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The 1991 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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partners—US 50.7%, Europe 13.7%, Japan 4.0% (1989)

#Imports: $8.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment;

partners—US 44%, FRG 8.0%, Japan 4%, Italy 7%, Canada 2% (1989)

#External debt: $33.2 billion (1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate - 11% (1989 est.); accounts for one-fourth of GDP, including petroleum

#Electricity: 19,733,000 kW capacity; 54,660 million kWh produced, 2,780 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

#Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force; products—corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

#Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine do transit the country

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $10 million

#Currency: bolivar (plural—bolivares); 1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

#Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1—51.331 (January 1991), 46.900 (1990), 34.6815 (1989), 14.5000 (fixed rate 1987-88), 8.0833 (1986), 7.5000 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single track, government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned

#Highways: 77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel, 14,450 km earth roads, and 15,835 km unimproved earth

#Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels

#Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km refined products; 4,010 km natural gas

#Ports: Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Puerto Ordaz

#Merchant marine: 58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 811,650 GRT/1,294,077 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 22 cargo, 1 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 9 bulk, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk

#Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 296 total, 277 usable; 137 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones; stations—181 AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite communications ground stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

*Defense Forces #Branches: Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (including Navy, Marines, Coast Guard), Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National Guard)

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,220,183; 3,782,548 fit for military service; 216,132 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.9 billion, 4.3% of GDP (1991) % @Vietnam *Geography Total area: 329,560 km2; land area: 325,360

#Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

#Land boundaries: 3,818 km total; Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km

#Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands)

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; occupied Cambodia on 25 December 1978; sporadic border clashes with China; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan; unresolved maritime boundary with Thailand; maritime boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; unresolved maritime boundary with Thailand

#Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

#Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

#Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil deposits, forests

#Land use: arable land 22%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and woodland 40%; other 35%; includes irrigated 5%

#Environment: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding

*People #Population: 67,568,033 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

#Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 67 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Vietnamese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Vietnamese

#Ethnic divisions: predominantly Vietnamese 85-90%; Chinese 3%; ethnic minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other mountain tribes

#Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic, Protestant

#Language: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

#Literacy: 88% (male 92%, female 84%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 32.7 million; agricultural 65%, industrial and service 35% (1990 est.)

#Organized labor: reportedly over 90% of wage and salary earners are members of the Vietnam Federation of Trade Unions (VFTU)

*Government #Long-form name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV

#Type: Communist state

#Capital: Hanoi

#Administrative divisions: 41 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thanh pho, singular and plural); An Giang, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Cao Bang, Cuu Long, Dak Lak, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai-Kon Tum, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam Ninh, Ha Noi*, Ha Son Binh, Ha Tuyen, Hau Giang, Hoang Lien Son, Ho Chi Minh*, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Long An, Minh Hai, Nghe Tinh, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Song Be, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien, Thuan Hai, Tien Giang, Vinh Phu, Vung Tau-Con Dao; note—diacritical marks are not included

#Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

#Constitution: 18 December 1980

#Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system

#National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

#Executive branch: chairman of the Council of State, Council of State, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

#Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi)

#Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Chairman of the Council of State Vo Chi CONG (since 18 June 1987);

Head of Government—Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier) Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: only party— Vietnam Communist Party (VCP), Nguyen Van LINH

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

National Assembly—last held 19 April 1987 (next to be held April 1992); results—VCP is the only party; seats—(496 total) VCP or VCP-approved 496

#Communists: nearly 2 million

#Member of: ACCT, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IIB, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: none

#Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

*Economy #Overview: This is a centrally planned, developing economy with extensive government ownership and control of productive facilities. The economy is primarily agricultural; the sector employs about 65% of the labor force and accounts for almost half of GNP. Rice is the staple crop; substantial amounts of maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes are also grown. The government permits sale of surplus grain on the open market. Most of the mineral resources are located in the north, including coal, which is an important export item. Oil was discovered off the southern coast in 1986 with production reaching 54,000 b/d in 1990 and expected to increase in the years ahead. Following the end of the war in 1975, heavy-handed government measures undermined efforts at an efficient merger of the agricultural resources of the south and the industrial resources of the north. The economy remains heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received assistance from Communist countries, Sweden, and UN agencies. Inflation, although down from recent triple-digit levels, is still a major weakness and is showing signs of accelerating upwards again. Per capita output is among the world's lowest. Since late 1986 the government has sponsored a broad reform program that seeks to turn more economic activity over to the private sector.

#GNP: $15.2 billion, per capita $230; real growth rate 2.4% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 65% (1990 est.)

#Unemployment rate: 33% (1990 est.)

#Budget: revenues $892 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $344 million (1990 est.)

#Exports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—agricultural and handicraft products, coal, minerals, crude petroleum, ores, seafood;

partners—USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

#Imports: $2.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities—petroleum products, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain;

partners—USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

#External debt: $16.8 billion (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989); accounts for 30% of GNP

#Electricity: 2,740,000 kW capacity; 7,500 million kWh produced, 110 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing

#Agriculture: accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up 50% of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas) and animal products other 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient in food staple rice; fish catch of 943,100 metric tons (1989 est.)

