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The 1990 CIA World Factbook
by United States. Central Intelligence Agency
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Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use: 32% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 23% meadows and pastures; 27% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: most of large urban areas and industrial centers in Rhone, Garonne, Seine, or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral

Note: largest West European nation

- People Population: 56,358,331 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective—French

Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant, 1% Jewish, 1% Muslim (North African workers), 6% unaffiliated

Language: French (100% of population); rapidly declining regional dialects (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 24,170,000; 61.5% services, 31.3% industry, 7.3% agriculture (1987)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force (est.)

- Government Long-form name: French Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: metropolitan France—22 regions (regions, singular—region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes; note—the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, St. Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

Independence: unified by Clovis in 486, First Republic proclaimed in 1792

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Michel ROCARD (since 10 March 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR), Jacques Chirac; Union for French Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, and RAD), Valery Giscard d'Estaing; Republicans (PR), Francois Leotard; Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Pierre Mehaignerie; Radical (RAD), Yves Gallard; Socialist Party (PS), Pierre Mauroy; Left Radical Movement (MRG), Yves Collin; Communist Party (PCF), Georges Marchais; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie Le Pen

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President—last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995); results—Second Ballot Francois Mitterrand 54%, Jacques Chirac 46%;

Senate—last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 93, UDF 143 (PR 53, CDS 65, RAD 25), PS 64, PCF 16, independents 2, unknown 3;

National Assembly—last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results—Second Ballot PS-MRG 48.7%, RPR 23.1%, UDF 21%, PCF 3.4%, other 3.8%; seats—(577 total) PS 275, RPR 132, UDF 90, UDC 40, PCF 25, independents 15

Communists: 700,000 claimed but probably closer to 150,000; Communist voters, 2.8 million in 1988 election

Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members est.; independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) about 1,000,000 members est.; independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais—CNPF or Patronat)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, EIB, EMS, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC—International Whaling Commission, NATO (signatory), OAS (observer), OECD, SPC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI; Chancery at 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000; there are French Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico); US—Ambassador Walter J. P. CURLEY; Embassy at 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 (mailing address is APO New York 09777); telephone p33o (1) 42-96-12-02 or 42-61-80-75; there are US Consulates General in Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, and Strasbourg

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Ivory Coast, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent areas

- Economy Overview: One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in Western Europe. France is largely self-sufficient in agricultural products and is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about one-third of GDP and employs about one-third of the work force. During the period 1982-86 economic growth was sluggish, averaging only 1.4% annually. This trend was reversed by late 1987, however, with a strong expansion of consumer demand, followed by a surge in investment. The economy has had difficulty generating enough jobs for new entrants into the labor force, resulting in a high unemployment rate, but the upward trend in growth recently pushed the jobless rate below 10%. The steadily advancing economic integration within the European Community is a major force affecting the fortunes of the various economic sectors.

GDP: $819.6 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 3.4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.7% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $197.0 billion; expenditures $213.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $183.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing; partners—FRG 15.8%, Italy 12.2%, UK 9.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.9%, Netherlands 8.7%, US 6.7%, Spain 5.6%, Japan 1.8%, USSR 1.3% (1989 est.)

Imports: $194.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities—crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron and steel products; partners—FRG 19.4%, Italy 11.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.2%, US 7.7%, UK 7.2%, Netherlands 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Japan 4.1%, USSR 2.1% (1989 est.)

External debt: $59.3 billion (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.4% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 109,972,000 kW capacity; 403,570 million kWh produced, 7,210 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, and tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal products—beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Aid: donor—ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $59.8 billion

Currency: French franc (plural—francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,568 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 11,674 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 2,138 km of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440-meter), privately owned and operated

Highways: 1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway; 347,000 km departmental highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km rural roads; 5,401 km of controlled-access divided autoroutes; about 803,000 km paved

Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,059 km; refined products, 4,487 km; natural gas, 24,746 km

Ports: maritime—Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque, Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen, Sete, Toulon; inland—42

Merchant marine: 153 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,671,645 GRT/5,950,785 DWT; includes 10 short-sea passenger, 19 cargo, 19 container, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 30 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 37 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 4 specialized tanker, 17 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note—France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia

Civil air: 355 major transport aircraft (1982)

Airports: 470 total, 460 usable; 204 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 34 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 133 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed system provides satisfactory telephone, telegraph, radio and TV broadcast services; 39,110,000 telephones; stations—42 AM, 138 (777 relays) FM, 215 TV (8,900 relays); 25 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT, 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, EUTELSAT, MARISAT, and domestic systems

