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The 1996 CIA Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use: arable land: 32% permanent crops: 2% meadows and pastures: 23% forest and woodland: 27% other: 16% note: includes Corsica

Irrigated land: 14,850 sq km (1993 est.); note - includes Corsica

Environment: current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff natural hazards: flooding international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: largest West European nation; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral



People ———

Population: 58,317,450 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.04% (male 5,688,505; female 5,417,355) 15-64 years: 65.62% (male 19,147,369; female 19,120,935) 65 years and over: 15.34% (male 3,589,100; female 5,354,186) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.34% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.82 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.27 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.93 years male: 73.98 years female: 82.11 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women) adjective: French

Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 99% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: French Republic conventional short form: France local long form: Republique Francaise local short form: France

Data code: FR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) was elected for a seven-year term by direct universal suffrage; election last held 17 May 1995 (next to be held by May 2002); results - Second Ballot Jacques CHIRAC 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN 47.36% head of government: Prime Minister Alain JUPPE (since 18 May 1995) was appointed by the president cabinet: the Council of Ministers was appointed by the president on the suggestion of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) Senate (Senat): elections last held 24 September 1995 (next to be held September 1998; nine-year term, elected by thirds every three years); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 132, PS 75, PCF 16, other 7 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24, independents 26; note - seating as of 24 September 1995: RPR 247, UDF 208, PS 71, PCF 24, independents 27

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals (Cour de Cassation), judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alain JUPPE, president; Union for French Democracy (UDF - coalition of PR, FD, RAD, PSD), Francois LEOTARD; Republican Party (PR), Francois LEOTARD; Democratic Force (FD), Francois BAYROU; Radical (RAD), Andre ROSSINOT; Socialist Party (PS), Lionel JOSPIN; Left Radical Movement (MRG); Communist Party (PCF), Robert HUE; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; The Greens, Dominique VOYNET; Generation Ecology (GE), Brice LALONDE; Citizens Movement (MDC), Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT

Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - CGT) nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail - CFDT) about 800,000 members (est.); independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francois BUJON DE L'ESTANG chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777 telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22 FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83 consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent areas



Economy ———-

Economic overview: One of the four West European trillion-dollar economies, the French economy features considerable - albeit diminishing - state control over its capitalistic market system. In running important industrial segments (railways, airlines, electricity, telecommunications), administrating an exceptionally generous social welfare system, and staffing an enormous bureaucracy, the state spends about 55% of GDP. France has substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy. Following stagnation and recession in 1991-93, French GDP expanded 2.4% in 1994 and in 1995. Persistently high unemployment still poses a major problem for the government, as will the need to cut back on welfare benefits and bureaucratic budgets. Paris remains committed to maintaining the franc-deutsche mark parity, which has kept French interest rates high at the expense of jobs. Although the pace of economic and financial integration within the European Union has slowed down, integration will remain a major force in France, shaping the fortunes of the various economic sectors over the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.173 trillion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $20,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 2.4% industry: 26.5% services: 71.1% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1995)

Labor force: 24.17 million by occupation: services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2% (1987) note: includes Corsica

Unemployment rate: 11.7% (yearend 1995)

Budget: revenues: $220.5 billion expenditures: $249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47 billion (1993 budget)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 105,250,000 kW production: 447 billion kWh consumption per capita: 6,149 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin

Exports: $235.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing partners: Germany 17.1%, Italy 9.3%, Spain 7.1%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.7%, UK 9.9%, Netherlands 4.6%, US 7.0%, Japan 2.0%, Russia 0.5%

Imports: $229.3 billion (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron and steel products partners: Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.1%, US 8.5%, Netherlands 4.9%, Spain 8.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK 7.9%, Japan 3.7%, Russia 1.2%

External debt: $300 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $7.915 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January 1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 33,891 km standard gauge: 33,524 km 1.435-m gauge; 32,275 km are operated by French National Railways (SNCF); 13,741 km of SNCF routes are electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-tracked narrow gauge: 367 km 1.000-m gauge note: includes Corsica; does not include 33 tourist railroads, totalling 469 km, many being of very narrow gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 1,511,200 km paved: 811,200 km (including 7,700 km of expressways) unpaved: 700,000 km (1992 est.) note: includes Corsica

Waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km

Ports: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen, Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine: total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,203,086 GRT/1,779,263 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 5, chemical tanker 5, container 7, liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 460 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 13 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 26 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 91 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 73 with paved runways under 914 m: 179 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 75 (1995 est.) note: includes Corsica