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $2.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $12.0 billion

#Currency: new dong (plural—new dong); 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

#Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1—7,530 (May 1991), 7,280 (December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990), 2,047 (1988), 225 (1987), 18 (1986), 12 (1985); note—1985-89 figures are end of year

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to service

#Highways: about 85,000 km total; 9,400 km bituminous, 48,700 km gravel or improved earth, 26,900 km unimproved earth

#Pipelines: 150 km, refined products

#Inland waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft

#Ports: Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City

#Merchant marine: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,596 GRT/539,174 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 69 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 8 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 bulk; note—Vietnam owns 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 106,759 DWT under the registry of Panama and Malta

#Civil air: controlled by military

#Airports: 100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones in Ho Chi Minh City (1984); stations—16 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 2,300,000 TV sets; 6,000,000 radio receivers; at least 2 satellite earth stations, including 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines and Naval Infantry), Air Force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,260,120; 10,377,105 fit for military service; 809,617 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: $NA, 19.4% of GNP (1986 est.) % @Virgin Islands (territory of the US) *Geography Total area: 352 km2; land area: 349 km2

#Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 188 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

#Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land

#Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf

#Land use: arable land 15%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures 26%; forest and woodland 6%; other 47%

#Environment: rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts, floods, earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources

#Note: important location 1,770 km southeast of Miami and 65 km east of Puerto Rico, along the Anegada Passage—a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in the Caribbean

*People #Population: 99,404 (July 1991), growth rate 0.7% (1991)

#Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Virgin Islander(s); adjective—Virgin Islander

#Ethnic divisions: West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%; black 80%, white 15%, other 5%; Hispanic origin 14%

#Religion: Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%

#Language: English (official), but Spanish and Creole are widely spoken

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: 45,500 (1988)

#Organized labor: 90% of the government labor force

*Government #Long-form name: Virgin Islands of the United States

#Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior

#Capital: Charlotte Amalie

#Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

#Independence: none (territory of the US)

#Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 serves as the constitution

#Legal system: based on US

#National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to US), 31 March (1917)

#Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor

#Legislative branch: unicameral Senate

#Judicial branch: US District Court handles civil matters over $50,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal cases; Territorial Court handles civil matters up to $50,000 small claims, juvenile, domestic, misdemeanors, and traffic cases

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989), represented by Governor Alexander A. FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE (since 5 January 1987)

#Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON; Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM), Virdin BROWN; Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS

#Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

#Elections:

Governor—last held NA 1986 (next to be held NA 1990); results—Alexander FARRELLY (Democratic Party) defeated Adelbert BRYAN (ICM);

Senate—last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(15 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives—last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results—the Virgin Islands elects one nonvoting representative

#Member of: ECLAC (associate), IOC

#Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

#Flag: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel

*Economy #Overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. The agricultural sector is small, most food being imported. International business and financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. The world's largest petroleum refinery is at Saint Croix.

#GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $9,000; real growth rate NA% (1985)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $470 million; expenditures $322 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)

#Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities—refined petroleum products;

partners—US, Puerto Rico

#Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities—crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials;

partners—US, Puerto Rico

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate 12%

#Electricity: 358,000 kW capacity; 532 million kWh produced, 5,360 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics

#Agriculture: truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum, Senepol cattle

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $34.5 million

#Currency: US currency is used

#Exchange rates: US currency is used

#Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

*Communications #Highways: 856 km total

#Ports: Saint Croix—Christiansted, Frederiksted; Saint Thomas—Long Bay, Crown Bay, Red Hook; Saint John—Cruz Bay

#Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m; international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix

#Telecommunications: 44,280 telephones; stations—4 AM, 6 FM, 3 TV; modern system using fiber-optic cable, submarine cable, microwave radio, and satellite facilities; 90,000 radios; 56,000 TVs

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US % @Wake Island (territory of the US) *Geography Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

#Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 19.3 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands

#Climate: tropical

#Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average elevation less than four meters

#Natural resources: none

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

#Environment: subject to occasional typhoons

#Note: strategic location 3,700 km west of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the Northern Mariana Islands; emergency landing location for transpacific flights

*People #Population: 195 (January 1990); no indigenous inhabitants; 302 temporary population

#Note: population peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during the Vietnam conflict

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force (under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June 1972

#Flag: the US flag is used

*Economy #Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.

#Electricity: supplied by US military

*Communications #Ports: none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore anchorages for large ships

#Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440 to 3,659 m

#Telecommunications: underwater cables to Guam and through Midway to Honolulu; AFRTS radio and television service provided by satellite; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV

#Note: formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only by US military and some commercial cargo planes

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US % @Wallis and Futuna (overseas territory of France) *Geography Total area: 274 km2; land area: 274 km2; includes Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island), Ile Alofi, and 20 islets

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 129 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October)

#Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills

#Natural resources: negligible

#Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 75%

#Environment: both island groups have fringing reefs

#Note: located 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

*People #Population: 16,590 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

#Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 71 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders; adjective—Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

#Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian

#Religion: largely Roman Catholic

#Language: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)

#Literacy: 50% (male 50%, female 51%) at all ages can read and write (1969)

#Labor force: NA

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands

#Type: overseas territory of France

#Capital: Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea)

#Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

#Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

#Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

#Legal system: French

#National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

#Executive branch: French president, high administrator; note—there are three traditional kings with limited powers

#Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly (Assemblee Territoriale)

#Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French law by the chief administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government—Chief Administrator Roger DUMEC (since 15 July 1988)

#Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR); Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour la Democratie Francaise (UDF); Lua kae tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche (MRG)

#Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

#Elections:

Territorial Assembly—last held 15 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(20 total) RPR 7, UPL 6, UDF and Lua kae tahi 7;

French Senate—last held NA September 1989 (next to be held by September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) RPR 1;

French National Assembly—last held 12 June 1988 (next to be held by September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) MRG 1

#Member of: FZ, SPC

#Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France, local interests are represented in the US by France

#Flag: the flag of France is used

*Economy #Overview: The economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from French Government subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia. Wallis and Futuna imports food, fuel, clothing, machinery, and transport equipment, but its exports are negligible, consisting of copra and handicrafts.

#GDP: $7.5 million, per capita $470; real growth rate NA% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $2.7 million; expenditures $2.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1983)

#Exports: negligible;

commodities—copra, handicrafts;

partners—NA

#Imports: $6.9 million (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities—foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment, fuel;

partners—France, Australia, New Zealand

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber

#Agriculture: dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of yams, taro, bananas, and herds of pigs and goats

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $118 million

#Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural—francs); 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

#Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1—93.28 (January 1991), 99.0 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note—linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc

#Fiscal year: NA

*Communications #Highways: 100 km on Ile Uvea, 16 km sealed; 20 km earth surface on Ile Futuna

#Inland waterways: none

#Ports: Mata-Utu, Leava

#Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: 225 telephones; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France % @West Bank Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, it is US policy that a distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the West Bank.

