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The 1991 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency.
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#Organized labor: 80% of labor force (1990 est.)

*Government #Long-form name: Kingdom of Sweden

#Type: constitutional monarchy

#Capital: Stockholm

#Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

#Independence: 6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established

#Constitution: 1 January 1975

#Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

#National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

#Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Riksdag)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

#Leaders:

Chief of State—King CARL XVI Gustaf (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July 1977);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Carl BILDT (since 3 October 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: ruling four-party coalition consists of the Moderate Party (conservative), Carl BILDT; Liberal People's Party, Bengt WESTERBERG; Center Party, Olof JOHANSSON; and the Christian Democratic Party, Alf SVENSSON; Social Democratic Party, Ingvar CARLSSON; New Democracy Party, Count Ian WACHMEISTER; Left Party (VP; Communist), Lars WERNER; Swedish Communist Party (SKP), Rune PETTERSSON; Communist Workers' Party, Rolf HAGEL; Green Party, no formal leader

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

Riksdag—last held 15 September 1991 (next to be held September 1994); results—Social Democratic 37.6%, Moderate (conservative) 21.9%, Liberal People's Party 9.1%, Center Party 8.5%, Christian Democrats 7.1%, New Democracy 6.7%, Left Party (Communist) 4.5%, Green Party 3.4%, other 1.2%; seats—(349 total) Social Democratic 138, Moderate (conservative) 80, Liberal People's Party 33, Center Party 31, Christian Democrats 26, New Democracy 25, Left Party (Communist) 16; note: the Green Party leaves the Riksdag because it received less than the required 4% of the vote

#Communists: VP and SKP; VP, formerly the Left Party-Communists, is reported to have roughly 17,800 members and attracted 5.8% of the vote in the 1988 election; VP dropped the Communist label in 1990, but maintains a Marxist ideology

#Member of: AfDB, AG (observer) AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-6, G-8, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 944-5600; there are Swedish Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and New York;

US—Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm; telephone [46] (8) 783-5300

#Flag: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

*Economy #Overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has essentially full employment, a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. For some observers, the Swedish model has succeeded in making economic efficiency and social egalitarianism complementary, rather than competitive, goals. Others argue that the Swedish model is on the verge of collapsing by pointing to the serious economic problems Sweden faces in 1991: high inflation and absenteeism, growing unemployment and deficits, and declining international competitiveness. In 1990, to improve the economy, the government approved a mandate for Sweden to seek EC membership and an austerity and privatization package and implemented a major tax reform. These reforms may succeed in turning the economy around in 1992.

#GDP: $137.8 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth rate 0.3% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.9% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $60.1 billion; expenditures $56.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

#Exports: $57.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products;

partners—EC 54.4%, (FRG 14.2%, UK 10.1%, Denmark 6.6%), US 8.6%, Norway 8.2%

#Imports: $54.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing;

partners—EC 55.3%, US 8.4%

#External debt: $14.1 billion (December 1990)

#Industrial production: growth rate - 2.0% (1990)

#Electricity: 39,716,000 kW capacity; 142,000 million kWh produced, 16,700 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

#Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops—grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets

#Economic aid: donor—ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.3 billion

#Currency: Swedish krona (plural—kronor); 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 ore

#Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1—5.6402 (January 1991), 5.9188 (1990), 6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987), 7.1236 (1986), 8.6039 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

*Communications #Railroads: 12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)—10,819 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately owned railways—511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified); 371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)

#Highways: 97,400 km (51,899 km paved, 20,659 km gravel, 24,842 km unimproved earth)

#Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

#Pipelines: 84 km natural gas

#Ports: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo, Stockholm; numerous secondary and minor ports

#Merchant marine: 182 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,226,923 GRT/2,879,057 DWT; includes 9 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 45 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 28 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 27 chemical tanker, 6 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 8 combination ore/oil, 12 bulk, 1 combination bulk

#Civil air: 115 major transports

#Airports: 256 total, 254 usable; 137 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 92 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international facilities; 8,200,000 telephones; stations—4 AM, 56 (321 relays) FM, 111 (925 relays) TV; 5 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

*Defense Forces #Branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Royal Swedish Air Force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,136,227; 1,865,645 fit for military service; 55,198 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: $4.9 billion, 2.5% of GDP (FY90) % @Switzerland *Geography Total area: 41,290 km2; land area: 39,770 km2

#Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey

#Land boundaries: 1,852 km total; Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

#Coastline: none—landlocked

#Maritime claims: none—landlocked

#Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

#Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

#Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

#Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 40%; forest and woodland 26%; other 23%; includes irrigated 1%

#Environment: dominated by Alps

#Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe

*People #Population: 6,783,961 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

#Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 83 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Swiss (sing. & pl.); adjective—Swiss

#Ethnic divisions: total population—German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%; Swiss nationals—German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

#Religion: Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980)

#Language: total population—German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other 4%; Swiss nationals—German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

#Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)

#Labor force: 3,310,000; 904,095 foreign workers, mostly Italian; services 50%, industry and crafts 33%, government 10%, agriculture and forestry 6%, other 1% (1989)

#Organized labor: 20% of labor force

*Government #Long-form name: Swiss Confederation

#Type: federal republic

#Capital: Bern

#Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular—canton in French; cantoni, singular—cantone in Italian; kantone, singular—kanton in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich

#Independence: 1 August 1291

#Constitution: 29 May 1874

#Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

#National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291)

#Executive branch: president, vice president, Federal Council (German—Bundesrat, French—Conseil Federal, Italian—Consiglio Federale)

#Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (German—Bundesversammlung, French—Assemblee Federale, Italian—Assemblea Federale) consists of an upper council or Council of States (German—Standerat, French—Conseil des Etats, Italian—Consiglio degli Stati) and a lower council or National Council (German—Nationalrat, French—Conseil National, Italian—Consiglio Nazionale)

#Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government—President Flavio COTTI (1991 calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice President Rene FELBER (term runs concurrently with that of president)

#Political parties and leaders: Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno HUNZIKER, president; Social Democratic Party (SPS), Helmut HUBACHER, chairman; Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP), Eva SEGMULLER-WEBER, chairman; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans UHLMANN, president; Green Party (GPS), Peter SCHMID, president; Automobile Party (AP), DREYER; Alliance of Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz JAEGER, president; Swiss Democratic Party (SD), NA; Evangelical People's Party (EVP), Max DUNKI, president; Workers' Party (PdA; Communist), Jean SPIELMANN, general secretary; Ticino League, leader NA Liberal Party (LPS), Gilbert COUTAU, president; National Action Party (NA), Rudolph KELLER, chairman; Republican Party (RP), Franz BAUMGARTNER, president; Progressive Organizations of Switzerland (POCH), Georg DEGEN, secretary; Unitary Socialist Party (PSU), Dario ROBBIANI, president

#Suffrage: universal at age 20

#Elections:

Council of States—last held throughout 1991 (next to be held 1995; results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(46 total) FDP 15, CVP 14, SVP 4, LPS 3, LDU 1; note—9 seats require run-off elections, to be held in November1991

National Council—last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held October 1995); results—FDP %, SPS %, CVP %, SVP %, GPS %, LPS %, AP %, LDU %,SD %, EVP %, Workers Party %, Ticino League 23%, other %; seats—(200 total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP 25, GPS 14, LPS 10, AP 8, LDU 6, SD 5, EVP 3, Workers Party 2, Ticino League 2, other 2

#Communists: 4,500 members (est.)

#Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IEA, IFAD, ILO, IMF (observer), IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edouard BRUNNER; Chancery at 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-7900; there are Swiss Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco;

US—Ambassador Joseph B. GILDENHORN; Embassy at Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern; telephone [41] (31) 437-011; there is a Branch Office of the Embassy in Geneva and a Consulate General in Zurich

#Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag

*Economy #Overview: Switzerland's economic success is matched in few, if any, other nations. Per capita output, general living standards, education and science, health care, and diet are unsurpassed in Europe. Inflation remains low because of sound government policy and harmonious labor-management relations. Unemployment is negligible, a marked contrast to the larger economies of Western Europe. This economic stability helps promote the important banking and tourist sectors. Since World War II, Switzerland's economy has adjusted smoothly to the great changes in output and trade patterns in Europe and presumably can adjust to the challenges of the 1990s, in particular, the further economic integration of Western Europe and the amazingly rapid changes in East European political/economic prospects.

#GDP: $126 billion, per capita $18,700; real growth rate 2.6% (1990)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (1990)

#Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $24.0 billion; expenditures $23.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

#Exports: $63.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities—machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles and clothing;

partners—Western Europe 64% (EC 56%, other 8%), US 9%, Japan 4%

#Imports: $70.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities—agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles, construction materials;

partners—Western Europe 78% (EC 71%, other 7%), US 6%

#External debt: $NA

#Industrial production: growth rate 2.1% (1990)

#Electricity: 17,710,000 kW capacity; 59,070 million kWh produced, 8,930 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments

#Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient; food shortages—fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat

#Economic aid: donor—ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5 billion

#Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural—francs, franken, or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi

#Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1—1.2724 (January 1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 5,174 km total; 2,971 km are government owned and 2,203 km are nongovernment owned; the government network consists of 2,897 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow gauge track; 1,432 km double track, 99% electrified; the nongovernment network consists of 710 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1,418 km 1.000-meter gauge, and 75 km 0.790-meter gauge track, 100% electrified

#Highways: 62,145 km total (all paved), of which 18,620 km are canton and 1,057 km are national highways (740 km autobahn); 42,468 km are communal roads

#Pipelines: 314 km crude oil; 1,506 km natural gas

#Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

#Ports: Basel (river port)

#Merchant marine: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 258,678 GRT/441,555 DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 chemical tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 7 bulk

#Civil air: 89 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 67 total, 65 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services; 5,890,000 telephones; stations—6 AM, 36 (400 relays) FM, 145 (1,250 relays) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Air Force, Frontier Guards, Fortification Guards

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,802,005; 1,549,347 fit for military service; 42,619 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $4.6 billion, 2% of GDP (1990) % @Syria *Geography Total area: 185,180 km2; land area: 184,050 km2 (including 1,295 km2 of Israeli-occupied territory)

#Comparative area: slightly larger than North Dakota

#Land boundaries: 2,253 km total; Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

#Coastline: 193 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm beyond territorial sea limit;

Territorial sea: 35 nm

#Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with Iraq over Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

#Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast

#Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

#Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

#Land use: arable land 28%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 46%; forest and woodland 3%; other 20%; includes irrigated 3%

#Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

#Note: there are 38 Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

*People #Population: 12,965,996 (July 1991), growth rate 3.8% (1991); in addition, there are at least 12,000 Druze and 13,000 Jewish settlers in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (1990 est.)

#Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 71 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Syrian(s); adjective—Syrian

#Ethnic divisions: Arab 90.3%; Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

#Religion: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, tiny Jewish communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo

#Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian; French widely understood

#Literacy: 64% (male 78%, female 51%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 2,400,000; miscellaneous and government services 36%, agriculture 32%, industry and construction 32%; majority unskilled; shortage of skilled labor (1984)

#Organized labor: 5% of labor force

*Government #Long-form name: Syrian Arab Republic

#Type: republic; under leftwing military regime since March 1963

#Capital: Damascus

#Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular—muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda, Dara, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus

#Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration); formerly United Arab Republic

#Constitution: 13 March 1973

#Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

#Executive branch: president, three vice presidents, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council (Majlis al-Chaab)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council, Court of Cassation, State Security Courts

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, Rifat al-ASAD, and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Mahmud QADDUR (since NA May 1985)

#Political parties and leaders: ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Bath) Party; the Progressive National Front is dominated by Bathists but includes independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Syrian Communist Party (SCP), Arab Socialist Unionist Movement, and Democratic Socialist Union Party

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 10-11 February 1985 (next to be held February 1992); results—President Hafiz al-ASAD was reelected without opposition;

People's Council—last held 22-23 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results—Bath 53.6%, ASU 3.2%, SCP 3.2%, Arab Socialist Unionist Movement 2.8%, ASP 2%, Democratic Socialist Union Party 1.6%, independents 33.6%; seats—(250 total) Bath 134, ASU 8, SCP 8, Arab Socialist Unionist Movement 7, ASP 5, Democratic Socialist Union Party 4, independents 84; the People's Council was expanded to 250 seats total prior to the May 1990 election

#Communists: mostly sympathizers, numbering about 5,000

#Other political or pressure groups: non-Bath parties have little effective political influence; Communist party ineffective; greatest threat to Asad regime lies in factionalism in the military; conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

#Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Walid MOUALEM; Chancery at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6313;

US—Ambassador Edward P. DJEREJIAN; Embassy at Abu Rumaneh, Al Mansur Street No.2, Damascus (mailing address is P. O. Box 29, Damascus); telephone [963] (11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315, 714108, 337178, 333232, 334352

#Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen which has a plain white band and of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

*Economy #Overview: Syria's rigidly structured Bathist economy turned out slightly more goods in 1990 than in 1983, when the population was 20% smaller. Economic difficulties are attributable, in part, to severe drought in several recent years, costly but unsuccessful attempts to match Israel's military strength, a falloff in Arab aid, and insufficient foreign exchange earnings to buy needed inputs for industry and agriculture. Socialist policy, embodied in a thicket of bureaucratic regulations, in many instances has driven away or pushed underground the mercantile and entrepreneurial spirit for which Syrian businessmen have long been famous. Two bright spots: a sizable number of villagers have benefited from land redistribution, electrification, and other rural development programs; and a recent find of light crude oil has enabled Syria to cut oil imports. A long-term concern is the additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by Turkey when its vast dam and irrigation projects are completed toward the end of the 1990s. Output in 1990 rebounded from the very bad year of 1989, as agricultural production and oil revenues increased substantially.

#GDP: $20.0 billion, per capita $1,600; real growth rate 12% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1990 est.)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $4.8 billion; expenditures $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (1990 est.)

#Exports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—petroleum 40%, textiles 30%, farm products 13%, phosphates (1989);

partners—USSR and Eastern Europe 42%, EC 31%, Arab countries 17%, US/Canada 2% (1989)

#Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—foodstuffs and beverages 21%, metal and metal products 16%, machinery 14%, textiles, petroleum (1989);

partners—EC 42%, USSR and Eastern Europe 13%, other Europe 13%, US/Canada 8%, Arab countries 6% (1989)

#External debt: $5.2 billion in hard currency (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 17% (1990 est.); accounts for 19% of GDP

#Electricity: 2,867,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced, 500 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, petroleum

#Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all major crops (wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown mainly on rainfed land causing wide swings in production; animal products—beef, lamb, eggs, poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in grain or livestock products

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $538 million; Western (non-US) ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.3 billion

#Currency: Syrian pound (plural—pounds); 1 Syrian pound (5S) = 100 piasters

#Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (5S) per US$1—11.2250 (fixed rate since 1987), 3.9250 (fixed rate 1976-87)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 2,241 km total; 1,930 km standard gauge, 311 km 1.050-meter narrow gauge; note—the Tartus-Latakia line is nearly complete

#Highways: 27,000 km total; 21,000 km paved, 3,000 km gravel or crushed stone, 3,000 km improved earth

#Inland waterways: 672 km; of little economic importance

#Pipelines: 1,304 km crude oil; 515 km refined products

#Ports: Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas

#Merchant marine: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 61,951 GRT/86,552 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 bulk

#Civil air: 35 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 99 total, 96 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement; 512,600 telephones; stations—9 AM, 1 FM, 40 TV; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station, with 1 Intersputnik station under construction; 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon (inactive)

*Defense Forces #Branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Air Defense Forces, Police and Security Force

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,825,214; 1,584,887 fit for military service; 149,105 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.6 billion, 10.9% of GDP (1988 est.) % @Tanzania *Geography Total area: 945,090 km2; land area: 886,040 km2; includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

#Comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California

#Land boundaries: 3,402 km total; Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

#Coastline: 1,424 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

#Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

#Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

#Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

#Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 40%; forest and woodland 47%; other 7%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: lack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

*People #Population: 26,869,175 (July 1991), growth rate 3.4% (1991)

#Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 55 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Tanzanian(s); adjective—Tanzanian

#Ethnic divisions: mainland—native African consisting of well over 100 tribes 99%; Asian, European, and Arab 1%

#Religion:

mainland—Christian 33%, Muslim 33%, indigenous beliefs 33%;

Zanzibar—almost all Muslim

#Language: Swahili and English (official); English primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education; Swahili widely understood and generally used for communication between ethnic groups; first language of most people is one of the local languages; primary education is generally in Swahili

#Literacy: 46% (male 62%, female 31%) age 15 and over can read and write (1978)

#Labor force: 732,200 wage earners; 90% agriculture, 10% industry and commerce (1986 est.)