Heliports: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 35 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0

Radios: 49 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters) note: Eutelsat receive-only TV service

Televisions: 29.3 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air), Air Force and Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 14,782,577 males fit for military service: 12,299,651 males reach military age (18) annually: 383,252 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $47.7 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@French Guiana ——————-

(overseas department of France)

Map —-

Location: 4 00 N, 53 00 W — Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname



Flag ——

Description: the flag of France is used



Geography ————-

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total area: 91,000 sq km land area: 89,150 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: total: 1,183 km border countries: Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish

Land use: arable land: NEGL% permanent crops: NEGL% meadows and pastures: NEGL% forest and woodland: 88% other: 12% (1992)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe thunderstorms; flooding international agreements: NA

Geographic note: mostly an unsettled wilderness



People ———

Population: 151,187 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 24,447; female 23,378) 15-64 years: 63% (male 52,061; female 43,726) 65 years and over: 5% (male 3,784; female 3,791) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.86% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 24.68 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.59 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 18.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.19 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female all ages: 1.13 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.79 years male: 72.55 years female: 79.19 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.42 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: French Guianese (singular and plural) adjective: French Guianese

Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982 est.) total population: 83% male: 84% female: 82%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Department of Guiana conventional short form: French Guiana local long form: none local short form: Guyane

Data code: FG

Type of government: overseas department of France

Capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995); represented by Prefect Pierre DARTOUT who was appointed by the French Ministry of Interior head of government: President of the General Council Stephan PHINERA-HORTH (since March 1994)

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council General Council: elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) PSG 8, RPR 2, UDF 1, other right 1, other 7 Regional Council: elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG 16, FDG 10, RPR 2, independents 3 French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1 French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) RPR 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (highest local court based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Raymond TRACY; Conservative Union for the Republic (UPR), Leon BERTRAND; Rally for the Center Right (URC); Rally for the Republic (RPR); Guyana Democratic Front (FDG), Georges OTHILY; Walwari Committee, Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON; Socialist Party (PS), Jean BART; Union for French Democracy (UDF), R. CHOW-CHINE

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities, with exports of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1992. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops is limited to the coastal area, where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly among younger workers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $800 million (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1992)

Labor force: 36,597 (1993) by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

Unemployment rate: 24.1% (1993 est.)

Budget: revenues: $133 million expenditures: $284 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 180,000 kW production: 450 million kWh consumption per capita: 3,149 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, vegetables, bananas, sugar; cattle, pigs, poultry

Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe

Exports: $110 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence partners: France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)

Imports: $719 million (c.i.f., 1992) commodities: food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods, petroleum partners: France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)

External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January 1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km (1995)

Highways: total: 1,817 km (national 432 km, departmental 385 km, community 1,000 km) paved: 727 km unpaved: 1,090 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft

Ports: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 10 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 4 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 31,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: fair open wire and microwave radio relay system international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 79,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 22,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 43,412 males fit for military service: 28,171 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@French Polynesia ————————

(overseas territory of France)

Map —-

Location: 15 00 S, 140 00 W — Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from South America to Australia



Flag ——

Description: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white band; centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the upper half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave pattern; the French flag is used for official occasions



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from South America to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 140 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 4,167 sq km (118 islands and atolls) land area: 3,660 sq km comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Orohena 2,241 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 19% meadows and pastures: 5% forest and woodland: 31% other: 44%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January international agreements: NA

Geographic note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru



People ———

Population: 224,911 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 40,450; female 39,038) 15-64 years: 61% (male 70,506; female 65,620) 65 years and over: 4% (male 4,636; female 4,661) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.19% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 27.15 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.94 years male: 68.49 years female: 73.5 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: French Polynesian(s) adjective: French Polynesian

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4%

Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

Literacy: age 14 and over can read and write, but definition of literacy not available (1977 est.) total population: 98% male: 98% female: 98%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia conventional short form: French Polynesia local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise local short form: Polynesie Francaise

Data code: FP

Type of government: overseas territory of France since 1946

Capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French Polynesia

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995); represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Paul RONCIERE (since 8 August 1994) who was appointed by the French Ministry of Interior head of government: President of the Territorial Government of French Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 4 April 1991); President of the Territorial Assembly Tinomana EBB (since NA) cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the Territorial Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly: elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian Union Party 12, New Fatherland Party 7, other 4 French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party NA French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; Court of the First Instance; Court of Administrative Law

