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The 1991 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President Patricio AYLWIN (since 11 March 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: Concertation of Parties for Democracy now consists mainly of six parties—Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Andres ZALDIVAR; Party for Democracy (PPD), Erich SCHNAKE; Radical Party (PR), Mario ASTORGA; Democratic Socialist Radical Party (PRSD), Jorge IBANEZ; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Rene ABELIUK; and Socialist Party, Jorge ARRATE; National Renovation (RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Joaquin LAVIN; Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), Volodia TEITELBOIM; Movement of Revolutionary Left (MIR) is splintered, no single leader

#Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994); results—Patricio AYLWIN (PDC) 55.2%, Hernan BUCHI 29.4%, other 15.4%;

Senate—last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994); seats—(46 total, 38 elected) Concertation of Parties for Democracy 22 (PDC 13, PPD 5, PR 2, PSD 1, PRSD 1), RN 6, UDI 2, independents 8;

Chamber of Deputies—last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994); seats—(120 total) Concertation of Parties for Democracy 72 (PDC 38, PPD 17, PR 5, other 12), RN 29, UDI 11, right-wing independents 8

#Communists: The PCCh is currently in the process of regaining legal party status and has less than 60,000 members

#Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student federations at all major universities dominated by opposition political groups; labor—United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from the country's five-largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church

#Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Patricio SILVA Echenique; Chancery at 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 785-1746; there are Chilean Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco;

US—Ambassador Charles A. GILLESPIE, Jr.; Embassy at Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago (mailing address is APO Miami 34033); telephone [56] (2) 710133 or 710190, 710326, 710375

#Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

*Economy #Overview: In 1990 economic growth slowed from an average of 6.2% for the previous six years to about 1.5% as a result of tight monetary policy aimed at reducing inflation. Monetary policy was not successful at slowing price increases until the end of the year, however, and inflation, stimulated by higher world oil prices, increased to 27.3% in 1990 from 21.4% in 1989. Copper prices held strong in 1990, helping to maintain a balance-of-payments surplus and increase international reserves. Most observers expect that inflationary pressures have run their course and price increases will slow during 1991, contributing to growth of 4-5%.

#GDP: $26 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate 2.0% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27.3% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 5.6% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $7.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $575 million (1990 est.)

#Exports: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—copper 48%, industrial products 33%, molybdenum, iron ore, wood pulp, fishmeal, fruits;

partners—EC 34%, US 22%, Japan 10%, Brazil 7%

#Imports: $7.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—petroleum, wheat, capital goods, spare parts, raw materials;

partners—EC 23%, US 20%, Japan 10%, Brazil 9%

#External debt: $18.4 billion (February 1991)

#Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1990); accounts for 30% of GDP

#Electricity: 4,138,000 kW capacity; 17,784 million kWh produced, 1,360 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

#Agriculture: accounts for about 8% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops—wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock products—beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1986 fish catch of 5.6 million metric tons net agricultural importer

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $1.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $386 million

#Currency: Chilean peso (plural—pesos); 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

#Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1—337.24 (January 1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988), 219.54 (1987), 193.02 (1986), 161.08 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 8,613 km total; 4,257 km 1.676-meter gauge, 135 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 4,221 km 1.000-meter gauge; electrification, 1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge, 80 km 1.000-meter gauge

#Highways: 79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel, 35,972 km improved and unimproved earth (1984)

#Inland waterways: 725 km

#Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined products, 785 km; natural gas, 320 km

#Ports: Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San Antonio, Talcahuano, Arica

#Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 485,935 GRT/800,969 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 9 bulk; note—in addition, 2 naval tanker and 2 military transport are sometimes used commercially

#Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 392 total, 353 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: modern telephone system based on extensive radio relay facilities; 768,000 telephones; stations—159 AM, no FM, 131 TV, 11 shortwave; satellite stations—2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National Police)

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,544,962; 2,647,148 fit for military service; 119,511 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: $737 million, 3% of GNP (1991 est.) % @China (also see separate Taiwan entry) *Geography Total area: 9,596,960 km2; land area: 9,326,410 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than the US

#Land boundaries: 23,213.34 km total; Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, USSR 7,520 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

#Coastline: 14,500 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve disputed sections of the boundary with the USSR; a short section of the boundary with North Korea is indefinite; sporadic border clashes with Vietnam; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands)

#Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

#Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east

#Natural resources: coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential

#Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 31%; forest and woodland 14%; other 45%; includes irrigated 5%

#Environment: frequent typhoons (about five times per year along southern and eastern coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution; air pollution; desertification

#Note: world's third-largest country (after USSR and Canada)

*People #Population: 1,151,486,981 (July 1991), growth rate 1.6% (1991)

#Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective—Chinese

#Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 93.3%; Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 6.7%

#Religion: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; most important elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.)