#Organized labor: 15% of labor force

*Government #Long-form name: United Republic of Tanzania

#Type: republic

#Capital: Dar es Salaam; some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital in the 1990s

#Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi

#Independence: Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

#Constitution: 15 March 1984 (Zanzibar has its own Constitution but remains subject to provisions of the union Constitution)

#Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

#Executive branch: president, first vice president and prime minister of the union, second vice president and president of Zanzibar, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)

#Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985); First Vice President John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990); Second Vice President Salmin AMOUR (since 9 November 1990);

Head of Government—Prime Minister John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990)

#Political parties and leaders: only party—Chama Cha MAPINDUZI (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI, party chairman

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

President—last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October 1995); results—Ali Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October 1995); results—CCM is the only party; seats—(241 total, 168 elected) CCM 168

#Communists: no Communist party; a few Communist sympathizers

#Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-6, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Charles Musama NYIRABU; Chancery at 2139 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6125;

US—Ambassador Edmund DE JARNETTE; Embassy at 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam (mailing address is P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam); telephone [255] (51) 37501 through 37504

#Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue

*Economy #Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 47% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have increased the availability of imports and provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure.

#GDP: $5.92 billion, per capita $240; real growth rate 4.3% (FY89 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 31.2 (1989)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $495 million; expenditures $631 million, including capital expenditures of $118 million (FY90)

#Exports: $380 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—coffee, cotton, sisal, tea, cashew nuts, meat, tobacco, diamonds, coconut products, pyrethrum, cloves (Zanzibar);

partners—FRG, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US

#Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities—manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs;

partners—FRG, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark

#External debt: $5.8 billion (December 1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 4.2% (1988); accounts for 8% of GDP

#Electricity: 401,000 kW capacity; 895 million kWh produced, 35 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer

#Agriculture: accounts for over 40% of GDP; topography and climatic conditions limit cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash crops—coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops—corn, wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, and vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $9.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $614 million

#Currency: Tanzanian shilling (plural—shillings); 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1—196.60 (January 1991), 195.06 (1990), 143.377 (1989), 99.292 (1988), 64.260 (1987), 32.698 (1986), 17.472 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

*Communications #Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km 1.000-meter gauge, 6.4 km double track, 962 km Tazara Railroad 1.067-meter gauge; 115 km 1.000-meter gauge planned by end of decade

#Highways: total 81,900 km, 3,600 km paved; 5,600 km gravel or crushed stone; remainder improved and unimproved earth

#Pipelines: 982 km crude oil

#Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

#Ports: Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza on Lake Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports

#Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,784 GRT/25,860 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

#Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 105 total, 93 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; stations—12 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; including Army, Navy, and Air Force); paramilitary Police Field Force Unit; Militia

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,545,022; 3,200,744 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $111 million, 3.9% of GDP (1988) % @Thailand *Geography Total area: 514,000 km2; land area: 511,770 km2

#Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

#Land boundaries: 4,863 km total; Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

#Coastline: 3,219 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with Vietnam

#Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

#Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat); mountains elsewhere

#Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

#Land use: arable land 34%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and woodland 30%; other 31%; includes irrigated 7%

#Environment: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area

#Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

*People #Population: 56,814,069 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

#Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Thai (sing. and pl.); adjective—Thai

#Ethnic divisions: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

#Religion: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.5% (1991)

#Language: Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite; ethnic and regional dialects

#Literacy: 93% (male 96%, female 90%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 30,870,000; agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services (including government) 14% (1989 est.)

#Organized labor: 309,000 union members (1989)

*Government #Long-form name: Kingdom of Thailand; under martial law since military takeover 23 February 1991

#Type: constitutional monarchy; under martial law since military coup of 23 February 1991

#Capital: Bangkok

#Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

#Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date); never colonized

#Constitution: 22 December 1978; interim constitution promulgated by National Peace-Keeping Council on 1 March 1991

#Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23 February 1991 military coup

#National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

#Executive branch: monarch, interim prime minister, three interim deputy prime ministers, interim Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council; following the military coup of 23 February 1991 a National Peace-Keeping Council was set up

#Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha) consists of an upper house or Senate (Vuthisatha) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn); following the military coup of 23 February 1991 the National Assembly was dissolved and a new interim National Legislative Assembly has been formed until elections are held in April 1992

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarndika)

#Leaders:

Chief of State—King PHUMIPHON ADUNLAYADET (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952);

Head of Government—Interim Prime Minister ANAN Panyarachun (since 4 March 1991); Interim Deputy Prime Minister SANO Unakun (since 6 March 1991); Interim Deputy Prime Minister Police Gen. PHAO Sarasin (since 6 March 1991); Interim Deputy Prime Minister MICHAI Ruchupan (since 6 March 1991);

National Peace-Keeping Council (ruling junta)—Chairman Gen. SUNTHON Khongsomphong; Vice Chairman Gen. SUCHINDA Khraprayun; Vice Chairman Adm. PRAPHAT Kritsanachan; Vice Chairman Air Chief Mar. KASET Rotchananin; Vice Chairman Police Gen. SAWAT Amonwiwat

#Political parties and leaders: under martial law political parties are prohibited from meeting; leaders of several parties have resigned and other parties are fragmenting; it is unclear which of the following parties functioning at the time of the military coup will still be in existence by the time new elections are held;

Thai Nation Party (TNP); Solidarity Party; Thai Citizens Party (TCP); People's Party (Ratsadon); Thai People's Party; Social Action Party (SAP); Democrat Party (DP); Mass Party; Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma); People's Party (Prachachon); New Aspiration Party; United Democracy Party; Liberal Party; Social Democratic Force

#Suffrage: universal at age 21

#Elections:

House of Representatives—last held 24 July 1988 (next to be held by April 1992 for a new National Legislative Assembly according to the National Peace-Keeping Council); results—TNP 27%, SAP 15%, DP 13%, TCP 9%, other 36%; seats—(357 total) TNP 96, Solidarity 62, SAP 53, DP 48, TCP 31, People's Party (Ratsadon) 21, Thai People's Party (Prachachon) 17, Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma) 15, United Democracy Party 5, Mass Party 5, Liberal 3, Social Democratic Force 1; note—the House of Representatives was dissolved 23 February 1991; the new interim National Legislative Assembly has 292 seats with 148 of the seats held by active and retired military officers

#Communists: illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members; armed Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total 300 to 500 (est.)

#Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate PHIRAPHONG Kasemsi; Embassy at 2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7200; there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York;

US—Ambassador Daniel A. O'DONAHUE; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96346); telephone [66] (2) 252-504019; there is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates in Songkhla and Udorn

#Flag: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red

*Economy #Overview: Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, enjoyed a year of 9% growth in 1990, although down from the double-digit rates of 1987-89. The increasingly sophisticated manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment, but the agricultural sector contracted 2%, primarily because of weaker demand in Thailand's major overseas markets for commodities such as rice. The trade deficit almost doubled in 1990, to $9 billion, but earnings from tourism ($4.7 billion), remittances, and net capital inflows helped keep the balance of payments in surplus. The government has followed fairly sound fiscal and monetary policies, aided by increased tax receipts from the fast-moving economy. In 1990 the government approved new projects—especially for telecommunications and roads—needed to refurbish the country's now overtaxed infrastructure. Although growth in 1991 will slow further, Thailand's economic outlook remains good, assuming the continuation of prudent government policies in the wake of the 23 February 1991 military coup.

#GNP: $79 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate 10% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1990 est.)

#Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1990 est.)

#Budget: revenues $15.2 billion; expenditures $15.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.1 billion (FY91)

#Exports: $23.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—light manufactures 66%, fishery products 12%, rice 8%, tapioca 8%, manufactured gas, corn, tin;

partners—US 22%, Japan 17%, Singapore 7%, Netherlands, FRG, Hong Kong, UK, Malaysia, China (1989)

#Imports: $32.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities—machinery and parts 23%, petroleum products 13%, chemicals 11%, iron and steel, electrical appliances;

partners—Japan 30%, US 11%, Singapore 8%, FRG 5%, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Malaysia, UK (1989)

#External debt: $26.9 billion (end 1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 14% (1990 est.); accounts for almost 27% of GDP

#Electricity: 7,270,000 kW capacity; 29,000 million kWh produced, 530 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, other light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

#Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 62% of labor force; leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops—rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 2.8 million tons (1989)

#Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication efforts

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $8.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million

#Currency: baht (plural—baht); 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

#Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1—25.224 (January 1991), 25.585 (1990), 25.702 (1989), 25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987), 26.299 (1986), 27.159 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

*Communications #Railroads: 3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track

#Highways: 44,534 km total; 28,016 km paved, 5,132 km earth surface, 11,386 km under development

#Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

#Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined products, 67 km

#Ports: Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha

#Merchant marine: 136 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 521,565 GRT/791,570 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 79 cargo, 9 container, 29 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 1 chemical tanker, 3 bulk, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 combination bulk

#Civil air: 41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft

#Airports: 127 total, 103 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: service to general public inadequate; bulk of service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and radio relay network; 739,500 telephones (1987); stations—over 200 AM, 100 FM, and 11 TV in government-controlled networks; satellite earth stations—1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; domestic satellite system being developed

*Defense Forces #Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,028,159; 9,778,003 fit for military service; 604,483 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $2.4 billion, 3% of GNP (1990 est.) % @Togo *Geography Total area: 56,790 km2; land area: 54,390 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

#Land boundaries: 1,647 km total; Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km, Ghana 877 km

#Coastline: 56 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

#Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

#Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

#Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

#Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 4%; forest and woodland 28%; other 42%; includes irrigated NEGL%

#Environment: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

*People #Population: 3,810,616 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

#Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Togolese (sing. and pl.); adjective—Togolese

#Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabye; under 1% European and Syrian-Lebanese

#Religion: indigenous beliefs about 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10%

#Language: French, both official and language of commerce; major African languages are Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabye in the north

#Literacy: 43% (male 56%, female 31%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: NA; agriculture 78%, industry 22%; about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided between public and private sectors; 50% of population of working age (1985)

#Organized labor: one national union, the National Federation of Togolese Workers

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Togo

#Type: republic; one-party presidential regime

#Capital: Lome

#Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions, singular—circonscription); Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs), Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar (Bassari), Dapaong (Tone), Kante (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Kpagouda (Binah), Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou), Notse (Haho), Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Tchaoudjo, Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo); note—the 21 units may now be called prefectures (prefectures, singular—prefecture) and reported name changes for individual units are included in parentheses

#Independence: 27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration, formerly French Togo)

#Constitution: 30 December 1979, effective 13 January 1980

#Legal system: French-based court system

#National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 13 January (1967)

#Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

#Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

#Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967);

Head of Government—interim Prime Minister Kokou KOFFIGOH (since 28 August 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991; more than 10 parties formed as of mid-May, though none yet legally registered; a national conference to determine transition regime took place 10-20 June 1991

#Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

#Elections:

President—last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held December 1993); results—Gen. EYADEMA was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held 14 June 1992); results—RPT was the only party; seats—(77 total) RPT 77

#Communists: no Communist party

#Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS; Chancery at 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-4212 or 4213;

US—Ambassador Harmon E. KIRBY; Embassy at Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome (mailing address is B. P. 852, Lome); telephone [228] 21-29-91 through 94 and 21-77-17

#Flag: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Economy #Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides employment for 78% of the labor force. Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and cotton, which together account for about 30% of total export earnings. Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal. In the industrial sector phosphate mining is by far the most important activity, with phosphate exports accounting for about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings. Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center. The government actively encourages foreign investment.