Political parties and leaders: People's Rally for the Republic (Tahoeraa Huiraatira), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian Union Party (includes Te Tiarama and Here Ai'a Party), Jean JUVENTIN; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Independent Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa), Jacques DROLLET; Te Aratia Ote Nunaa, Tinomana EBB; Haere i Mua, Alexandre LEONTIEFF; other small parties

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas territory of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white band; centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the upper half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave pattern; the French flag is used for official occasions



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings. The territory will continue to benefit from a five-year (1994-98) development agreement with France aimed principally at creating new jobs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.76 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 18% services: 78% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994)

Labor force: 76,630 employed (1988) by occupation: agriculture 13%, industry 19%, services 68% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $686 million expenditures: $884 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 75,000 kW production: 334 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,189 kWh (1994)

Agriculture: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits; poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports: $230 million (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: cultured pearls 41.6%, coconut products, mother-of-pearl, vanilla, shark meat (1992) partners: France 34%, US 10% (1992)

Imports: $912 million (c.i.f., 1994) commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, equipment partners: ECE 64% (France 45.4%), US 13.6%, Australia 6.9%, NZ 5.8%, Japan 5% (1992)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 91.00 (January 1996), 90.75 (1995), 100.94 (1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 792 km paved: 792 km (1995 est.)

Ports: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT ships by type: passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 41 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 5 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 13 with paved runways under 914 m: 15 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 33,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 116,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 35,000 (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@French Southern and Antarctic Lands —————————————————-

(overseas territory of France)

Map —-

Location: 43 00 S, 67 00 E — Southern Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note - French Southern and Antarctic Lands includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, along with the French-claimed sector of Antarctica, "Adelie Land"; the US does not recognize the French claim to "Adelie Land"



Flag ——

Description: the flag of France is used



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note - French Southern and Antarctic Lands includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, along with the French-claimed sector of Antarctica, "Adelie Land"; the US does not recognize the French claim to "Adelie Land"

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 S, 67 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total area: 7,781 sq km land area: 7,781 sq km comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware note: includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen; excludes "Adelie Land" claim of about 500,000 sq km in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: "Adelie Land" claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Ross on Kerguelen 1,850 m

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: NA natural hazards: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes international agreements: NA

Geographic note: remote location in the southern Indian Ocean



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there were 145 (1995) mostly researchers whose numbers vary from winter (July) to summer (January)



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands conventional short form: French Southern and Antarctic Lands local long form: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises local short form: Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

Data code: FS

Type of government: overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High Administrator Christian DORS (since 4 December 1991)

Capital: none; administered from Paris, France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes "Adelie Land" claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fish catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to France and Reunion.

Budget: revenues: $22.6 million expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: total: 66 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,133,942 GRT/3,617,863 DWT ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 6, chemical tanker 7, container 10, liquefied gas tanker 4, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, specialized tanker 1 note: a subset of the French register allowing French-owned ships to operate under more liberal taxation and manning regulations than permissable under the main French register (1995 est.)

Airports: none (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Gabon ——-



Map —-

Location: 1 00 S, 11 45 E — Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator, between Congo and Equatorial Guinea



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator, between Congo and Equatorial Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 11 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 267,670 sq km land area: 257,670 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: total: 2,551 km border countries: Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

Natural resources: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore

Land use: arable land: 1% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 18% forest and woodland: 78% other: 2%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: deforestation; poaching natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94



People ———

Population: 1,172,798 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 197,188; female 196,562) 15-64 years: 61% (male 364,033; female 353,451) 65 years and over: 5% (male 30,270; female 31,294) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.47% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.22 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.56 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 90.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.59 years male: 52.72 years female: 58.56 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Gabonese (singular and plural) adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic divisions: Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke), other Africans and Europeans 100,000, including 27,000 French

Religions: Christian 55%-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist

Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 63.2% male: 73.7% female: 53.3%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Gabonese Republic conventional short form: Gabon local long form: Republique Gabonaise local short form: Gabon

Data code: GB

Type of government: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)

Capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese Democratic Party established)

Constitution: adopted 14 March 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage on 5 December 1993 (next election to be held 1998); results - President Omar BONGO received 51% of the vote head of government: Prime Minister Paulin OBAME Nguema (since 9 December 1994) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president