*Geography #Total area: 5,860 km2; land area: 5,640 km2; includes West Bank, East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's Land, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

#Land boundaries: 404 km total; Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km;

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

#Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

#Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in east

#Natural resources: negligible

#Land use: arable land 27%, permanent crops 0%, meadows and pastures 32%, forest and woodland 1%, other 40%

#Environment: highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers

#Note: landlocked; there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank and 14 Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

*People #Population: 1,086,081 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991); in addition, there are 90,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and 120,000 in East Jerusalem (1990 est.)

#Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 69 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: NA

#Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 88%, Jewish 12%

#Religion: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 80%, Jewish 12%, Christian and other 8%

#Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely understood

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: NA; excluding Israeli Jewish settlers—small industry, commerce, and business 29.8%, construction 24.2%, agriculture 22.4%, service and other 23.6% (1984)

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Note: The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the West Bank will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how the area is to be governed.

*Economy #Overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli military occupation and the effects of the Palestinian uprising. Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable financial resources have been discouraged by a lack of financial resources and Israeli policy. Capital investment has largely gone into residential housing, not into productive assets that could compete with Israeli industry. A major share of GNP is derived from remittances of workers employed in Israel and neighboring Gulf states but remittances from the Gulf dropped dramatically in the wake of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. Israeli reprisals against Palestinian unrest in the West Bank since 1987 have pushed unemployment up and lowered living standards. The Persian Gulf crisis of 1990-91 also dealt a blow to the economy. Many Palestinians returned from the Gulf, exacerbating unemployment. Export revenues have plunged because of the loss of export markets in Jordan and the Gulf.

#GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 15% (1988 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: 40% (1990 est.)

#Budget: revenues $47.4 million; expenditures $45.7 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY86)

#Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities—NA; partners—Jordan, Israel

#Imports: $410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities—NA; partners—Jordan, Israel

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: power supplied by Israel

#Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and industrial centers

#Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef, and dairy products

#Economic aid: none

#Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural—shekels) and Jordanian dinar (plural—dinars); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot and 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

#Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1—2.35 (May 1991), 2.0161 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788 (1985); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1—0.6670 (January 1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499 (1986), 0.3940 (1985)

#Fiscal year: previously 1 April-31 March; FY91 will be 1 April-31 December and starting 1 January 1992 the fiscal year will conform to the calendar year

*Communications #Highways: small indigenous road network, Israelis developing east-west axial highways

#Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded; stations—no AM, no FM, no TV

*Defense Forces #Branches: NA

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 257,740; NA fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @Western Sahara *Geography Total area: 266,000 km2; land area: 266,000 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

#Land boundaries: 2,046 km total; Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km

#Coastline: 1,110 km

#Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

#Disputes: claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is unresolved and guerrilla fighting continues in the area

#Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore currents produce fog and heavy dew

#Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

#Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

#Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and woodland 0%; other 81%

#Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely restricting visibility; sparse water and arable land

*People #Population: 196,737 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

#Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 23 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 177 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Saharan(s), Moroccan(s); adjective—Saharan, Moroccan

#Ethnic divisions: Arab and Berber

#Religion: Muslim

#Language: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: 12,000; 50% animal husbandry and subsistence farming

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government in exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR); territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continue sporadically.

#Capital: none

#Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

#Leaders: none

#Member of: none

#Diplomatic representation: none

*Economy #Overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and having little rainfall, has a per capita GDP of just a few hundred dollars. Fishing and phosphate mining are the principal industries and sources of income. Most of the food for the urban population must be imported. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan Government.

#GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

#Exports: $8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.);

commodities—phosphates 62%;

partners—Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

#Imports: $30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.);

commodities—fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs;

partners—Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 60,000 kW capacity; 79 million kWh produced, 425 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: phosphate, fishing, handicrafts

#Agriculture: limited largely to subsistence agriculture; some barley is grown in nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases; food imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the nomadic natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison forces

#Economic aid: NA

#Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural—dirhams); 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

#Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1—8.071 (January 1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104 (1986), 10.062 (1985)

#Fiscal year: NA

*Communications #Highways: 6,100 km total; 1,350 km surfaced, 4,750 km improved and unimproved earth roads and tracks

#Ports: El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla

#Airports: 16 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's system by radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations linked to Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

*Defense Forces #Branches: NA

#Manpower availability: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @Western Samoa *Geography Total area: 2,860 km2; land area: 2,850 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 403 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)

#Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior

#Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish

#Land use: arable land 19%; permanent crops 24%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 47%; other 10%

#Environment: subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism

#Note: located 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

*People #Population: 190,346 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)

#Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Western Samoan(s); adjective—Western Samoan

#Ethnic divisions: Samoan; Euronesians (persons of European and Polynesian blood) about 7%, Europeans 0.4%

#Religion: Christian 99.7% (about half of population associated with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

#Language: Samoan (Polynesian), English

#Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can read and write (1971)

#Labor force: 38,000; 22,000 employed in agriculture (1987 est.)

#Organized labor: Public Service Association (PSA)

*Government #Long-form name: Independent State of Western Samoa

#Type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

#Capital: Apia

#Administrative divisions: 11 districts; Aana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Faasaleleaga, Gagaemauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupaitea, Tuamasaga, Vaa-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

#Independence: 1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered by New Zealand)

#Constitution: 1 January 1962

#Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: National Day, 1 June

#Executive branch: monarch, Executive Council, prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963);

Head of Government—Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April 1988)

#Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), TOFILAU Eti, chairman; Samoan National Development Party (SNDP), VA'AI Kolone, chairman

#Suffrage: universal adult at age NA, but only matai (head of family) are able to run for the Legislative Assembly

#Elections:

Legislative Assembly—last held NA February 1991 (next to be held by February 1994); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(47 total) HRPP 30, SNDP 14, independent 3

#Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Fili (Felix) Tuaopepe WENDT; Chancery (temporary) at the Western Samoan Mission to the UN, 820 2nd Avenue, New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-6196;

US—the ambassador to New Zealand, Della Newman, is accredited to Western Samoa (mailing address is P.O. Box 3430, Apia); telephone (685) 21-631

#Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation

*Economy #Overview: Agriculture employs more than half of the labor force, contributes 50% to GDP, and furnishes 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends on emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports about five times export earnings. Tourism has become the most important growth industry, and construction of the first international hotel is under way.