#GDP: $1.4 billion, per capita $395; real growth rate 3.6% (1989 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 1.2% (1989)

#Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1987)

#Budget: revenues $330 million; expenditures $363 million, including capital expenditures of $101 million (1990 est.)

#Exports: $331 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities—phosphates, cocoa, coffee, cotton, manufactures, palm kernels;

partners—EC 70%, Africa 9%, US 2%, other 19% (1985)

#Imports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities—food, fuels, durable consumer goods, other intermediate goods, capital goods;

partners—EC 61%, US 6%, Africa 4%, Japan 4%, other 25% (1989)

#External debt: $1.3 billion (1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1987 est.); 6% of GDP

#Electricity: 179,000 kW capacity; 209 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

#Agriculture: cash crops—coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops—yams, cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock production not significant; annual fish catch, 10,000-14,000 tons

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $132 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $51 million

#Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

#Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 515 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track

#Highways: 6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads

#Inland waterways: none

#Ports: Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)

#Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,906 GRT/70,483 DWT; includes 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction large-load carrier

#Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: fair system based on network of open-wire lines supplemented by radio relay routes; 12,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV; earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 799,597; 420,092 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: $44 million, 3.7% of GDP (1987) % @Tokelau (territory of New Zealand) *Geography Total area: 10 km2; land area: 10 km2

#Comparative area: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 101 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

#Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

#Natural resources: negligible

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

#Environment: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

#Note: located 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

*People #Population: 1,700 (July 1991), growth rate 0.0% (1991)

#Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Tokelauan(s); adjective—Tokelauan

#Ethnic divisions: all Polynesian, with cultural ties to Western Samoa

#Religion: Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%, other 2%; on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational Christian Church predominant

#Language: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language) and English

#Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

#Labor force: NA

#Organized labor: NA

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: territory of New Zealand

#Capital: none, each atoll has its own administrative center

#Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

#Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

#Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as amended in 1970

#Legal system: British and local statutes

#National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

#Executive branch: administrator (appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs in New Zealand), official secretary

#Legislative branch: Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll

#Judicial branch: High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand

#Leaders:

Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government—Administrator Neil WALTER; Official Secretary M. NORRISH, Office of Tokelau Affairs

#Suffrage: NA

#Elections: NA

#Communists: probably none

#Member of: SPC

#Diplomatic representation: none (territory of New Zealand)

#Flag: the flag of New Zealand is used

*Economy #Overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to maintain public services, annual aid being substantially greater than GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra, postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.

#GDP: $1.4 million, per capita $800; real growth rate NA% (1988 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including capital expenditures of $37,300 (FY87)

#Exports: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983);

commodities—stamps, copra, handicrafts;

partners—NZ

#Imports: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities—foodstuffs, building materials, fuel;

partners—NZ

#External debt: none

#Industrial production: growth rate NA%

#Electricity: 200 kW capacity; 300,000 kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

#Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops—breadfruit, papaya, bananas; pigs, poultry, goats

#Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $24 million

#Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural—dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1—1.6798 (January 1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

*Communications #Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

#Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa

#Telecommunications: telephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand % @Tonga *Geography Total area: 748 km2; land area: 718 km2

#Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 419 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no specific limits;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

#Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

#Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

#Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 55%; meadows and pastures 6%; forest and woodland 12%; other 2%

#Environment: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to cyclones (October to April); deforestation

#Note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

*People #Population: 102,272 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

#Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Tongan(s); adjective—Tongan

#Ethnic divisions: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

#Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents

#Language: Tongan, English

#Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can read and write a simple message in Tongan or English (1976)

#Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining

#Organized labor: none

*Government #Long-form name: Kingdom of Tonga

#Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

#Capital: Nukualofa

#Administrative divisions: three island groups; Haapai, Tongatapu, Vavau

#Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

#Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

#Legal system: based on English law

#National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

#Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

#Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea)

#Judicial branch: Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Prince Fatafehi TU'IPELEHAKE (since 16 December 1965)

#Political parties and leaders: Democratic Reform Movement, 'Akolisi POHIVA

#Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21

#Elections:

Legislative Assembly—last held 14-15 February 1990 (next to be held NA February 1993); results—percent of vote NA; seats—(29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

#Communists: none known

#Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Siosaia a'Ulupekotofa TUITA resides in London;

US—the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga and makes periodic visits

#Flag: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner

*Economy #Overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to sustain its trade deficit.

#GDP: $86 million, per capita $850; real growth rate 3.6% (FY89 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (FY89)

#Unemployment rate: NA%

#Budget: revenues $30.6 million; expenditures $48.9 million, including capital expenditures of $22.5 million (FY89 est.)