#Language: Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect); also Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and minority languages (see ethnic divisions)

#Literacy: 73% (male 84%, female 62%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 553,000,000; agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1989 est.)

#Organized labor: All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) follows the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party; membership over 80 million or about 65% of the urban work force (1985)

*Government #Long-form name: People's Republic of China; abbreviated PRC

#Type: Communist Party-led state

#Capital: Beijing

#Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang*, Yunnan, Zhejiang; note—China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

#Independence: unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC, Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912, People's Republic established 1 October 1949

#Constitution: 4 December 1982

#Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

#National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

#Executive branch: president, vice president, premier, five vice premiers, State Council

#Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui)

#Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto)—DENG Xiaoping (since mid-1977);

Chief of State—President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988); Vice President WANG Zhen (since 8 April 1988);

Head of Government—Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988); Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979); Vice Premier TIAN Jiyun (since 20 June 1983); Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988); Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: only party—Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee (since NA June 1989)

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993); YANG Shangkun was nominally elected by the Seventh National People's Congress;

National People's Congress—last held NA March 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results—CCP is the only party but there are also independents; seats—(2,976 total) CCP and independents 2,976 (indirectly elected at county or xian level)

#Communists: 49,000,000 party members (1990 est.)

#Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and government organization, that vary by issue

#Member of: AfDB, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco;

US—Ambassador James R. LILLEY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing (mailing address is 100600, PRC Box 50, Beijing or FPO San Francisco 96655-0001); telephone [86] (1) 532-3831; there are US Consulates General in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang

#Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

*Economy #Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market elements—but still within the framework of monolithic Communist control. To this end the authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign economic sector to increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying result has been a strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Otherwise, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals and thereby undermining the credibility of the reform process. Popular resistance and changes in central policy have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the nation's long-term economic viability.

#GNP: $413 billion (1989 est.), per capita $370 (World Bank est.); real growth rate 5% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 2.6% in urban areas (1990)

#Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

#Exports: $62.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording equipment, petroleum, minerals;

partners—Hong Kong, US, Japan, USSR, Singapore, FRG (1989)

#Imports: $53.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—specialized industrial machinery, chemicals, manufactured goods, steel, textile yarn, fertilizer;

partners—Hong Kong, Japan, US, FRG, USSR (1989)

#External debt: $51 billion (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 7.6% (1990); accounts for 45% of GNP

#Electricity: 117,580,000 kW capacity; 585,000 million kWh produced, 520 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food processing

#Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 8 million metric tons in 1986

#Economic aid: donor—to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0 billion; US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5 billion

#Currency: yuan (plural—yuan); 1 yuan (3) = 10 jiao

#Exchange rates: yuan (3) per US$1—5.31 (April 1991), 4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987), 3.4528 (1986), 2.9367 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 11,200 km double track on standard-gauge lines; 6,500 km electrified; 10,000 km industrial lines (gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)

#Highways: about 980,000 km all types roads; 162,000 km paved roads, 617,200 km gravel/improved earth roads, 200,800 km unimproved natural earth roads and tracks

#Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

#Pipelines: crude, 6,500 km; refined products, 1,100 km; natural gas, 6,200 km

#Ports: Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang, Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou

#Merchant marine: 1,421 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,010,317 GRT/21,223,170 DWT; includes 24 passenger, 42 short-sea passenger, 19 passenger-cargo, 7 cargo/training, 776 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 70 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 multifunction barge carrier, 181 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 250 bulk, 2 liquefied gas, 2 vehicle carrier, 9 combination bulk; note—China beneficially owns an additional 183 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 5,921,000 DWT that operate under Maltese and Liberian registry

#Airports: 330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 10 with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones (December 1989); stations—274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050 relays) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs; satellite earth stations—4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, and 55 domestic

*Defense Forces #Branches: Chinese People's Liberation Army (CPLA), CPLA Navy (including Marines), CPLA Air Force, Chinese People's Armed Police

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 335,382,062; 187,046,680 fit for military service; 10,967,622 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GNP % @Christmas Island (territory of Australia) *Geography Total area: 135 km2; land area: 135 km2

#Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 138.9 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

#Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

#Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

#Natural resources: phosphate

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

#Environment: almost completely surrounded by a reef

#Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

*People #Population: 2,278 (July 1991), growth rate NA% (1991)

#Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Christmas Islander(s), adjective—Christmas Island

#Ethnic divisions: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%; no indigenous population

#Religion: Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%, Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%, Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown 4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)

#Language: English

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: NA; all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: Territory of Christmas Island

#Type: territory of Australia

#Capital: The Settlement

#Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

#Independence: none (territory of Australia)

#Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

#Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia

#National holiday: NA

#Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Advisory Council (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: none

#Judicial branch: none

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government—Administrator A. D. TAYLOR (since NA)

#Communists: none

#Member of: none

#Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

#Flag: the flag of Australia is used

*Economy #Overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no longer economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the mine and also to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism, with a possible opening date during the first half of 1992.

#GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: 0%

#Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

#Exports: $NA;

commodities—phosphate;

partners—Australia, NZ

#Imports: $NA;

commodities—NA;

partners—NA

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 11,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 13,170 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

#Agriculture: NA

#Economic aid: none

#Currency: Australian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1—1.2834 (January 1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

*Communications #Ports: Flying Fish Cove

#Airports: 1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: 4,000 radios (1982)

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia % @Clipperton Island (French possession) *Geography Total area: 7 km2

#Comparative area: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 11.1 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: claimed by Mexico

#Climate: tropical

#Terrain: coral atoll

#Natural resources: none

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (coral) 100%

#Environment: reef about 8 km in circumference

#Note: located 1,120 km southwest of Mexico in the North Pacific Ocean; also called Ile de la Passion

*People #Population: uninhabited

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: French possession administered from French Polynesia by High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT; note—may have become a dependency of French Polynesia

*Economy #Overview: only economic activity is a tuna fishing station

*Communications #Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France % @Cocos (Keeling) Islands (territory of Australia) *Geography Total area: 14 km2; land area: 14 km2; main islands are West Island and Home Island

#Comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 42.6 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

#Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

#Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

#Natural resources: fish

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

#Environment: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

#Note: located 1,070 km southwest of Sumatra (Indonesia) in the Indian Ocean about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka

*People #Population: 684 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

#Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Cocos Islander(s); adjective—Cocos Islander(s)

#Ethnic divisions: mostly Europeans on West Island and Cocos Malays on Home Island

#Religion: almost all Sunni Muslims

#Language: English

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: NA

#Organized labor: none

*Government #Long-form name: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands

#Type: territory of Australia

#Capital: West Island

#Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

#Independence: none (territory of Australia)

#Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

#Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

#National holiday: NA

#Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, chairman of the Islands Council

#Legislative branch: unicameral Islands Council

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government—Administrator D. LAWRIE (since NA 1989); Chairman of the Islands Council Parson Bin YAPAT (since NA)

#Suffrage: NA

#Elections: NA

#Member of: none

#Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

#Flag: the flag of Australia is used

*Economy #Overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia.

#GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment: NA

#Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

#Exports: $NA;

commodities—copra;

partners—Australia

#Imports: $NA;

commodities—foodstuffs;

partners—Australia

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 1,000 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, 2,980 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: copra products

#Agriculture: gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

#Economic aid: none

#Currency: Australian dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1—1.2834 (January 1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

*Communications #Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only

#Airports: 1 airfield with permanent-surface runway, 1,220-2,439 m; airport on West Island is a link in service between Australia and South Africa

#Telecommunications: 250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile communications via satellite with Australia; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia % @Colombia *Geography Total area: 1,138,910 km2; land area: 1,038,700 km2; includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

#Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

#Land boundaries: 7,408 km total; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900, Venezuela 2,050 km

#Coastline: 3,208 km total (1,448 km North Pacific Ocean; 1,760 Caribbean Sea)

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

#Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

#Terrain: mixture of flat coastal lowlands, plains in east, central highlands, some high mountains

#Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds

#Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and woodland 49%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts

#Note: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

*People #Population: 33,777,550 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

#Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Colombian(s); adjective—Colombian

#Ethnic divisions: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

#Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

#Language: Spanish

#Literacy: 87% (male 88%, female 86%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 11,000,000 (1986); services 53%, agriculture 26%, industry 21% (1981)

#Organized labor: 1,400,000 members (1987), about 12% of labor force; the Communist-backed Unitary Workers Central or CUT is the largest labor organization, with about 725,000 members (including all affiliate unions)

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Colombia

#Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

#Capital: Bogota

#Administrative divisions: 23 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento), 5 commissariats* (comisarias, singular—comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias, singular—intendencia); Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*, Vichada*; note—there may be a new special district (distrito especial) named Bogota; the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the commissariats and intendancies are to become full departments and a capital district (distrito capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be established by 1997

#Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

#Constitution: 5 July 1991

#Legal system: based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

#National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

#Executive branch: president, presidential designate, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a nationally elected upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a regionally elected lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives (Camara de Representantes)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PL), Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo, president, and Alfonso LOPEZ Michelsen, party head; Social Conservative Party (PCS), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement (MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; Democratic Alliance (AD) is headed by 19th of April Movement (M-19) leader Antonio NAVARRO Wolf, coalition of small leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP), is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results—Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%;

Senate—last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held 27 October 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(114 total) Liberal 72, Conservative 40, UP 1, vacant 1;

Chamber of Representatives last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held 27 October 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(199 total) Liberal 122, Conservative 68, UP 3, M-19 1, other 5; note—on 5 July 1991 the new Constitution dissolved Congress and replaced it with a multiparty 36-member legislative commission until a new congress, to be elected on 27 October 1991, takes office on 1 December 1991

#Communists: 18,000 members (est.), including Communist Party Youth Organization (JUCO)

#Other political or pressure groups: three insurgent groups are active in Colombia—Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), led by Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National Liberation Army (ELN), led by Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL) led by Francisco CARABALLO

#Member of: AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra; Chancery at 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-8338; there are Colombian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Tampa;

US—Ambassador-designate Morris D. BUSBY; Embassy at Calle 38, No.8-61, Bogota (mailing address is P. O. Box A. A. 3831, Bogota or APO Miami 34038); telephone [57] (1) 285-1300 or 1688; there is a US Consulate in Barranquilla

#Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

*Economy #Overview: Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries over the past four years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices—Colombia's major export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the summer of 1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, and drug-related violence dampen prospects for future growth.

#GDP: $43.0 billion, per capita $1,300; real growth rate 3.7% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 32.4% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 10.4% (urban areas 1990) (1990)

#Budget: revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93 billion, capital expenditures $1.03 billion (1989 est.)

#Exports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—coffee 24%, petroleum, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers;

partners—US 36%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%

#Imports: $5.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—industrial equipment, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, paper products;

partners—US 34%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%

#External debt: $16.7 billion (1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate 5.0% (1990 est.); accounts for 25% of GDP

#Electricity: 9,435,000 kW capacity; 36,071 million kWh produced, 1,090 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining—gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

#Agriculture: growth rate 4.9% (1990); accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more important

#Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of cannabis and coca; key supplier of marijuana and cocaine to the US and other international drug markets; drug production and trafficking accounts for an estimated 4% of GDP and 28% of foreign exchange earnings

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $3.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million

#Currency: Colombian peso (plural—pesos); 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

#Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1—574.09 (January 1991), 502.24 (1990), 382.57 (1989), 299.17 (1988), 242.61 (1987), 194.26 (1986), 142.31 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use), 150 km 1.435-meter gauge

#Highways: 75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and gravel surfaces

#Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

#Pipelines: crude oil, 3,585 km; refined products, 1,350 km; natural gas, 830 km; natural gas liquids, 125 km

#Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco

#Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 330,316 GRT/484,351 DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 bulk; note—2 naval tankers are sometimes used commercially

#Civil air: 106 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 1,165 total, 1,045 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 192 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; stations—413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations with 2 antennas and 11 domestic satellite stations

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia), National Police (Policia Nacional)

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 8,998,759; 6,102,745 fit for military service; 353,122 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $892 million, 2.2% of GDP (1990) % @Comoros *Geography Total area: 2,170 km2; land area: 2,170 km2

#Comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 340 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte

#Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

#Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills

#Natural resources: negligible

#Land use: arable land 35%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 34%

#Environment: soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; cyclones possible during rainy season

#Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

*People #Population: 476,678 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)

#Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 59 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Comoran(s); adjective—Comoran

#Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

#Religion: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

#Language: Shaafi Islam (a Swahili dialect), Malagasy, French

#Literacy: 48% (male 56%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)

#Labor force: 140,000 (1982); agriculture 80%, government 3%; 51% of population of working age (1985)

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros

#Type: independent republic

#Capital: Moroni

#Administrative divisions: 3 islands; Anjouan, Grande Comore, Moheli; note—there may also be 4 municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Mutsamudu

#Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

#Constitution: 1 October 1978, amended October 1982 and January 1985

#Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

#National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

#Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990)

#Political parties: Comoran Union for Progress (Udzima), Said Mohamed DJOHAR, president; National Union for Democracy (UNDC), Mohamed TAKI

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results—Said Mohamed DJOHAR (Udzima) 55%; Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%;

Federal Assembly—last held 22 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(42 total) Udzima 42

#Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN; Chancery (temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 972-8010;

US—Ambassador Kenneth N. PELTIER; Embassy at address NA, Moroni (mailing address B. P. 1318, Moroni); telephone 73-22-03, 73-29-22

#Flag: green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the crescent points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago—Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by the Comoros)

*Economy #Overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a low level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes about 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main staple, accounts for 90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the industrial sector grew at an annual average rate of 5.3%, but its contribution to GDP was only 5% in 1988. Despite major investment in the tourist industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of 1.5% during 1985-90 has led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and balance-of-payments difficulties.