#GDP: $115 million, per capita $620; real growth rate - 4.5% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17% (1990 est.)

#Unemployment rate: NA%; shortage of skilled labor

#Budget: revenues $70 million; expenditures $73 million, including capital expenditures of $41 million (1990)

#Exports: $9.4 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—coconut oil and cream 54%, taro 12%, copra 9%, cocoa 3%;

partners—NZ 28%, EC 23%, American Samoa 23%, Australia 11%, US 6% (1990)

#Imports: $87 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities—intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%;

partners—New Zealand 31%, Australia 20%, Japan 15%, Fiji 15%, US 5%, EC 4% (1987)

#External debt: $83 million (December 1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate - 4.3% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP

#Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

#Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; coconuts, fruit (including bananas, taro, yams)

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $18 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $291 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million

#Currency: tala (plural—tala); 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

#Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1—2.3170 (January 1991), 2.3095 (1990), 2.2686 (1989), 2.0790 (1988), 2.1204 (1987), 2.2351 (1986), 2.2437 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Highways: 2,042 km total; 375 km sealed; remainder mostly gravel, crushed stone, or earth

#Ports: Apia

#Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,930 GRT/34,135 DWT; includes 2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo

#Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: 7,500 telephones; 70,000 radios; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Department of Police and Prisons

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 49,119; NA fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @World *Geography Total area: 510,072,000 km2; 361,132,000 km2 (70.8%) is water and 148,940,000 km2 (29.2%) is land

#Comparative area: land area about 16 times the size of the US

#Land boundaries: 442,000 km

#Coastline: 359,000 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: generally 24 nm, but varies from 4 nm to 25 nm;

Continental shelf: generally 200 nm, but some are 200 meters in depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: most are 200 nm, but varies from 3 nm to 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm; only the Maldives varies from 35-310 nm;

Territorial sea: generally 12 nm, but varies from 3 nm to 50 nm;

note—32 nations and miscellaneous areas are landlocked and include Afghanistan, Andorra, Austria, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malawi, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino, Swaziland, Switzerland, Uganda, Vatican City, West Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe

#Disputes: major international land boundary disputes—Argentina-Uruguay, Bangladesh-India, Brazil-Paraguay, Brazil-Uruguay, Cambodia-Vietnam, Chad-Libya, China-India, China-USSR, Ecuador-Peru, Egypt-Sudan, El Salvador-Honduras, Ethiopia-Somalia, French Guiana-Suriname, Guyana-Suriname, Guyana-Venezuela, Israel-Jordan, Israel-Syria, North Korea-South Korea, Oman-UAE, Oman-Yemen, Qatar-UAE, Saudi Arabia-Yemen

#Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates

#Terrain: highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest depression is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth is the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters

#Natural resources: the oceans represent the last major frontier for the discovery and development of natural resources

#Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 24%; forest and woodland 31%; other 34%; includes irrigated 1.6%

#Environment: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions), overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife resources, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion

*People #Population: 5,419,643,132 (July 1991), growth rate 1.7% (1991)

#Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 65 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1991)

#Literacy: 74% (male 81%, female 67%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 2.2 billion (1991)

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Administrative divisions: 170 sovereign nations plus 72 dependent, other, and miscellaneous areas

#Legal system: varies among each of the entities; 162 are parties to the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court

#Diplomatic representation: there are 159 members of the UN

*Economy #Overview: In 1990 the world economy grew at an estimated 1.0%, considerably lower than the estimated 3.0% for 1989 and the 3.4% for 1988. The technologically advanced areas—North America, Japan, and Western Europe—together account for 67% of the gross world product (GWP) of $20.9 trillion; these developed areas grew in the aggregate at 2.3% in 1990. In contrast, output in the USSR and Eastern Europe fell an average of 5.2%; these countries account for 15% of GWP. Experience in the developing countries continued mixed, with the newly industrializing economies generally maintaining their rapid growth, and many others struggling with debt, rampant inflation, and inadequate investment. This third group contributed 18% of GWP and grew on average 2.3% in 1990; output in this group is probably understated because of lack of data and the method of calculation used. The year 1990 witnessed continued political and economic upheavals in the USSR and Eastern Europe, which are in between systems, lacking both the rough discipline of the command economy and the institutions of the market economy. As for prospects in the 1990s, the addition of nearly 100 million people a year to an already overcrowded globe will exacerbate the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine.

#GWP (gross world product): $20.9 trillion, per capita $3,930; real growth rate 1.0% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): developed countries 5%; developing countries 100%, with wide variations (1990 est.)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Exports: $3.33 trillion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services;

partners—in value, 74% of exports from industrial countries

#Imports: $3.45 trillion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities—the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services;

partners—in value, about 75% of imports by the industrial countries

#External debt: $1.0 trillion for less developed countries (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1990 est.)