Legislative branch: unicameral; note - the provision of the constitution for the establishment of a senate has not been implemented National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held on 5 December 1993 (next to be held by July 1996, according to the October 1994 Paris Accords; however, President BONGO has indicated that date might slip); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) PDG 64, National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons/RNB) 17, PGP 12, National Recovery Movement (Morena-Original) 2, PUP 4, CLR 1, FAR 4, UPG 1, independents 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), Simplice Guedet MANZELA, secretary general; Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR), General Jean Boniface ASSELE; People's Unity Party (PUP), Louis Gaston MAYILA; Gabonese Socialist Union (USG), Dr. Serge Mba BEKALE; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons/RNB), Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE; Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP), Pierre-Louis AGONDHO-OKAWE, president; National Recovery Movement (Morena-Origina), note - this party won 2 seats in the 5 December 1993 elections for the National Assembly but is no longer very active; Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP), Pierre Louis AGONDJO OKAWE; African Forum for Reconstruction (FAR), Leon MBOU-YEMBI, secretary general; Gabonese People's Union (UPG), Pierre MAMBOUNDOU

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA chancery: Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 797-1000 FAX: [1] (202) 332-0668

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth RASPOLIC embassy: Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville mailing address: B. P. 4000, Libreville telephone: [241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04, 74 34 92 FAX: [241] 74 55 07

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Notwithstanding its serious ongoing economic problems, Gabon enjoys a per capita income more than three times that of most nations of sub-Saharan Africa. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector now accounts for 50% of GDP. Real GDP growth has been feeble since 1992 and Gabon continues to face the problem of fluctuating prices for its oil, timber, manganese, and uranium exports. Despite an abundance of natural wealth, and a manageable rate of population growth, the economy is hobbled by poor fiscal management. In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed to settle arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of rescheduling agreements with official and private creditors. Devaluation of its Francophone currency by 50% on 12 January 1994 sparked a one-time inflationary surge, to 35%; the rate dropped to 15% in 1995. Nevertheless, the government must continue to keep a tight rein on spending and wage increases. The IMF and France are considering offering financial assistance in 1996 if Gabon shows progress in privatization and fiscal discipline.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 8.2% industry: 44.7% services: 47.1% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 120,000 salaried by occupation: agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services 2.5%, government 2.5%

Unemployment rate: 10%-14% (1993 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.3 billion expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $311 million (1993 est.)

Industries: food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood; cement; petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, uranium, and gold mining; chemicals; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: -3% (1991)

Electricity: capacity: 315,000 kW production: 910 million kWh consumption per capita: 757 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil; rubber; okoume (a tropical softwood); cattle; small fishing operations (provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons)

Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: crude oil 80%, timber 14%, manganese 6%, uranium partners: US 50%, France 16%, Japan 8%, Spain 6%, Germany NA (1994 est.)

Imports: $800 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction materials, manufactures, machinery partners: France 35%, African countries, US, Japan, Netherlands (1994)

External debt: $3.8 billion (1993 )

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $75 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991) note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 649 km Gabon State Railways (OCTRA) standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge; single track (1994)

Highways: total: 7,456 km paved: 560 km unpaved: 6,896 km (1988 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km

Ports: Cape Lopez, Kango, Lambarene, Libreville, Mayumba, Owendo, Port-Gentil

Merchant marine: total: 3 bulk (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,976 GRT/60,319 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 54 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 21 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 8 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 15 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 22,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 250,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 5)

Televisions: 40,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 273,662 males fit for military service: 139,439 males reach military age (20) annually: 10,966 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $154 million, 2.4% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Gaza Strip —————

The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Permanent status negotiations began on 5 May 1996.

Map —-

Location: 31 25 N, 34 20 E — Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Israel



Geography ————-

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Israel

Geographic coordinates: 31 25 N, 34 20 E

Map references: Middle East

Area: total area: 360 sq km land area: 360 sq km comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 62 km border countries: Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation

International disputes: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda) 105 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 32% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 55%

Irrigated land: 115 sq km (1992 est.)

Environment: current issues: desertification natural hazards: NA international agreements: NA

Geographic note: there are 24 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Gaza Strip (August 1995 est.)



People ———

Population: 923,940 (July 1996 est.) note: in addition, there are 5,000 Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip (August 1995 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 52% (male 244,026; female 231,976) 15-64 years: 46% (male 210,706; female 210,764) 65 years and over: 2% (male 11,553; female 14,915) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 6.79% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 50.67 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.4 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.98 years male: 70.69 years female: 73.34 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.79 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: NA adjective: NA

Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 99.4%, Jewish 0.6%

Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 98.7%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.6%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely understood)

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Government note: Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, which includes a Palestinian Legislative Council elected in January 1996, as part of interim self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area and in additional areas of the West Bank pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28 September 1995 Interim Agreement. The DOP provides that Israel will retain responsibility during the transitional period for external security and for internal security and public order of settlements and Israelis. Permanent status is to be determined through direct negotiations within five years.