#GDP: $245 million, per capita $530; real growth rate 1.5% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1989)

#Unemployment rate: over 16% (1988 est.)

#Budget: revenues $88 million; expenditures $92 million, including capital expenditures of $13 million (1990 est.)

#Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra;

partners—US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)

#Imports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods;

partners—Europe 62% (France 22%, other 40%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)

#External debt: $242 million (December 1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% (1988 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP

#Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced, 55 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials

#Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export—vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, and copra; principal food crops—coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla; large net food importer

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $406 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18 million

#Currency: Comoran franc (plural—francs); 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

#Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1—256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985); note—linked to the French franc at 50 to 1 French franc

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Highways: 750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed stone or gravel

#Ports: Mutsamudu, Moroni

#Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication stations for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; stations—2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV

*Defense Forces #Branches: Comoran Defense Force (FCD), Federal Gendarmerie (GFC)

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 101,332; 60,592 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $NA, 3% of GDP (1981) % @Congo *Geography Total area: 342,000 km2; land area: 341,500 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

#Land boundaries: 5,504 km total; Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

#Coastline: 169 km

#Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

#Disputes: long section with Zaire along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

#Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

#Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

#Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas

#Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and woodland 62%; other 7%

#Environment: deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them

*People #Population: 2,309,444 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

#Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 108 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Congolese (sing., pl.); adjective—Congolese or Congo

#Ethnic divisions: about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75 tribes, almost all Bantu; most important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in the south, Sangha (20%) and M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in the center; about 8,500 Europeans, mostly French

#Religion: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

#Language: French (official); many African languages with Lingala and Kikongo most widely used

#Literacy: 57% (male 70%, female 44%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 79,100 wage earners; agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%; 51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically active (1985)

#Organized labor: 20% of labor force (1979 est.)

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of the Congo

#Type: republic

#Capital: Brazzaville

#Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular—region); Bouenza, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha; note—there may be a new capital district of Brazzaville

#Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France; formerly Congo/Brazzaville)

#Constitution: 8 July 1979, currently being modified

#Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

#National holiday: National Day, 15 August (1960)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 8 February 1979);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Brig. Gen. Louis-Sylvain GOMA (since 9 January 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: Congolese Labor Party (PCT), President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, leader; note—multiparty system legalized, with over 50 parties established

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 26-31 July 1989 (next to be held July 1994); results—President SASSOU-NGUESSO unanimously reelected leader of the PCT by the Party Congress, which automatically made him president;

People's National Assembly—last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held NA 1994); results—PCT was the only party; seats—(153 total) single list of candidates nominated by the PCT

#Communists: unknown number of Communists and sympathizers

#Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC), Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC), General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)

#Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO; Chancery at 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-5500;

US—Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS; Embassy at Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville (mailing address is B. P. 1015, Brazzaville, or Box C, APO New York 09662-0006); telephone (242) 83-20-70 or 83-26-24

#Flag: red with the national emblem in the upper hoist-side corner; the emblem includes a yellow five-pointed star above a crossed hoe and hammer (like the hammer and sickle design) in yellow, flanked by two curved green palm branches; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Economy #Overview: Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The world decline in oil prices, however, has forced the government to launch an austerity program to cope with declining receipts and mounting foreign debts.

#GDP: $2.26 billion, per capita $1,050; real growth rate 0.6% (1989 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (1989 est.)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $522 million; expenditures $767 million, including capital expenditures of $141 million (1989)

#Exports: $751 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities—crude petroleum 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds;

partners—US, France, other EC

#Imports: $564 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities—foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital equipment;

partners—France, Italy, other EC, US, FRG, Spain, Japan, Brazil

#External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1988)

#Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP, including petroleum

#Electricity: 133,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced, 130 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: crude oil, cement, sawmills, brewery, sugar mill, palm oil, soap, cigarettes

#Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava accounts for 90% of food output; other crops—rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $60 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $2.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $338 million

#Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

#Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are privately owned)