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,285,904; 12,042,731 fit for military service; 409,544 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP, or $31.1 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: French Guiana (overseas department of France) - Geography Total area: 91,000 km2; land area: 89,150 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: 1,183 km total; Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and pastures; 82% forest and woodland; 18% other

Environment: mostly an unsettled wilderness

- People Population: 97,781 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—French Guianese (sing., pl.); adjective—French Guiana

Ethnic divisions: 66% black or mulatto; 12% Caucasian; 12% East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian; 10% other

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic

Language: French

Literacy: 73%

Labor force: 23,265; 60.6% services, government, and commerce, 21.2% industry, 18.2% agriculture (1980)

Organized labor: 7% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: Department of Guiana

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, commissioner of the republic

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council

Judicial branch: highest local court is the Court of Appeals based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana

Leaders: Chief of State—President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government—Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Pierre LACROIX (since NA August 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Gerard Holder; Rally for the Republic (RPR), Paulin Brune; Guyanese Democratic Action (ADG), Andre Lecante; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Claude Ho A Chuck; National Front, Guy Malon; Popular and National Party of Guiana (PNPG), Claude Robo; National Anti-Colonist Guianese Party (PANGA), Michel Kapel

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Regional Council—last held 16 March 1986 (next to be held March 1991); results—PSG 43%, RPR 27.7%, ADG 12.2%, UDF 8.9%, FN 3.7%, PNPG 1.4%, others 3.1%; seats—(31 total) PSG 15, RPR 9, ADG 4, UDF 3;

French Senate—last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) PSG 1;

French National Assembly—last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1

Communists: Communist party membership negligible

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France the interests of French Guiana are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy Overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic activities, with exports of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp) accounting for about two-thirds of total revenue in 1985. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops—rice, cassava, bananas, and sugarcane—are limited to the coastal area, where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly among younger workers, with an unemployment rate of 15%.

GDP: $210 million, per capita $3,230; real growth rate NA% (1982)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1987)

Budget: revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1987)

Exports: $37.0 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities—shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence; partners—US 41%, Japan 18%, France 9% (1984)

Imports: $297.7 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities—food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods, petroleum; partners—France 55%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%, US 3% (1984)

External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 1,950 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining

Agriculture: some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, bananas, sugar

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.1 billion

Currency: French franc (plural—francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km possibly navigable by native craft

Ports: Cayenne

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 11 total, 11 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair open wire and radio relay system; 18,100 telephones; stations—5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces 1Military manpower: males 15-49 27,866; 18,430 fit for military service

Note: defense is the responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: French Polynesia (overseas territory of France) - Geography Total area: 3,941 km2; land area: 3,660 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

Land use: 1% arable land; 19% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 44% other

Environment: occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five archipelagoes

Note: Makatea is one of three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific (others are Banaba or Ocean Island in Kiribati and Nauru)

- People Population: 190,181 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—French Polynesian(s); adjective—French Polynesian

Ethnic divisions: 78% Polynesian, 12% Chinese, 6% local French, 4% metropolitan French

Religion: mainly Christian; 55% Protestant, 32% Roman Catholic

Language: French (official), Tahitian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 57,863 employed (1983)

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: Territory of French Polynesia

Type: overseas territory of France

Capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, high commissioner of the republic, president of the Council of Ministers, vice president of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State—President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT (since NA November 1987);

Head of Government—President of the Council of Ministers Alexandre LEONTIEFF (since 9 December 1987); Vice President of the Council of Ministers Georges KELLY (since 9 December 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Tahoeraa Huiraatira (Gaullist), Gaston Flosse; Pupu Here Ai'a, Jean Juventin; Front de Liberation, Oscar Temaru; Ai'a Api, Emile Vernaudon; Ia Mana Te Nunaa, Jacques Drollet; Pupu Taina, Michel Law; Toatiraa Polynesia, Arthur Chung; Te E'a Api, Francis Sanford

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Territorial Assembly—last held 16 March 1986 (next to be held March 1991); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(41 total) Tahoeraa Huiraatira 24, Amuitahiraa Mo Porinesia 6, Pupu Here Ai'a 4, Ia Mana 3, Front de Liberation 2, other 2;

French Senate—last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(1 total) Democrats for Progress 1;

French National Assembly last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(2 total) Rally for the Republic 1, Ai'a Api 1

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France, French Polynesian interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy Overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the military or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.

GDP: $2.24 billion, per capita $6,400; real growth rate NA% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1986 est.)