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Gaza Strip local long form: none local short form: Qita Ghazzah

Data code: GZ



Economy ———-

Economic overview: In 1991 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker remittances supplementing GDP by roughly 50%. Gaza has depended upon Israel for nearly 90% of its external trade. Aggravating the impact of Israeli military administration, unrest in the territory from 1988 to 1993 (intifadah) raised unemployment and lowered the standard of living of Gazans. The Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also dealt blows to Gaza since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf states have dropped, unemployment has increased, and exports have fallen. The withdrawal of Israel from the Gaza Strip in May 1994 has brought a new set of adjustment problems. The stringent border restrictions have held back economic growth in 1995 and 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3%-4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 33% industry: 7% services: 60% (1995 est., includes West Bank)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA by occupation: construction 33.4%, agriculture 20.0%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 14.9%, industry 10.0%, other services 21.7% (1991) note: excluding Israeli settlers

Unemployment rate: 30%-45% (1995 est.)

Budget: $NA

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: power supplied by Israel

Agriculture: olives, citrus, other fruits, vegetables; beef, dairy products

Exports: $49 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: citrus partners: Israel, Egypt

Imports: $339 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.) commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials partners: Israel, Egypt

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: $410 million (est.) disbursed from international aid pledges in 1995 (includes aid to West Bank)

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.1295 (January 1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: NA km; note - one line, abandoned and in disrepair, little trackage remains

Highways: total: NA km paved: NA km unpaved: NA km note: small, poorly developed road network

Ports: Gaza

Airports: total: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA note: 10% of Palestinian households have telephones (1992 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA; note - 95% of Palestinian households have radios (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA; note - 59% of Palestinian households have televisions (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: NA

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: NA males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Georgia ———-

Beset by ethnic and civil strife since independence in 1991, Georgia began to stabilize in 1994. Separatist conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been dormant for more than two years, although political settlements remain elusive. Russian peacekeepers are deployed in both regions and a UN Observer Mission is operating in Abkhazia. As a result of these conflicts, Georgia still has about 250,000 internally displaced people. In November 1995, Georgia held peaceful, generally free and fair nationwide presidential and parliamentary elections. Although the country continues to suffer from a crippling economic crisis, aggravated by a severe energy shortage, some progress has been made and the Georgian Government remains committed to economic reform in cooperation with the IMF and the World Bank. Violence and organized crime were sharply curtailed in 1995.

Map —-

Location: 42 00 N, 43 30 E — Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia



Flag ——

Description: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below



Geography ————-

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area: total area: 69,700 sq km land area: 69,700 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total: 1,461 km border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: none

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use: arable land: 11% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 29% forest and woodland: 38% other: 18%

Irrigated land: 4,660 sq km (1990)

Environment: current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification



People ———

Population: 5,219,810 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 22% (male 595,524; female 571,207) 15-64 years: 66% (male 1,643,506; female 1,784,286) 65 years and over: 12% (male 229,910; female 395,377) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.02% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.81 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -10.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female all ages: 0.9 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.09 years male: 63.43 years female: 72.98 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Georgian(s) adjective: Georgian

Ethnic divisions: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Orthodox 75% (Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian Orthodox 10%), Muslim 11%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages: Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.) total population: 99% male: 100% female: 98%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Georgia conventional short form: Georgia local long form: Sak'art'velos Respublika local short form: Sak'art'velo former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: GG

Type of government: republic

Capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria (Bat'umi) note: the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around T'bilisi are under direct republic jurisdiction

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected Chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992, Council has since been disbanded; previously elected Chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992); presidential election last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA April 2001); results - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 74%; president's term to last five years cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Georgian Parliament: elections last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000); results - CUG 24%, NDP 8%, All Georgia Revival Union 7%, all other parties received less than 5% each; seats - (235 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizens Union of Georgia (CUG), Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, Zurab ZHVANIA, general secretary; National Democratic Party (NDP), Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTARIA; United Republican Party, umbrella organization for parties including the GPF and the Charter 1991 Party, Notar NATADZE, chairman; Georgian Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo PAATASHVILI; Georgian Social Democratic Party (GSDP), Guram MUCHAIDZE, secretary general; All Georgia Union for Revival, Alsan ABASHIDZE; Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Irakli SHENGELAYA; Democratic Georgia Union (DGU), Avtandil MARGIANI; National Independence Party (NIP), Irakliy TSERETELI, chairman; Georgian Monarchists' Party (GMP), Temur ZHORZHOLIANI; Greens Party; Agrarian Party of Georgia (APG), Roin LIPARTELIANI; United Communist Party of Georgia (UCP), Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: supporters of ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January 1994) remain a source of opposition; separatist elements in the breakaway region of Abkhazia