#Highways: 12,000 km total; 560 km bituminous surface treated; 850 km gravel, laterite; 5,350 km improved earth; 5,240 km unimproved roads

#Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for local traffic only

#Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

#Ports: Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)

#Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 50 total, 45 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; stations—3 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, paramilitary National People's Militia, National Police

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 509,040; 258,861 fit for military service; 24,068 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $99 million, 4.6% of GDP (1987 est.) % @Cook Islands (free association with New Zealand) *Geography Total area: 240 km2; land area: 240 km2

#Comparative area: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 120 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or minimum of 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

#Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

#Natural resources: negligible

#Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 22%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 74%

#Environment: subject to typhoons from November to March

#Note: located 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean

*People #Population: 17,882 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)

#Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Cook Islander(s); adjective—Cook Islander

#Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

#Religion: Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian Church

#Language: English

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: 5,810; agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, and other 4% (1981)

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands

#Capital: Avarua

#Administrative divisions: none

#Independence: became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action

#Constitution: 4 August 1965

#National holiday: NA

#Executive branch: British monarch, representative of the UK, representative of New Zealand, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note—the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no legislative powers

#Judicial branch: High Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the UK Sir Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK (since NA);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since NA February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since NA February 1989)

#Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM; Democratic Party, Dr. Vincent Pupuke ROBATI; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN; Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA

#Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

#Elections:

Parliament—last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by January 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(24 total) Cook Islands Party 12, Democratic Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party) 9, independent 1

#Member of: AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, IOC, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO

#Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

#Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag

*Economy #Overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid. Current economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential and expanding the fishing industry.

#GDP: $40.0 million, per capita $2,200 (1988 est.); real growth rate 5.3% (1986-88 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

#Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities—copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing;

partners—NZ 80%, Japan

#Imports: $38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities—foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber;

partners—NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: fruit processing, tourism

#Agriculture: export crops—copra, citrus fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops—yams, taro

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $128 million

#Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural—dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1—1.6798 (January 1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

*Communications #Highways: 187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved earth, 33 km unimproved earth

#Ports: Avatiu

#Civil air: no major transport aircraft

#Airports: 7 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: stations—2 AM, no FM, no TV; 10,000 radio receivers; 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand % @Coral Sea Islands (territory of Australia) *Geography Total area: undetermined; includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of about 1 million km2, with Willis Islets the most important

#Comparative area: undetermined

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 3,095 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

#Climate: tropical

#Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

#Natural resources: negligible

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other, mostly grass or scrub cover 100%; Lihou Reef Reserve and Coringa-Herald Reserve were declared National Nature Reserves on 3 August 1982

#Environment: subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent fresh water; important nesting area for birds and turtles

#Note: the islands are located just off the northeast coast of Australia in the Coral Sea

*People #Population: 3 meteorologists (1991)

*Government #Long-form name: Coral Sea Islands Territory

#Type: territory of Australia administered by the Minister for Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories Roslyn KELLY

#Flag: the flag of Australia is used

*Economy #Overview: no economic activity

*Communications #Ports: none; offshore anchorages only

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors % @Costa Rica *Geography Total area: 51,100 km2; land area: 50,660 km2; includes Isla del Coco

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

#Land boundaries: 639 km total; Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

#Coastline: 1,290 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November)

#Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

#Natural resources: hydropower potential

#Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 45%; forest and woodland 34%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%

#Environment: subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes; deforestation; soil erosion

*People #Population: 3,111,403 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

#Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Costa Rican(s); adjective—Costa Rican

#Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1%

#Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

#Language: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

#Literacy: 93% (male 93%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 868,300; industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

#Organized labor: 15.1% of labor force

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Costa Rica

#Type: democratic republic

#Capital: San Jose

#Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular—provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

#Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

#Constitution: 9 November 1949

#Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

#Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice President German SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President Arnoldo LOPEZ Echandi (since 8 May 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party (PLN), Rolando ARAYA Monge; Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin ChACON Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey

#Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results—Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel CASTILLO 47%;

Legislative Assembly—last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional parties 2

#Communists: 7,500 members and sympathizers

#Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party affiliate), Confederated Union of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate), Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party affiliate), Chamber of Coffee Growers, National Association for Economic Development (ANFE), Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants), National Association of Educators (ANDE)

#Member of: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda; Chancery at Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-2945 through 2947; there are Costa Rican Consulates General at Albuquerque, Boston, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa, and Consulates in Austin, Buffalo, Honolulu, and Raleigh;

US—Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert O. HOMME; Embassy at Pavas Road, San Jose (mailing address is APO Miami 34020); telephone [506] 20-39-39

#Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red band

*Economy #Overview: In 1990 the economy grew at an estimated 3.5% rate, a decrease from the strong 5.0% gain of the previous year. Gains in agricultural production (on the strength of good coffee and banana crops) and in construction, were partially offset by lower rates of growth for industry. In 1990 consumer prices rose by about 25% and the trade deficit widened. Unemployment is officially reported at 6%, but much underemployment remains. External debt, on a per capita basis, is among the world's highest.

#GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $1,810; real growth rate 3.6% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1990 est.)

#Unemployment rate: 6% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $831 million; expenditures $1.08 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

#Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar;

partners—US 75%, FRG, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan

#Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—petroleum, machinery, consumer durables, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs;

partners—US 35%, Japan, Guatemala, FRG

#External debt: $4.5 billion (1989)

#Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1990 est.); accounts for 23% of GDP

#Electricity: 927,000 kW capacity; 2,987 million kWh produced, 980 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

#Agriculture: accounts for 20-25% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities—coffee, beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans, potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion of forest resources resulting in lower timber output

#Illicit drugs: illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots; transshipment country for cocaine from South America

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $781 million; Communist countries (1971-88), $27 million

#Currency: Costa Rican colon (plural—colones); 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

#Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1—105.82 (January 1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988), 62.776 (1987), 55.986 (1986), 50.453 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified

#Highways: 15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel, 1,360 km unimproved earth

#Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

#Pipelines: refined products, 176 km

#Ports: Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas

#Merchant marine: 12 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,831 GRT/4,506 DWT

#Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 173 total, 159 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection into Central American Microwave System; stations—71 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard; note—Constitution prohibits armed forces

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 807,853; 545,541 fit for military service; 32,149 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $20 million, 0.4% of GDP (1988) % @Cuba *Geography Total area: 110,860 km2; land area: 110,860 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

#Land boundary: 29.1 km with US Naval Base at Guantanamo; note—Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba

#Coastline: 3,735 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

#Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

#Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast

#Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica

#Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and woodland 17%; other 31%; includes irrigated 10%

#Environment: averages one hurricane every other year

#Note: largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida

*People #Population: 10,732,037 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)

#Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Cuban(s); adjective—Cuban

#Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

#Religion: 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power

#Language: Spanish

#Literacy: 94% (male 95%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 3,578,800 in state sector; services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June 1990); economically active population 4,620,800 (1988)

#Organized labor: Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor federation approved by government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an umbrella organization composed of 17 member unions

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Cuba

#Type: Communist state

#Capital: Havana

#Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular—provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

#Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)

#Constitution: 24 February 1976

#Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 January (1959)

#Executive branch: president of the Council of State, first vice president of the Council of State, Council of State, president of the Council of Ministers, first vice president of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

#Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of the People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular)

#Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (became Prime Minister in February 1959 and President since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976)

#Political parties and leaders: only party—Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary

#Suffrage: universal at age 16

#Elections:

National Assembly of the People's Power—last held NA December 1986 (next to be held December 1991); results—PCC is the only party; seats—(510 total) PCC 510 (indirectly elected)

#Communists: about 600,000 full and candidate members

#Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, IFAD, IIB, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is Switzerland—Cuban Interests Section; Counselor Jose Antonio ARBESU Fraga; 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610;

US—protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland—US Interests Section; Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN; Calzada entre L y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana (mailing address is USINT, c/o International Purchasing Group, 2052 NW 93rd Avenue, Miami, FL 33172); telephone 329-700

#Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

*Economy #Overview: The economy, centrally planned and largely state owned, is highly dependent on the agricultural sector and foreign trade. Sugar provides about 75% of export revenues and over half is exported to the USSR. The economy has stagnated since 1985 under policies that have deemphasized material incentives in the workplace, abolished farmers' informal produce markets, and raised prices of government-supplied goods and services. In 1990 the economy probably fell 3%, largely as a result of declining trade with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Recently the government has been trying to increase trade with Latin America and China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing its foreign debt since 1982. The government currently is encouraging foreign investment in tourist facilities. Other investment priorities include sugar, basic foods, and nickel. The annual $4 billion Soviet subsidy, a main prop to Cuba's threadbare economy, is likely to show a substantial decline over the next few years in view of the USSR's mounting economic problems. Instead of highly subsidized trade, Cuba will be shifting to trade at market prices in convertible currencies. In early 1991, the shortages of fuels, spare parts, and industrial products in general had become so severe as to amount to a deindustrialization process in the eyes of some observers.