#Electricity: 2,864,000,000 kW capacity; 11,450,000 million kWh produced, 2,150 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: chemicals, energy, machinery, electronics, metals, mining, textiles, food processing

#Agriculture: cereals (wheat, maize, rice), sugar, livestock products, tropical crops, fruit, vegetables, fish

#Economic aid: NA

*Communications #Ports: Mina al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

*Defense Forces #Branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of technology

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,412,502,000; NA fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $1.1 trillion, 5.3% of GWP (1990 est.) % @Yemen *Geography Total area: 527,970 km2; land area: 527,970 km2; includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)

#Comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

#Land boundaries: 1,746 km total; Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

#Coastline: 1,906 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: North—18 nm; South—24 nm;

Continental shelf: North—200 meters (depth); South—edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: North—no claim; South 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia; Administrative Line with Oman

#Climate: desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

#Terrain: narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

#Natural resources: crude oil, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west

#Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 30%; forest and woodland 7%; other 57%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: subject to sand and dust storms in summer; scarcity of natural freshwater resources; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

#Note: controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

*People #Population: 10,062,633 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)

#Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 121 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 51 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Yemeni(s); adjective—Yemeni

#Ethnic divisions: North—Arab 90%, Afro-Arab (mixed) 10%; South—almost all Arabs; a few Indians, Somalis, and Europeans

#Religion: North—Muslim 100% (Sunni and Shia); South—Sunni Muslim, some Christian and Hindu

#Language: Arabic

#Literacy: 38% (male 53%, female 26%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: North—NA number of workers with agriculture and herding 70%, and expatriate laborers 30% (est.); South—477,000 with agriculture 45.2%, services 21.2%, construction 13.4%, industry 10.6%, commerce and other 9.6% (1983)

#Organized labor: North—NA; South—348,200 and the General Confederation of Workers of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen had 35,000 members

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Yemen

#Type: republic

#Capital: Sanaa

#Administrative divisions: 17 governorates (muhafazat, singular—muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Marib, Sadah, Sana, Shabwah, Taizz

#Independence: Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May 1990 with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; previously North Yemen had become independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK); the union is to be solidified during a 30-month transition period, which coincides with the remainder of the five-year terms of both legislatures

#Constitution: 16 April 1991

#Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)

#Executive branch: five-member Presidential Council (president, vice president, two members from northern Yemen and one member from southern Yemen), prime minister

#Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives; note—northern Yemen's Consultative Assembly (Majlis Chura) and southern Yemen's Supreme People's Council (Majlis al-Shab al-Ala) will combine to form the basis for the new unicameral House of Representatives

#Judicial branch: North—State Security Court; South—Federal High Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen); Vice President Ali Salim al-BIDH (since 22 May 1990, secretary general of the Yemeni Socialist Party); Presidential Council Member Salim Salih MUHAMMED (southern Yemen); Presidential Council Member Kadi Abdul-Karim al-ARASHI (northern Yemen); Presidential Council Member Abdul-Aziz ABDUL-GHANI (northern Yemen); Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr al-ATTAS (since 22 May 1990, former president of South Yemen)

#Political parties and leaders: General People's Congress, Ali Abdallah SALIH; Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP; formerly South Yemen's ruling party—a coalition of National Front, Bath, and Communist Parties), Ali Salim al-BIDH

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

House of Representatives—last held NA (next to be held 26-27 May, 12 June, and 24 July 1991); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(301); number of seats by party NA; note—the 301 members of the new House of Representatives will come from North Yemen's Consultative Assembly (159 members), South Yemen's Supreme People's Council (111 members), and appointments by the New Presidential Council (31 members)

#Communists: small number in North, greater but unknown number in South

#Other political or pressure groups: conservative tribal groups, Muslim Brotherhood, leftist factions—pro-Iraqi Bathists, Nasirists, National Democratic Front (NDF)

#Member of: ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad al-AYNI; Chancery at Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 965-4760 or 4761; there is a Yemeni Consulate General in Detroit and a Consulate in San Francisco;

US—Ambassador Charles F. DUNBAR; Embassy at Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa (mailing address is P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa, Republic of Yemen or Sanaa—Department of State, Washington, D. C. 20521-6330); telephone [967] (2) 238-842 through 238-852

#Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

*Economy #Overview: Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political capital of a united Yemen, the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port facilities, is the economic and commercial capital. Future economic development depends heavily on Western-assisted development of promising oil resources. South Yemen's willingness to merge stemmed partly from the steady decline in Soviet economic support.

North—The low level of domestic industry and agriculture have made northern Yemen dependent on imports for virtually all of its essential needs. Large trade deficits have been made up for by remittances from Yemenis working abroad and foreign aid. Once self-sufficient in food production, northern Yemen has been a major importer. Land once used for export crops—cotton, fruit, and vegetables—has been turned over to growing qat, a mildly narcotic shrub chewed by Yemenis that has no significant export market. Oil export revenues started flowing in late 1987 and boosted 1988 earnings by about $800 million.

South—This has been one of the poorest Arab countries, with a per capita GNP of about $500. A shortage of natural resources, a widely dispersed population, and an arid climate have made economic development difficult. The economy has grown at an average annual rate of only 2-3% since the mid-1970s. The economy had been organized along socialist lines, dominated by the public sector. Economic growth has been constrained by a lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over production decisions, investment allocation, and import choices.

#GDP: $5.3 billion, per capita $545; real growth rate NA% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices):

North—16.9% (1988);

South—0% (1989)

#Unemployment rate:

North—13% (1986);

South—NA%

#Budget:

North—revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $590 million (1988 est.);

South—revenues and grants $435 million; expenditures $1.0 billion, including capital expenditure of $460 million (1988 est.)

#Exports:

North—$606 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables;

partners—FRG 29%, US 26%, Netherlands 12%;

South—$113.8 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—cotton, hides, skins, dried and salted fish;

partners—Japan, North Yemen, Italy

#Imports:

North—$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities—textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, and cement;

partners—Saudi Arabia 12%, France 6%, US 5%, Australia 5% (1985);

South—$553.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—grain, consumer goods, crude oil, machinery, chemicals;

partners—USSR, UK, Ethiopia

#External debt: $5.75 billion (December 1989 est.)