#Exports: $9.6 million (f.o.b., FY90 est.);

commodities—coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro, vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish;

partners—NZ 54%, Australia 30%, US 8%, Fiji 5% (FY87)

#Imports: $59.9 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities—food products, beverages and tobacco, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, building materials;

partners—NZ 39%, Australia 25%, Japan 9%, US 6%, EC 5% (FY87)

#External debt: $42.0 million (FY89)

#Industrial production: growth rate 15% (FY86); accounts for 11% of GDP

#Electricity: 6,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: tourism, fishing

#Agriculture: dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $16 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $240 million

#Currency: pa'anga (plural—pa'anga); 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti

#Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1—1.2832 (January 1991), 1.2809 (1990), 1.2637 (1989), 1.2799 (1988), 1.4282 (1987), 1.4960 (1986), 1.4319 (1985)

#Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

*Communications #Highways: 198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 74 km (Vavau); 94 km unsealed roads usable only in dry weather

#Ports: Nukualofa, Neiafu, Pangai

#Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,857 GRT/480,726 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas

#Civil air: no major transport aircraft

#Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: 3,529 telephones; 66,000 radios; no TV sets; stations—1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Land Force, Maritime Division, Royal Tongan Marines, Royal Tongan Guard, Police

#Manpower availability: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP % @Trinidad and Tobago *Geography Total area: 5,130 km2; land area: 5,130 km2

#Comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 362 km

#Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

#Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

#Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, asphalt

#Land use: arable land 14%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and woodland 44%; other 23%; includes irrigated 4%

#Environment: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

#Note: located 11 km from Venezuela

*People #Population: 1,285,297 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

#Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s); adjective—Trinidadian, Tobagonian

#Ethnic divisions: black 43%, East Indian 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%

#Religion: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other Protestant 14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%

#Language: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

#Literacy: 95% (male 97%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)

#Labor force: 463,900; construction and utilities 18.1%; manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14.8%; agriculture 10.9%; other 56.2% (1985 est.)

#Organized labor: 22% of labor force (1988)

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

#Type: parliamentary democracy

#Capital: Port-of-Spain

#Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

#Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

#Constitution: 31 August 1976

#Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

#National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

#Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 18 December 1986)

#Political parties and leaders: National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), A. N. R. ROBINSON; People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING; United National Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH

#Suffrage: universal at age 18

#Elections:

House of Representatives—last held 15 December 1986 (next to be held by December 1991); results—NAR 66%, PNM 32%, other 2%; seats—(36 total) NAR 33, PNM 3; note—in 1989 six members were expelled from the NAR and formed the UNC, while retaining their parliamentary seats; as a result seats held are NAR 27, UNC 6, PNM 3

#Communists: Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, James MILLETTE

#Other political pressure groups: National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), radical antigovernment black-identity organization; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, leftist organization affiliated with the World Peace Council; Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce; Trinidad and Tobago Labor Congress, moderate labor federation; Council of Progressive Trade Unions, radical labor federation

#Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Angus Albert KHAN; Chancery at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 467-6490; Trinidad and Tobago has a Consulate General in New York;

US—Ambassador Charles A. GARGANO; Embassy at 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain (mailing address is P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain); telephone (809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176

#Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

*Economy #Overview: Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy began to emerge from a lengthy depression in 1990. The economy fell sharply through most of the 1980s, largely because of the decline in oil prices. This sector accounts for 80% of export earnings and more than 25% of GDP. The government, in response to the oil revenue loss, pursued a series of austerity measures that pushed the unemployment rate as high as 22% in 1988. The economy showed signs of recovery in 1990, however, helped along by rising oil prices. Agriculture employs only about 11% of the labor force and produces about 3% of GDP. Since this sector is small, it has been unable to absorb the large numbers of the unemployed. The government currently seeks to diversify its export base.

#GDP: $4.05 billion, per capita $3,363; real growth rate - 3.7% (1989)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.4% (1989)

#Unemployment rate: 20% (1990)

#Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

#Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—includes reexports—petroleum and petroleum products 82%, steel products 9%, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1988);

partners—US 53%, CARICOM 16%, EC 10%, Latin America 3% (1989)

#Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities—raw materials and intermediate goods 47%, capital goods 26%, consumer goods 26% (1988);

partners—US 51%, Latin America 10%, UK 8%, Canada 5%, CARICOM 6% (1989)

#External debt: $2.5 billion (1989)

#Industrial production: growth rate 5.2%, excluding oil refining (1986); accounts for 30% of GDP, including petroleum

#Electricity: 1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,468 million kWh produced, 2,730 kWh per capita (1990)

#Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles

#Agriculture: highly subsidized sector; major crops—cocoa and sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry sector most important source of animal protein; must import large share of food needs

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $443 million

#Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (plural—dollars); 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

#Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1—4.2500 (January 1991), 4.2500 (1990), 4.2500 (1989), 3.8438 (1988), 3.6000 (1987), 3.6000 (1986), 2.4500 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: minimal agricultural system near San Fernando

#Highways: 8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth, 3,000 km unimproved earth

#Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil; 19 km refined products; 904 km natural gas

#Ports: Port-of-Spain, Point Lisas, Pointe-a-Pierre

#Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones; stations—2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Defense Forces #Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (Army), Coast Guard, Air Wing, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 339,260; 245,086 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $59 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.) % @Tromelin Island (French possession) *Geography Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

#Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

#Land boundaries: none

#Coastline: 3.7 km

#Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles

#Climate: tropical

#Terrain: sandy

#Natural resources: fish

#Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other—scattered bushes 100%

#Environment: wildlife sanctuary

#Note: located 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion in the Indian Ocean; climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones

*People #Population: uninhabited

*Government #Long-form name: none

#Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

*Economy #Overview: no economic activity

*Communications #Airports: 1 with runway less than 1,220 m

#Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

#Telecommunications: important meteorological station

*Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France % @Tunisia *Geography Total area: 163,610 km2; land area: 155,360 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

#Land boundaries: 1,424 km total; Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

#Coastline: 1,148 km

#Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

#Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya

#Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

#Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara

#Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

#Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and woodland 4%; other 47%; includes irrigated 1%

#Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

#Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; only 144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily; borders Libya on east

*People #Population: 8,276,096 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

#Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Tunisian(s); adjective—Tunisian