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE chancery: (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 393-5959 FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador William H. COURTNEY embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [7] (8832) 98-99-67, 93-38-03 FAX: [7] (8832) 93-37-59

Flag: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and a small industrial sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Since 1991 the economy has sustained severe damage from civil strife. Georgia has been suffering from acute energy shortages, as it is having problems paying for even minimal imports. Georgia is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery largely on reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on developing international transportation through the key Black Sea ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. Statistical estimates on Georgia are subject to a particularly wide margin of error, even compared with other FSU countries. The GDP estimate below probably does not reflect much of its grass roots economic activity. GDP is supplemented by considerable EU and US humanitarian aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.2 billion (1995 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: -11% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,080 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 70.4% industry: 10.2% services: 19.4% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% monthly average (first half 1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.763 million by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry 25%, other 44% (1990)

Unemployment rate: officially less than 5% but real unemployment may be more than 20%, with even larger numbers of underemployed workers

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives, tower cranes, electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation and meat packing, electric motors, process control equipment, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes, chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1995)

Electricity: capacity: 4,410,000 kW production: 9.1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,526 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes; small livestock sector

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

Exports: $140 million (c.i.f., 1995) commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles; chemicals; fuel re-exports partners: Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan

Imports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1995) commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts, transport equipment partners: Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey; note - EU and US send humanitarian food shipments

External debt: $1.2 billion (of which $135 million to Russia) (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $28 million (1993) note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,200 million ($675 million disbursements)

Currency: lari introduced September 1995 replacing the coupon

Exchange rates: laris per US$1 - 1.24 (end December 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 1,570 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 1,570 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways: total: 35,100 km paved: 31,200 km unpaved: 3,900 km (1990 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)

Ports: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine: total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,765 GRT/483,567 DWT ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 2, oil tanker 12, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 28 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 with unpaved runways under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

Transportation note: transportation network is in poor condition and disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair



Communications ———————

Telephones: 672,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: poor service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for telephones (December 1990 est.) domestic: NA international: landline to CIS members and Turkey; satellite earth station - 1 Eutelsat; leased connections with other countries via the Moscow international gateway switch; international electronic mail and telex service available

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 1,288,291 males fit for military service: 1,021,632 males reach military age (18) annually: 40,654 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $60 million to $65 million, NA% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Germany ———-



Map —-

Location: 51 00 N, 9 00 E — Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow



Geography ————-

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 356,910 sq km land area: 349,520 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana note: includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and Berlin, following formal unification on 3 October 1990

Land boundaries: total: 3,621 km border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m highest point: Zugspitze 2,962 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

Land use: arable land: 34% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 16% forest and woodland: 30% other: 19%

Irrigated land: 4,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany natural hazards: NA international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea



People ———

Population: 83,536,115 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.15% (male 6,928,750; female 6,563,026) 15-64 years: 68.52% (male 29,339,780; female 27,902,549) 65 years and over: 15.33% (male 4,658,014; female 8,143,996) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.67% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 9.66 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.95 years male: 72.8 years female: 79.27 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: German(s) adjective: German

Ethnic divisions: German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%, other 1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in the former Yugoslavia)

Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%

Languages: German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.) total population: 99% male: NA% female: NA%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany conventional short form: Germany local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland local short form: Deutschland

Data code: GM

Type of government: federal republic

Capital: Berlin note: the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years, with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several ministries

Administrative divisions: 16 states (laender, singular - land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

National holiday: German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)

Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Roman HERZOG (since 1 July 1994) was elected by the Federal Convention including members of the Bundestag and an equal number of members elected by the Land Parliaments head of government: Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982) was elected by an absolute majority of the Bundestag cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president upon the proposal of the chancellor

Legislative branch: bicameral chamber (no official name for the two chambers as a whole) Federal Assembly (Bundestag): election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held by NA 1998); results - CDU 34.2%, SPD 36.4%, Alliance 90/Greens 7.3%, CSU 7.3%, FDP 6.9%, PDS 4.4%, Republicans 1.9%; seats - (usually 656 total, but 672 for the 1994 term) CDU 244, SPD 252, Alliance 90/Greens 49, CSU 50, FDP 47, PDS 30; elected by direct popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation Federal Council (Bundesrat): State governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on size and are required to vote as a block; current composition: votes - (68 total) SPD-led states 41, CDU-led states 27