#Industrial production:

North—growth rate 2% in manufacturing (1988);

South—growth rate NA% in manufacturing

#Electricity: 670,000 kW capacity; 1,100 million kWh produced, 110 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; fishing; small aluminum products factory; cement

#Agriculture:

North—accounted for 26% of GDP and 70% of labor force; farm products—grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, goat meat; not self-sufficient in grain;

South—accounted for 17% of GNP and 45% of labor force; products—grain, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, fish, livestock; fish and honey major exports; most food imported

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $1.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion

#Currency:

North Yemeni riyal (plural—riyals); 1 North Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils;

South Yemeni dinar (plural—dinars); 1 South Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils

#Exchange rates:

North Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1—9.7600 (January 1990), 9.7600 (1989), 9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987), 9.6392 (1986), 7.3633 (1985);

South Yemeni dinars (YD) per US$1—0.3454 (fixed rate)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Highways: 15,500 km; 4,000 km bituminous, 11,500 km natural surface (est.)

#Pipelines: crude oil, 424 km; refined products, 32 km

#Ports: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Khalf, Mocha, Nishtun, Ras Kathib, Salif

#Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

#Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 49 total, 40 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: the North has a poor but improving system with new radio relay and cable networks, while the South has a small system of open-wire, radio relay, multiconductor cable, and radio communications stations; 65,000 telephones (est.); stations—4 AM, no FM, 22 TV; satellite earth stations—2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 2 ARABSAT; radio relay to Saudi Arabia, and Djibouti

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,906,887; 1,084,122 fit for military service; 134,158 reach military age (14) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.06 billion, 20% of GDP (1990) % @Yugoslavia *Geography Total area: 255,800 km2; land area: 255,400 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Wyoming

#Land boundaries: 2,961 km total; Albania 486 km, Austria 311 km, Bulgaria 539 km, Greece 246 km, Hungary 631 km, Italy 202 km, Romania 546 km

#Coastline: 3,935 km (including 2,414 km offshore islands)

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: Kosovo question with Albania; Macedonia question with Bulgaria and Greece

#Climate: temperate; hot, relatively dry summers with mild, rainy winters along coast; warm summer with cold winters inland

#Terrain: mostly mountains with large areas of karst topography; plain in north

#Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, timber, iron ore, antimony, chromium, lead, zinc, asbestos, mercury, crude oil, natural gas, nickel, uranium

#Land use: arable land 28%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and woodland 36%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%

#Environment: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

#Note: controls the most important land routes from central and western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish straits

*People #Population: 23,976,040 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

#Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Yugoslav(s); adjective—Yugoslav

#Ethnic divisions: Serb 36.3%, Croat 19.7%, Muslim 8.9%, Slovene 7.8%, Albanian 7.7%, Macedonian 5.9%, Yugoslav 5.4%, Montenegrin 2.5%, Hungarian 1.9%, other 3.9% (1981 census)

#Religion: Eastern Orthodox 50%, Roman Catholic 30%, Muslim 9%, Protestant 1%, other 10%

#Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official); Albanian, Hungarian

#Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 84%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)

#Labor force: 9,600,000; agriculture 22%, mining and manufacturing 27%; about 5% of labor force are guest workers in Western Europe (1986)

#Organized labor: badly fractured labor movement, with no unified national labor federation; several republics have competing union federations within their borders

*Government #Long-form name: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; abbreviated SFRY

#Type: federal republic in form; four of six republics have non-Communist governments

#Capital: Belgrade

#Administrative divisions: 6 republics (republike, singular—republika); Bosna i Hercegovina (Bosnia and Hercegovina), Crna Gora (Montenegro), Hrvatska (Croatia), Makedonija (Macedonia), Slovenija (Slovenia), Srbija (Serbia); note—there are two nominally autonomous provinces (autonomne pokajine, singular—autonomna pokajina) within Srbija—Kosovo and Vojvodina

#Independence: 1 December 1918; independent monarchy established from the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, parts of the Turkish Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; SFRY proclaimed 29 November 1945

#Constitution: 21 February 1974, amendments to the Constitution have passed the Federal Assembly and are being considered at the republic level

#Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; a new legal code is being formulated

#National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 29 November (1945)

#Executive branch: president of the Presidency, vice president of the Presidency, Presidency, president of the Federal Executive Council, two vice presidents of the Federal Executive Council, Federal Executive Council

#Legislative branch: bicameral Federal (Skupstina) consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Republics and Provinces (Vece Republika i Pokrajina) and a lower chamber or Federal Chamber

#Judicial branch: Federal Court (Savezna Sud), Constitutional Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President of the Presidency Stjepan MESIC from Hrvatska (Croatia), one-year term expires 15 May 1992; Vice President of the Presidency Branko KOSTIC from Crna Gora (Montenegro), one-year term expires 15 May 1992; note—the offices of president and vice president rotate annually among members of the Presidency with the current vice president assuming the presidency and a new vice president selected from area which has gone the longest without filling the position (the current sequence is Hrvatska, Crna Gora, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Makedonija, Bosna i Hercegovina, Slovenija, and Srbija);

Head of Government—President of the Federal Executive Council Ante MARKOVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Aleksandar MITROVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Zivko PREGL (since 16 March 1989)

#Political parties and leaders: there are over 100 political parties operating, some only in one republic and others country-wide

#Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18

#Elections: direct federal elections may never be held because of inter-republic differences over Yugoslavia's future structure

#Other political or pressure groups: there are no national political groups; all significant groups are found within the republics

#Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS, CCC, CERN (observer), CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OECD (special), PCA, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dzevad MUJEZINOVIC; Chancery at 2410 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-6566; there are Yugoslav Consulates General in Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco;

US—Ambassador Warren ZIMMERMAN; mailing address Box 5070, Belgrade or APO New York 09213-5070; telephone [38] (11) 645-655; there is a US Consulate General in Zagreb

#Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red with a large red five-pointed star edged in yellow superimposed in the center over all three bands

*Economy #Overview: For 20 years Communist Yugoslavia had been trying to replace the Stalinist command economy with a decentralized semimarket system that features worker self-management councils in all large plants. This hybrid system neared collapse in late 1989 when inflation soared. The government applied shock therapy in 1990 under an IMF standby program that provides tight control over monetary expansion, a freeze on wages, the pegging of the dinar to the deutsche mark, and a partial price freeze on energy, transportation, and communal services. This program brought hyperinflation to a halt and encouraged a rise in foreign investment. Since June 1990, however, inflation has rebounded and threatens to rise further in 1991. Estimated annual inflation for 1990 is 164%. Other huge problems remain: rising unemployment, the low quality of industrial output, and striking differences in income between the poorer southern regions and the comparatively well-off northern areas. Even so, political issues far outweigh economic problems in importance.