Budget: revenues $431; expenditures $418, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat; partners—France 44%, US 21%

Imports: $767 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities—fuels, foodstuffs, equipment; partners—France 50%, US 16%, New Zealand 6%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 72,000 kW capacity; 265 million kWh produced, 1,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Agriculture: coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef, dairy products

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.6 billion

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural—francs); 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1—104.71 (January 1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note—linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 600 km (1982)

Ports: Papeete, Bora-bora

Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,732 GRT/4,191 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo; note—a subset of the French register

Civil air: about 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 43 total, 41 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; stations—5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: French Southern and Antarctic Lands (overseas territory of France) - Geography Total area: 7,781 km2; land area: 7,781 km2; includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Crozet; excludes claim not recognized by the US of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica known as Terre Adelie

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploration;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claim in Antarctica (Terre Adelie) not recognized by the US

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes

Note: located in the southern Indian Ocean about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia

- People Population: 210 (July 1990), growth rate 0.00% (1990); mostly researchers

- Government Long-form name: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Type: overseas territory of France governed by High Administrator Claude CORBIER (since NA 1988)

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy Overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fishing catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to France and Reunion.

- Communications Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 217,203 GRT/348,632 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 2 bulk; note—a subset of the French register

Telecommunications: NA

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: Gabon - Geography Total area: 267,670 km2; land area: 257,670 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: 2,551 km total; Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Equatorial Guinea

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south

Natural resources: crude oil, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures; 78% forest and woodland; 2% other

Environment: deforestation

- People Population: 1,068,240 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 106 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Gabonese (sing., pl.); adjective—Gabonese

Ethnic divisions: about 40 Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke); about 100,000 expatriate Africans and Europeans, including 27,000 French

Religion: 55-75% Christian, less than 1% Muslim, remainder animist

Language: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi

Literacy: 61.6%

Labor force: 120,000 salaried; 65.0% agriculture, 30.0% industry and commerce, 2.5% services, 2.5% government; 58% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: there are 38,000 members of the national trade union, the Gabonese Trade Union Confederation (COSYGA)

- Government Long-form name: Gabonese Republic

Type: republic; one-party presidential regime since 1964

Capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

National holiday: Renovation Day (Gabonese Democratic Party established), 12 March (1968)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemble Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State—President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Leon MEBIAME (since 16 April 1975)

Political parties and leaders: only party—Gabonese Social Democratic Rally (RSDG), El Hadj Omar Bongo, president; formerly Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG), which was dissolved in February 1990

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held November 1993); results—President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly—last held on 17 February 1985 (next to be held by February 1992); results—PDG was the only party; seats—(120 total, 111 elected) PDG 111

Communists: no organized party; probably some Communist sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Conference of East and Central African States, EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCO, ICO, IDA, IDB—Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jean Robert ODZAGA; Chancery at 2034 20th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 797-1000; US—Ambassador Keith L. WAUCHOPE; Embassy at Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville (mailing address is B. P. 4000, Libreville); telephone 762003 or 762004, 761337, 721348, 740248

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

- Economy Overview: The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until the early 1970s, is now dominated by the oil sector. During the period 1981-85 oil accounted for about 46% of GDP, 83% of export earnings, and 65% of government revenues on average. The high oil prices of the early 1980s contributed to a substantial increase in per capita income, stimulated domestic demand, reinforced migration from rural to urban areas, and raised the level of real wages to among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The three-year slide of Gabon's economy, which began with falling oil prices in 1985, stabilized in 1989 because of a near doubling of oil prices over their 1988 lows. The agricultural and industrial sectors are relatively underdeveloped, accounting for only 8% and 10%, respectively, of GDP in 1986.

GDP: $3.2 billion, per capita $3,200; real growth rate 0% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $927 million; expenditures $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $33 million (1988)

Exports: $1.14 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities—crude oil 70%, manganese 11%, wood 12%, uranium 6%; partners—France 53%, US 22%, FRG, Japan

Imports: $0.76 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities—foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction materials, manufactures, machinery; partners—France 48%, US 2.6%, FRG, Japan, UK

External debt: $2.0 billion (October 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.7% (1986)

Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 980 million kWh produced, 920 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sawmills, petroleum, food and beverages; mining of increasing importance (especially manganese and uranium)

Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops—cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food; small fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons; okoume (a tropical softwood) is the most important timber product

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $64 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $27 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural—francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1—287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese Railroad)

Highways: 7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km earth

Inland waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 270 km; refined products, 14 km

Ports: Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563 GRT/25,330 DWT

Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

Airports: 79 total, 68 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of open-wire, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and radiocommunication stations; 13,800 telephones; stations—6 AM, 6 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth stations—2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 12 domestic satellite