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht), half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL, chairman; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Oskar LA FONTAINE, chairman; Alliance '90/Greens, Krista SAGER, Juergen TRITTIN, cochairpersons; Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), Lothar BISKY, chairman; Republikaner, Rolf SCHLIERER, chairman; National Democratic Party (NPD), Ellen-Doris SCHERER; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER and Heinz STEHR, cochairpersons

Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans groups

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMIR, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000 FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN embassy: Deichmanns Aue 29, 53170 Bonn mailing address: APO AE 09080, PSC 117, Bonn telephone: [49] (228) 3391 FAX: [49] (228) 339-2663 branch office: Berlin consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Germany, the world's third-most powerful economy, faces its own unique problem of bringing its eastern area up to scratch after 45 years of communist rule. Despite substantial progress toward economic integration, the eastern states will continue to rely on subsidies from the federal government into the next century. Assistance to the east of about $100 billion annually has helped the region average nearly 8% annual economic growth since 1991, even though the overall German economy has averaged less than 2% growth. The economic recovery in the east has been led by the construction industries, with growth increasingly supported by the service sectors and light manufacturing industries. Western Germany, which accounts for 90% of overall German GDP and has three times the per capita income of eastern Germany, is perennially the first- or second-largest exporter, after the US, in the world. Nonetheless, business and political leaders have in recent years become increasingly concerned about Germany's apparent decline in attractiveness as a business location. They cite the increasing preference of German companies to locate manufacturing facilities - long the strength of the postwar economy - to foreign countries, including the US, rather than in Germany, so they can be closer to their markets and avoid Germany's high production costs. The conditions under which European economic integration - especially movement toward a single European currency - will proceed will be another key issue facing Germany in the next few years.

GDP: Germany: purchasing power parity - $1.4522 trillion (1995 est.) western: purchasing power parity - $1.3318 trillion (1995 est.) eastern: purchasing power parity - $120.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: Germany: 1.8% (1995 est.) western: 1.5% (1995 est.) eastern: 6.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: Germany: $17,900 (1995 est.) western: $21,100 (1995 est.) eastern: $6,600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 1% industry: 34.2% services: 64.8% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): western: 2% (1995 est.) eastern: 2% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 36.75 million by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

Unemployment rate: western: 8.7% (December 1995) eastern: 14.9% (December 1995)

Budget: revenues: $690 billion expenditures: $780 billion, including capital expenditures of $96.5 billion (1994)

Industries: western: among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages eastern: metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: western: 2.8% (1994) eastern: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 115,430,000 kW production: 493 billion kWh consumption per capita: 5,683 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: western: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage; cattle, pigs, poultry eastern: wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine for West European markets

Exports: $437 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: manufactures 89.3% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 5.5%, raw materials 2.7%, fuels 1.3% (1993) partners: EC 47.9% (France 11.7%, Netherlands 7.4%, Italy 7.5%, UK 7.7%, Belgium-Luxembourg 6.6%), EFTA 15.5%, US 7.7%, Eastern Europe 5.2%, OPEC 3.0% (1993)

Imports: $362 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: manufactures 75.1%, agricultural products 10.0%, fuels 8.3%, raw materials 5.0% (1993) partners: EC 46.4% (France 11.3%, Netherlands 8.4%, Italy 8.1%, UK 6.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 5.7%), EFTA 14.3%, US 7.3%, Japan 6.3%, Eastern Europe 5.1%, OPEC 2.6% (1993)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: donor: ODA, $6.954 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.4617 (January 1996), 1.4331 (1995), 1.6228 (1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 43,966 km standard gauge: 43,531 km 1.435-m; 40,355 km are owned by Deutsche Bahn AG (DB); 17,015 km of the DB system are electrified and 16,941 km are double- or more-tracked narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (DB operates 146 km of 1.000-m gauge); 7 km 0.900-m gauge; 39 km 0.750-m gauge note: in addition to the DB system there are 54 privately-owned industrial or excursion railways, ranging in route length from 2 km to 632 km, with a total length of 3,465 km (1995)

Highways: total: 636,282 km paved: 531,018 km (including 10,955 km of expressways) unpaved: 105,264 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: western: 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea eastern: 2,319 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km (1988)

Ports: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Lubeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart

Merchant marine: total: 452 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,054,327 GRT/6,367,036 DWT ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 193, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 4, combination ore/oil 5, container 166, liquefied gas tanker 12, multifunction large-load carrier 6, oil tanker 11, passenger 3, railcar carrier 3, refrigerated cargo 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14, short-sea passenger 7 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 617 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 13 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 65 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 67 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 51 with paved runways under 914 m: 351 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 55 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 55 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 44 million

Telephone system: Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country is being rapidly modernized and integrated with that of the western part domestic: the region which was formerly West Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; since the reunification of Germany, the telephone system of the eastern region has been upgraded and enjoys many of the advantages of the national system international: satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean region); 6 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication centers; tropospheric scatter links

Radio broadcast stations: western: AM 80, FM 470, shortwave 0 eastern: AM 23, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 70 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 246 (repeaters 6,000); note - there are 15 Russian repeaters in eastern Germany

Televisions: 44.8 million (1992 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force, Border Police, Coast Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 21,540,919 males fit for military service: 18,537,347 males reach military age (18) annually: 449,292 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $42.8 billion, 1.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Ghana ——-



Map —-

Location: 8 00 N, 2 00 W — Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band



Geography ————-

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 238,540 sq km land area: 230,020 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total: 2,093 km border countries: Burkina Faso 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 7% meadows and pastures: 15% forest and woodland: 37% other: 36%

Irrigated land: 80 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: recent drought in north severely affecting agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water natural hazards: dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)



People ———

Population: 17,698,271 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 3,856,673; female 3,819,946) 15-64 years: 54% (male 4,658,142; female 4,814,060) 65 years and over: 3% (male 262,159; female 287,291) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.29% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.15 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.17 years male: 54.18 years female: 58.22 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.59 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ghanaian(s) adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic divisions: black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%

Languages: English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 64.5% male: 75.9% female: 53.5%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Ghana conventional short form: Ghana former: Gold Coast

Data code: GH

Type of government: constitutional democracy

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April 1992

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992); elected for a four-year term by direct universal suffrage; the president can appoint a vice president; election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA December 1996) cabinet: Cabinet; president nominates members subject to approval by the Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament: elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA December 1996); results - opposition boycotted the election, the National Democratic Congress won 198 of the total 200 seats and 2 seats were won by independents; because of interim bye-elections, the National Democratic Congress and its remaining coalition partner, Every Ghanian Living Everywhere (EGLE), now control 189 seats; former coalition partner, NCP, has 8 seats; independents hold 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress (NDC), Jerry John RAWLINGS; New Patriotic Party (NPP), Peter Ala ADJETY; People's Heritage Party (PHP), Alex ERSKINE; National Convention Party (NCP), Kow ARKAAH; Every Ghanian Living Everywhere (EGLE), Ashang OKINE; Peoples Convention Party (PCP), B.K. NKETSIA; Peoples National Convention (PNC), Alhaji Asuma BANDA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNAMIR, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520 FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527 consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Edward BRYNN embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra telephone: [233] (21) 775348 FAX: [233] (21) 775747

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Heavily reliant on international assistance, Ghana has made steady progress in liberalizing its economy since 1983. Overall growth continued at a rate of approximately 5% in 1995, due largely to increased gold, timber, and cocoa production - major sources of foreign exchange. The economy, however, continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for almost half of GDP and employs 55% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Public sector wage increases, regional peacekeeping commitments, and the containment of internal unrest in the underdeveloped north have placed substantial demands on the government's budget and have led to inflationary deficit financing, depreciation of the cedi, and rising public discontent with Ghana's austerity program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $25.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 47% industry: 16% services: 37% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 69% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 3.7 million by occupation: agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical 15.2%, professional 3.7%, services, transportation, and communications 7.7%

Unemployment rate: 10% (1993 est.)

Budget: revenues: $1.05 billion expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $178 million (1993)

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (1994 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 1,180,000 kW production: 6.1 billion kWh consumption per capita: 323 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin destined for Europe and the US

Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: cocoa 40%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, and diamonds partners: Germany , US , UK , Netherlands , Japan (1995)

Imports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: petroleum, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment partners: UK, US, Germany, Japan, Netherlands (1995)

External debt: $4.6 billion (December 1993 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $472 million (1993)

Currency: 1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas

Exchange rates: new cedis per US$1 - 1,246.11 (September 1995), 956.71 (1994), 649.06 (1993), 437.09 (1992), 367.83 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 953 km; note - undergoing major renovation (1995 est.) narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge; 32 km double track

Highways: total: 38,145 km paved: 7,476 km (including 21 km of expressways) unpaved: 30,669 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

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