#GNP: $120.1 billion, per capita $5,040; real growth rate - 6.3% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 164% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 16% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $6.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

#Exports: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—raw materials and semimanufactures 50%, consumer goods 31%, capital goods and equipment 19%;

partners—EC 53%, USSR and Eastern Europe 27%, less developed countries 12.9%, US 4.8%, other 2.3%

#Imports: $17.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities—raw materials and semimanufactures 79%, capital goods and equipment 15%, consumer goods 6%;

partners—EC 53.5%, USSR and Eastern Europe 22.8%, less developed countries 15.4%, US 4.6%, other 3.7%

#External debt: $18.0 billion, medium and long term (December 1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate - 10.9% (1990)

#Electricity: 21,000,000 kW capacity; 83,400 million kWh produced, 3,500 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, petroleum, chemicals, textiles, wood processing, food processing, pulp and paper, motor vehicles, building materials

#Agriculture: diversified, with many small private holdings and large combines; main crops—corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, sunflowers; occasionally a net exporter of corn, tobacco, foodstuffs, live animals

#Economic aid: donor—about $3.5 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries (1966-89)

#Currency: Yugoslav dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Yugoslav dinar (YD) = 100 paras; note—on 1 January 1990, Yugoslavia began issuing a new currency with 1 new dinar equal to 10,000 YD

#Exchange rates: Yugoslav dinars (YD) per US$1—13.605 (January 1991), 11.318 (1990), 2.876 (1989), 0.252 (1988), 0.074 (1987), 0.038 (1986), 0.027 (1985); note—as of January 1991 the new dinar is linked to the German deutsche mark at the rate of 9 new dinars per 1 deustche mark

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 9,349 km total; (all 1.435-meter standard gauge) including 931 km double track, 3,760 km electrified (1988)

#Highways: 122,062 km total; 73,527 km asphalt, concrete, stone block; 33,663 km macadam, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 14,872 km earth (1988)

#Inland waterways: 2,600 km (1982)

#Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,900 km natural gas; 150 km refined products

#Ports: Rijeka, Split, Koper, Bar, Ploce; inland port is Belgrade

#Merchant marine: 277 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,780,095 GRT/6,031,359 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 133 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 19 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction large-load carrier, 9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 75 bulk, 11 combination bulk; note—Yugoslavia owns 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,400 GRT/429,613 DWT under the registry of Liberia, Panama, and Cyprus

#Civil air: 57 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 179 total, 179 usable; 54 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: 1.6 million telephones (97% automatic); 7,500 public telephone booths; stations—85 AM, 69 FM, 103 TV; 4.65 million radios; 4.1 million TVs (1990); 92% of country receives No. 1 television program (1990)

*Defense Forces #Branches: Yugoslav People's Army—Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial Defense Force, Civil Defense

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,176,693; 5,001,024 fit for military service; 189,886 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 70.85 billion dinars, 4-6% of GDP (1991 est.); note—conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results % @Zaire *Geography Total area: 2,345,410 km2; land area: 2,267,600 km2

#Comparative area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of US

#Land boundaries: 10,271 km total; Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

#Coastline: 37 km

#Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

#Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator—wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator—wet season November to March, dry season April to October

#Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

#Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, crude oil, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential

#Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and woodland 78%; other 15%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: dense tropical rainforest in central river basin and eastern highlands; periodic droughts in south

#Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean

*People #Population: 37,832,407 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)

#Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 99 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Zairian(s); adjective—Zairian

#Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest tribes—Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

#Religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

#Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba

#Literacy: 72% (male 84%, female 61%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 15,000,000; agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services 12%; wage earners 13% (1981); population of working age 51% (1985)

#Organized labor: National Union of Zairian Workers (UNTZA) was the only officially recognized trade union until April 1990; other unions are now in process of seeking official recognition

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Zaire

#Type: republic with a strong presidential system

#Capital: Kinshasa

#Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular—region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Shaba, Sud-Kivu

#Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium; formerly Belgian Congo, then Congo/Leopoldville, then Congo/Kinshasa)

#Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978; amended 1990; new constitution to be promulgated in 1991

#Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24 November (1965)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (Conseil Legislatif)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (since 24 November 1965);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Bernadin MUNGUL DIAKA (since 23 October 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January 1991—Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR); other parties include Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba; Democratic Social Christian Party (PDSC), Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans (UFERI); and Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (MNC-L)

#Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 29 July 1984 (next to be held before December 1991); results—President MOBUTU was reelected without opposition;

Legislative Council—last held 6 September 1987 (next to be held in 1991, probably on a multiparty basis); results—MPR was the only party; seats—(210 total) MPR 210; note—MPR still holds majority of seats but some deputies have joined other parties

#Communists: no Communist party

#Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, CIPEC, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador TATANENE Manata; Chancery at 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-7690 or 7691;

US—Ambassador Melissa F. WELLS; Embassy at 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa (mailing address is APO New York 09662); telephone [243] (12) 21532; there is a US Consulate General in Lubumbashi

#Flag: light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away from the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Economy #Overview: In 1990, in spite of large mineral resources and one of the most developed and diversified economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, Zaire had a GDP per capita of only about $200, one of the lowest on the continent. The country's chronic economic problems worsened in 1990, with copper production down 20% to a 20-year low, inflation near 250% compared with 100% in 1987-89, and IMF and most World Bank support suspended until the institution of agreed-on changes. Agriculture, a key sector of the economy, employs 75% of the population but generates under 25% of GDP. The main potential for economic development has been the extractive industries. Mining and mineral processing account for about one-third of GDP and two-thirds of total export earnings. Zaire is the world's largest producer of diamonds.

#GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $180; real growth rate - 2% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 242% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $685 million; expenditures $1.1 billion, does not include capital expenditures mostly financed by donors (1990)

#Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—copper 37%, coffee 24%, diamonds 12%, cobalt, crude oil;

partners—US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa

#Imports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels;

partners—South Africa, US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, Japan, UK

#External debt: $7.9 billion (December 1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate - 3.1%; accounts for 30% of GDP (1988)

#Electricity: 2,575,000 kW capacity; 5,550 million kWh produced, 150 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement, diamonds

#Agriculture: cash crops—coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food crops—cassava, bananas, root crops, corn

#Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.1 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $6.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $263 million

#Currency: zaire (plural—zaire); 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

#Exchange rates: zaire (Z) per US$1—2,113.55 (January 1991), 718.58 (1990), 381.445 (1989), 187.070 (1988), 112.403 (1987), 59.625 (1986), 49.873 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter gauge

#Highways: 146,500 km total; 2,550 km bituminous, 46,450 km gravel and improved earth; remainder unimproved earth

#Inland waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes

#Pipelines: refined products 390 km

#Ports: Matadi, Boma, Banana

#Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,802 GRT/60,496 DWT; includes 1 passenger cargo, 3 cargo

#Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 308 total, 255 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 71 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: barely adequate wire and radio relay service; 31,200 telephones; stations—10 AM, 4 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 14 domestic

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie, paramilitary Civil Guard

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 8,240,412; 4,192,991 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $49 million, 0.8% of GDP (1988) % @Zambia *Geography Total area: 752,610 km2; land area: 740,720 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

#Land boundaries: 5,664 km total; Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

#Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

#Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

#Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower potential

#Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 47%; forest and woodland 27%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

#Note: landlocked

*People #Population: 8,445,724 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)

#Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 79 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 58 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Zambian(s); adjective—Zambian

#Ethnic divisions: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

#Religion: Christian 50-75%, Muslim and Hindu, remainder indigenous beliefs 1%

#Language: English (official); about 70 indigenous languages

#Literacy: 73% (male 81%, female 65%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 2,455,000; 85% agriculture; 6% mining, manufacturing, and construction; 9% transport and services

#Organized labor: about 238,000 wage earners are unionized

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Zambia

#Type: multiparty system; on 17 December 1990, President Kenneth KAUNDA signed into law the constitutional amendment that officially reintroduced the multiparty system in Zambia and ending 17 years of one-party rule

#Capital: Lusaka

#Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

#Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK; formerly Northern Rhodesia)

#Constitution: 25 August 1973

#Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Dr. Kenneth David KAUNDA (since 24 October 1964);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Gen. Malimba MASHEKE (since 15 March 1989)

#Political parties and leaders: United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth KAUNDA; Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Frederick CHILUBA; National Democratic Alliance (NADA), leader NA; Democratic Party, leader NA; note—the first Extraordinary Congress of UNIP began on 6 August 1991

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held mid-1991); results—President Kenneth KAUNDA was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held mid-1991); results—UNIP was the only party; seats—(136 total, 125 elected) UNIP 125

#Communists: no Communist party

#Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul J. F. LUSAKA; Chancery at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9717 through 9721;

US—Ambassador Gordon L. STREET; Embassy at corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka (mailing address is P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka); telephone [2601] 228-595, 228-596, 228-598, 228-601, 228-602, 228-603, 251-419

#Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

*Economy #Overview: The economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a sustained drop in copper production and ineffective economic policies. In 1990 real GDP stood only slightly higher than that of 10 years before, while an annual population growth of more than 3% has brought a decline in per capita GDP of 25% during the same period. A high inflation rate has also added to Zambia's economic woes in recent years.

#GDP: $4.7 billion, per capita $580; real growth rate - 2% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)

#Exports: $1.1 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco;

partners—EC, Japan, South Africa, US

#Imports: $1.1 million (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures;

partners—EC, Japan, South Africa, US

#External debt: $7.2 billion (December 1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate 2.9% (1990); accounts for one-third of GDP

#Electricity: 1,900,000 kW capacity; 8,245 million kWh produced, 1,050 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: copper mining and processing, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer

#Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops—corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs; marginally self-sufficient in corn

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $484 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $4.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $533 million

#Currency: Zambian kwacha (plural—kwacha); 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

#Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1—43.2900 (January 1991), 28.9855 (1990), 12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987), 7.3046 (1986), 2.7137 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track

#Highways: 36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth

#Inland waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika

#Pipelines: 1,724 km crude oil

#Ports: Mpulungu (lake port)

#Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 121 total, 106 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; 71,700 telephones; stations—11 AM, 3 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Air Force, Police, paramilitary

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,755,585; 920,878 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @Zimbabwe *Geography Total area: 390,580 km2; land area: 386,670 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Montana

#Land boundaries: 3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

#Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

#Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east

#Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

#Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and woodland 62%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution

#Note: landlocked

*People #Population: 10,720,459 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)

#Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Zimbabwean(s); adjective—Zimbabwean

#Ethnic divisions: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%); white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%

#Religion: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, a few Muslim

#Language: English (official); Shona, Sindebele

#Literacy: 67% (male 74%, female 60%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 3,100,000; agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining, manufacturing, construction 10% (1987)

#Organized labor: 17% of wage and salary earners have union membership

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Zimbabwe

#Type: parliamentary democracy

#Capital: Harare

#Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

#Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)

#Constitution: 21 December 1979

#Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

#National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

#Executive branch: executive president, 2 vice presidents, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

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