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 266,110; 133,158 fit for military service; 9,282 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.2% of GDP, or $102 million (1990 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: The Gambia - Geography Total area: 11,300 km2; land area: 10,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Delaware

Land boundary: 740 km with Senegal

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 16% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 55% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: deforestation

Note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa

- People Population: 848,147 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 140 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Gambian(s); adjective—Gambian

Ethnic divisions: 99% African (42% Mandinka, 18% Fula, 16% Wolof, 10% Jola, 9% Serahuli, 4% other); 1% non-Gambian

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% Christian, 1% indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars

Literacy: 25.1%

Labor force: 400,000 (1986 est.); 75.0% agriculture, 18.9% industry, commerce, and services, 6.1% government; 55% population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 25-30% of wage labor force

- Government Long-form name: Republic of The Gambia

Type: republic

Capital: Banjul

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western

Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

Constitution: 24 April 1970

Legal system: based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice President Bakary Bunja DARBO (since 12 May 1982)

Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. Jawara, secretary general; National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff Dibba; Gambian People's Party (GPP), Assan Musa Camara; United Party (UP); People's Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: President—last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results—Sir Dawda Jawara (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha Dibba (NCP) 25.2%, Assan Musa Camara (GPP) 13.7%;

House of Representatives—last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held by March 1992); results—PPP 56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%; seats—(43 total, 36 elected) PPP 31, NCP 5

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, IRC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359; US—Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Pipeline Road (Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul); telephone Serrekunda p220o 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green

- Economy Overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest countries with a per capita income of about $250. About 75% of the population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising, which contributes about 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing activity—processing peanuts, fish, and hides—accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia imports about 33% of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods. Exports are concentrated on peanut products (over 75% of total value).

GDP: $195 million, per capita $250; real growth rate 4.6% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $75 million; expenditures $67 million, including capital expenditures of $21 million (FY89)

Exports: $133 million (f.o.b., FY89); commodities—peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels; partners—Ghana 49%, Europe 27%, Japan 12%, US 1% (1986)

Imports: $105 million (c.i.f., FY89); commodities—foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport equipment; partners—Europe 55% (EC 39%, other 16%), Asia 20%, US 11%, Senegal 4% (1986)

External debt: $330 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.3% (FY88)

Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population; imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts; the principal crops—millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm kernels; livestock—cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing resources not fully exploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $84 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $422 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $39 million

Currency: dalasi (plural—dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs

Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1—8.3232 (December 1989), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987), 6.9380 (1986), 3.8939 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Highways: 3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 400 km

Ports: Banjul

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; stations—3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 182,308; 92,001 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: Gaza Strip Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the Jordan under Jordanian administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With respect to negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, however, it is US policy that a distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the West Bank.

- Geography Total area: 380km2; land area: 380 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 62 km total; Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand and dune covered coastal plain

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 13% arable land, 32% permanent crops, 0% meadows and pastures, 0% forest and woodland, 55% other

Environment: desertification

Note: there are 18 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip

- People Population: 615,575 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990); in addition, there are 2,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 55 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: NA

Ethnic divisions: 99.8% Palestinian Arab and other, 0.2% Jewish

Religion: 99% Muslim (predominantly Sunni), 0.7% Christian, 0.3% Jewish

Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely understood

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: (excluding Israeli Jewish settlers) 32.0% small industry, commerce and business, 24.4% construction, 25.5% service and other, and 18.1% agriculture (1984)

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: none

Note: The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how this area is to be governed.

- Economy Overview: Nearly half of the labor force of the Gaza Strip is employed across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker transfer funds accounting for 40% of GNP in 1989. The once dominant agricultural sector now contributes only 13% to GNP, about the same as that of the construction sector, and industry accounts for 7%. Gaza depends upon Israel for 90% of its imports and as a market for 80% of its exports. Unrest in the territory in 1988-89 (intifadah) has raised unemployment and substantially lowered the incomes of the population.