#GNP: $20.9 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate - 3% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment: 6% overall, 10% for women (1989)

#Budget: revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

#Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—sugar, nickel, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee;

partners—USSR 67%, GDR 6%, China 4% (1988)

#Imports: $8.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities—capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum;

partners—USSR 71%, other Communist countries 15% (1988)

#External debt: $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)

#Industrial production: 3% (1988); accounts for 45% of GDP

#Electricity: 3,890,000 kW capacity; 16,267 million kWh produced, 1,530 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

#Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key commercial crops—sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products—coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar)

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $695 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion

#Currency: Cuban peso (plural—pesos); 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

#Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1—1.0000 (linked to the US dollar)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 14,925 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,295 km of 1.435-meter gauge track; 199 km electrified; 9,630 km of sugar plantation lines of 0.914-1.435-meter gauge

#Highways: 26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and earth surfaced (1989 est.)

#Inland waterways: 240 km

#Ports: Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7 secondary, 35 minor

#Merchant marine: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 638,462 GRT/925,380 DWT; includes 54 cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo, 2 cargo/training, 12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 6 bulk; note—Cuba beneficially owns an additional 37 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 512,346 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta

#Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 205 total, 176 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: stations—150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios; 229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (including Ground Forces, Revolutionary Navy, Air and Air Defense Force), Ministry of Interior Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops, Youth Labor Army, Civil Defense, National Revolutionary Police

#Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 6,087,253; of the 3,054,158 males 15-49, 1,914,080 are fit for military service; of the 3,033,095 females 15-49, 1,896,449 are fit for military service; 89,194 males and 85,968 females reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.2-$1.4 billion, 6% of GNP (1989 est.) % @Cyprus *Geography Total area: 9,250 km2; land area: 9,240 km2

#Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 648 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas—a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island) that are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two UK sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)

#Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters

#Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south

#Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

#Land use: arable land 40%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 10%; forest and woodland 18%; other 25%; includes irrigated 10% (most irrigated lands are in the Turkish-Cypriot area of the island)

#Environment: moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)

*People #Population: 709,343 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)

#Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Cypriot(s); adjective—Cypriot

#Ethnic divisions: Greek 78%; Turkish 18%; other 4%

#Religion: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other 4%

#Language: Greek, Turkish, English

#Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 85%) age 10 and over can read and write (1976)

#Labor force: Greek area—246,100; services 42%, industry 33%, agriculture 22%; Turkish area—NA (1989)

#Organized labor: 156,000 (1985 est.)

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Cyprus

#Type: republic; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf Denktash declared independence and the formation of a Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government

#Capital: Nicosia

#Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos

#Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)

#Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which was renamed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum in May 1985

#Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

#National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October

#Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet); note—there is a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area

#Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon); note—there is a unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note—there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President George VASSILIOU (since February 1988); note—Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975

#Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot—Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL; Communist Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS, Democratic Rally (DESY), Glafcos CLERIDES; Democratic Party (DEKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDES; Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADESOK), Pavlos DINGLIS, chairman; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;

Turkish area—National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR; New Cyprus Party (NKP), Alpay DURDURAN; New Dawn Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free Democratic Party, Ismet KOTAK; note—CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic Struggle Party (DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 14 February and 21 February 1988 (next to be held February 1993); results—George VASSILIOU 52%, Glafcos CLERIDES 48%;

House of Representatives—last held 8 December 1985 (next to be held 19 May 1991); results—DESY 33.56%, DEKO 27.65%, AKEL (Communist) 27.43%, EDEK 11.07%; seats—(56 total) DESY 19, DEKO 16, AKEL (Communist) 15, EDEK 6;

Turkish Area: President—last held 22 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995); results—Rauf R. DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%;

Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic—last held 6 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results—UBP (conservative) about 55%, DMP NA%; seats—(50 total) UBP (conservative) 34, CTP (Communist) 7, TKP (center-right) 7, New Dawn Party 2

#Communists: about 12,000

#Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA; Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK; pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

#Member of: C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS; Chancery at 2211 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-5772; there is a Cypriot Consulate General in New York;

US—Ambassador Robert E. LAMB; Embassy at the corner of Therissos Street and Dositheos Street, Nicosia (mailing address is FPO New York 09530); telephone [357] (2) 4651511

#Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

*Economy #Overview: These data are for the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus (information on the northern Turkish-Cypriot area is sparse). The economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry contributes about 25% to GDP and employs 35% of the labor force, while the service sector contributes about 55% to GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Rapid growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products and in tourism have played important roles in the average 6% rise in GDP in recent years.

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