#Ethnic divisions: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%

#Religion: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish less than 1%

#Language: Arabic (official); Arabic and French (commerce)

#Literacy: 65% (male 74%, female 56%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 2,250,000; agriculture 32%; shortage of skilled labor

#Organized labor: about 360,000 members claimed, roughly 20% of labor force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of Constitutional Democratic Party

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Tunisia; note—may be changed to Tunisian Republic

#Type: republic

#Capital: Tunis

#Administrative divisions: 23 governorates (wilayat, singular—wilayah); Al Kaf, Al Mahdiyah, Al Munastir, Al Qasrayn, Al Qayrawan, Aryanah, Bajah, Banzart, Bin Arus, Jundubah, Madanin, Nabul, Qabis, Qafsah, Qibili, Safaqis, Sidi Bu Zayd, Silyanah, Susah, Tatawin, Tawzar, Tunis, Zaghwan

#Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

#Constitution: 1 June 1959

#Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

#National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

#Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab)

#Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989)

#Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President BEN ALI (official ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS), Ahmed Mestiri; five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party

#Suffrage: universal at age 20

#Elections:

President—last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994); results—Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without opposition;

Chamber of Deputies—last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994); results—RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, other 2.4%; seats—(141 total) RCD 141

#Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students

#Member of: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

#Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Habib LAZREG; Chancery at 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 862-1850;

US—Ambassador Robert H. PELLETREAU, Jr.; Embassy at 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere; telephone [216] (1) 782-566

#Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam

*Economy #Overview: The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, tourism, and exports of light manufactures for continued growth. Following two years of drought-induced economic decline, the economy made a strong recovery in 1990 as a result of a bountiful harvest, continued export growth, and higher domestic investment. Continued high inflation and unemployment have eroded popular support for the government, however, and forced Tunis to slow the pace of economic reform. Nonetheless, the government appears committed to implementing its IMF-supported structural adjustment program and to servicing its foreign debt.

#GDP: $10 billion, per capita $1,235; real growth rate 6.5% (1990 est.)

#Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1989)

#Unemployment rate: 15.4% (1989)

#Budget: revenues $3.8 billion; expenditures $4.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $970 million (1991 est.)

#Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals;

partners—EC 73%, Middle East 9%, US 1%, Turkey, USSR

#Imports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities—industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer goods;

partners—EC 68%, US 7%, Canada, Japan, USSR, China, Saudi Arabia, Algeria

#External debt: $7.4 billion (December 1990 est.)

#Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for 38% of GDP, including petroleum

#Electricity: 1,493,000 kW capacity; 4,210 million kWh produced, 530 kWh per capita (1989)

#Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), textiles, footwear, food, beverages

#Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops—olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products—grain, sugar beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 99,200 metric tons (1987)

#Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $4.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $410 million

#Currency: Tunisian dinar (plural—dinars); 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

#Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1—0.8408 (January 1991), 0.8783 (1990), 0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988), 0.8287 (1987), 0.7940 (1986), 0.8345 (1985)

#Fiscal year: calendar year

*Communications #Railroads: 2,154 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 1,689 km 1.000-meter gauge

#Highways: 17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved and unimproved earth

#Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 86 km refined products; 742 km natural gas

#Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis

#Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 160,172 GRT/218,970 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

#Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

#Airports: 29 total, 28 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

#Telecommunications: the system is above the African average; facilities consist of open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, and radio relay; key centers are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones; stations—18 AM, 4 FM, 14 TV; 4 submarine cables; earth stations—1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial cable to Algeria; radio relay to Algeria, Libya, and Italy

*Defense Forces #Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces

#Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,052,191; 1,180,614 fit for military service; 90,218 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $315 million, 2.6% of GDP (1990 est.) % @Turkey *Geography Total area: 780,580 km2; land area: 770,760 km2

#Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

#Land boundaries: 2,715 km total; Bulgaria 240 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km, USSR 617 km

#Coastline: 7,200 km

#Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only—to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the USSR;

Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea

#Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

#Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

#Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

#Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore

#Land use: arable land 30%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and woodland 26%; other 28%; includes irrigated 3%

#Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification

#Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Turkey and Norway only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

*People #Population: 58,580,993 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

#Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

#Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

#Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

#Infant mortality rate: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

#Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1991)

#Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)

#Nationality: noun—Turk(s); adjective—Turkish

#Ethnic divisions: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 17%, other 3% (est.)

#Religion: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other (Christian and Jews) 0.2%

#Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

#Literacy: 81% (male 90%, female 71%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

#Labor force: 18,800,000; agriculture 56%, services 30%, industry 14%; about 1,000,000 Turks work abroad (1987)

#Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force

*Government #Long-form name: Republic of Turkey

#Type: republican parliamentary democracy

#Capital: Ankara

#Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (iller, singular—il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak

#Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

#Constitution: 7 November 1982

#Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

#National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)

#Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

#Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet Meclisi)

#Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

#Leaders:

Chief of State—President Turgut OZAL (since 9 November 1989);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Mesut YILMAZ (since 30 June 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Ekrem PAKDAMIRLI (since 30 June 1991)

#Political parties and leaders: Motherland Party (ANAP), Mesut YILMAZ; Social Democratic People's Party (SHP), Erdal INONU; Correct Way Party (DYP), Suleyman DEMIREL; People's Labor Party (HEP), Fehmi ISIKLAR; Socialist Unity Party (SBP), leader NA; Democratic Center Party (DMP), Bedrettin DALAN; Great Anatolia Party (BAP), leader NA; Democratic Left Party (DSP), Bulent ECEVIT; Refah Party (RP), Necmettin ERBAKAN; Democratic Center Party (DSP), Bedrettin DALAN; Grand National Party (GNP), leader NA

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