRT/40,410 DWT ships by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 84 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 with paved runways under 914 m: 49 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 22 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 143,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: adequate domestic service domestic: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables and microwave radio relay links international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 147 (transmitters and repeaters), shortwave 0

Radios: 91,500 licensed (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (transmitters and repeaters)

Televisions: 96,100 licensed (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: no regular armed forces; Police, Coast Guard; note - Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 71,317 males fit for military service: 63,126 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: none



======================================================================



@India ——-



Map —-

Location: 20 00 N, 77 00 E — Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 3,287,590 sq km land area: 2,973,190 sq km comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries: total: 14,103 km border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh and China in dispute; status of Kashmir with Pakistan; water-sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges and Pakistan over the Indus (Wular Barrage)

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone

Land use: arable land: 55% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 4% forest and woodland: 23% other: 17%

Irrigated land: 430,390 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and rapidly growing population is overstraining natural resources natural hazards: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; earthquakes international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification

Geographic note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes



People ———

Population: 952,107,694 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 168,030,766; female 159,283,151) 15-64 years: 62% (male 304,805,787; female 281,311,834) 65 years and over: 4% (male 19,148,385; female 19,527,771) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 25.94 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.61 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female all ages: 1.07 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 59.71 years male: 59.12 years female: 60.32 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian

Ethnic divisions: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

Religions: Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%

Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official), Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu (official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada (official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official), Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official), Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu, is spoken widely throughout northern India note: 24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 52% male: 65.5% female: 37.7%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of India conventional short form: India

Data code: IN

Type of government: federal republic

Capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachel Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January (1950)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 25 July 1992) was elected for a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states; Vice President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 21 August 1992) was elected by both houses of Parliament head of government: Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since 21 June 1991) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) Council of States (Rajya Sabha): body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 appointed by the president, the remainder chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies People's Assembly (Lok Sabha): elections last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June 1991 (next to be held 27 April through May 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (545 total, 543 elected, 2 appointed) Congress (I) Party 245, BJP 119, Janata Dal Party 39, Janata Dal (Ajit Singh) 20, CPI/M 35, CPI 14, Telugu Desam 13, AIADMK 11, Samajwadi Janata Party 5, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, BSP 1, Congress (S) Party 1, other 23, vacant 9; note - the distribution of seats as of 18 January 1995 is as follows: Congress (I) Party 260, BJP 117, CPI/M 36, Janata Dal Party 24, Samata Party 14, CPI 14, AIADMK 12, Janata Dal (Ajit) 7, Telugu Desam 7, RSP 4, Janata Dal (Ex-Ajit) 3, Samajwadi Party 3, BSP 3, AIFB 3, Shiv Sena 2, Congress (S) Party 1, Kerala Congress (Mani faction) 1, Bihar Peoples Party 1, India National League 1, other 14, vacant 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president; Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), L.K. ADVANI; Janata Dal Party, Laloo Prasad YADAV; Janata Dal (Ajit), Ajit SINGH; Janata Dal (Ex-Ajit), leader NA; Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Communist Party of India (CPI), Indrajit GUPTA; Telugu Desam (Naidu) (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), Chandrababu NAIDU; All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional party in Tamil Nadu), Jayaram JAYALALITHA; Samajwadi Party (SP), Mulayam Singh YADAV (president), Om Prakash CHAUTALA, Devi LAL; Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY; Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY; Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM; Congress (S) Party, leader NA; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Vinod MISHRA; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu), M. KARUNANIDHI; Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab; National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir), Farooq ABDULLAH; Bihar Peoples Party, Lovely ANAND; Samata Party (formerly Janata Dal members), George FERNANDES; Indian National League, Suliaman SAIT; Kerala Congress (Mani faction), K.M. MANI; All India Forward Bloc (AIFB), Prem Dutta PALIWAL (chairman), Chitta BASU (general secretary); Congress (Tiwari), Arjun SINGH and N.D. TIWARI

Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam Sena, Ananda Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIL, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Naresh CHANDRA chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000 consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Frank G. WISNER embassy: Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [91] (11) 600651 FAX: [91] (11) 6872028 consulate(s) general: Calcutta, Madras, Mumbai (Bombay)

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: India's economy is a mixture of traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. Faster economic growth in the 1980s permitted a significant increase in real per capita private consumption. A large share of the population, perhaps as much as 40%, remains too poor to afford an adequate diet. Financial strains in 1990 and 1991 prompted government austerity measures that slowed industrial growth but permitted India to meet its international payment obligations without rescheduling its debt. Production, trade, and investment reforms since 1991 have provided new opportunities for Indian businessmen and an estimated 200 million plus middle class consumers. New Delhi has always paid its foreign debts on schedule and has stimulated exports, attracted foreign investment, and revived confidence in India's economic prospects. GDP growth in 1992-95 has averaged nearly 5%. Most of the country's external fundamentals - including the current account balance and reserves (now nearly $17 billion) are healthy. Party politics is increasingly shaping the debate over economic reforms. In addition, the 25 Indian states and several union territories, which are playing a more active role in determining economic policy, are further complicating the economic climate. The Indian Government will also have to watch closely rising government expenditures and higher debt servicing which could create a debt trap by the turn of the century. Nevertheless, India should achieve economic growth of 5.5%-6.5% annually through the next several years. Even if a weak coalition government comes to power in 1996 and is unable to push reforms aggressively, parts of the economy that have already benefited from deregulation will continue to grow. Moreover, the country can build on other strengths, including its diverse industrial base, large scientific and technical pool, well-developed legal system, and its large middle class to achieve higher growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.4087 trillion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1995)

Labor force: 314.751 million (1990) by occupation: agriculture 65% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $36.5 billion expenditures: $54.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.4 billion (FY94/95)

Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 81,200,000 kW (March 1995) production: 314 billion kWh (1993) consumption per capita: 324 kWh (1993)

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