GNP: $380 million, per capita $650; real growth rate NA% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $36.6 million; expenditures $32.0 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Exports: $88 million; commodities—citrus; partners—Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

Imports: $260 million; commodities—food, consumer goods, construction materials; partners—Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: power supplied by Israel

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center

Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy products

Aid: none

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural—shekels); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1—1.9450 (January 1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-March 31

- Communications Railroads: one line, abandoned and in disrepair, but trackage remains

Highways: small, poorly developed indigenous road network

Ports: facilities for small boats to service Gaza

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m

Telecommunications: stations—no AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA —————————————————————————— Country: German Democratic Republic (East Germany) - Geography Total area: 108,330 km2; land area: 105,980 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 2,296 km total; Czechoslovakia 459 km, Poland 456 km, FRG 1,381 km

Coastline: 901 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: it is US policy that the final borders of Germany have not been established; the US is seeking to settle the property claims of US nationals against the GDR

Climate: temperate; cloudy, cold winters with frequent rain and snow; cool, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat plain with hills and mountains in south

Natural resources: lignite, potash, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

Land use: 45% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: significant deforestation in mountains caused by air pollution and acid rain

Note: strategic location on North European Plain and near the entrance to the Baltic Sea; West Berlin is an enclave (about 116 km by air or 176 km by road from FRG)

- People Population: 16,307,170 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—German(s); adjective—German

Ethnic divisions: 99.7% German, 0.3% Slavic and other

Religion: 47% Protestant, 7% Roman Catholic, 46% unaffiliated or other; less than 5% of Protestants and about 25% of Roman Catholics active participants

Language: German

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 8,960,000; 37.5% industry, 21.1% services, 10.8% agriculture and forestry, 10.3% commerce, 7.4% transport and communications, 6.6% construction, 3.1% handicrafts, 3.2% other (1987)

Organized labor: 87.7% of labor force

- Government Long-form name: German Democratic Republic; abbreviated GDR

Type: Communist state

Capital: East Berlin (not officially recognized by France, UK, and US, which together with the USSR have special rights and responsibilities in Berlin)

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (bezirke, singular—bezirk); Cottbus, Dresden, Erfurt, Frankfurt, Gera, Halle, Karl-Marx-Stadt, Leipzig, Magdeburg, Neubrandenburg, Potsdam, Rostock, Schwerin, Suhl

Independence: self-government proclaimed 7 October 1949, with permission of the Soviet authorities

Constitution: 9 April 1968, amended 7 October 1974

Legal system: civil law system modified by Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Foundation of the German Democratic Republic, 7 October (1949)

Executive branch: Council of State abolished on 5 April 1990, post of president to be created; chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Chamber (Volkskammer)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—Acting President of the People's Chamber Sabine BERGMANN-POHL (since 5 April 1990);

Head of Government—Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lothar DE MAIZIERE (since 12 April 1990); Deputy Chairman Peter-Michael DIESTEL (since 16 April 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Germany—Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Lothar de Maiziere, chairman; German Social Union (DSU), Hans-Wilhelm Ebeling, chairman; and Democratic Awakening (DA), Rainer Eppelmann, chairman;

Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), Markus Meckel, acting chairman;

Party for Democratic Socialism (PDS, former Communist), Gregor Gysi, chairman;

League of Free Democrats (BFD)—Liberals, Rainer Ortleb, chairman; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno Menzel, chairman; and German Forum Party (DFP), Juergen Schmieder, chairman;

Alliance '90—New Forum, Baerbel Bohley, Jens Reich, Sebastian Pflugbeil, spokespersons; Democracy Now, Konrad Weiss, spokesperson; and United Left, Herbert Misslitz, spokesperson;

Greens Party (GP), Vera Wollenberger, spokesperson;

Democratic Peasants' Party (DBD), Guenther Maleuda, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: People's Chamber—last held on 18 March 1990 (next to be held March NA); results—Alliance for Germany—CDU 40.9%, DSU 6.3%, DA 0.9%; SPD 21.8; BFD 5.3%; SPD 21.8%; PDS 16.3%; Alliance '90 2.9%; DBD 2.2%; GP 2.0%; NDPD 0.4%; others 1.0%; seats—(400 total, including 66 from East Berlin) Alliance for Germany—CDU 164, DSU 25, DA 4; SPD 87; BFD 21; PDS 65; Alliance '90 12, DBD 9; GP 8; NDPD 2; others 3

Communists: 500,000 to 700,000 party members (1990)

Member of: CEMA, IAEA, IBEC, ICES, ILO, IMO, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Gerhard HERDER; Chancery at 1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 232-3134; US—Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY; Embassy at 1080 Berlin, Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, East Berlin (mailing address is Box E, APO New York 09742); telephone p37o (2) 220-2741

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow with the coat of arms centered; the coat of arms contains, in yellow, a hammer and compass encircled by a wreath of grain with a black, red, and gold ribbon at the bottom; similar to the flag of the FRG which does not have a coat of arms

- Economy Overview: The GDR is moving rapidly away from its centrally planned economy. As the 1990s begin, economic integration with West Germany appears inevitable, beginning with the establishment of a common currency. The opening of the border with the FRG in late 1989 and the continuing emigration of hundreds of thousands of skilled workers had brought growth to a standstill by yearend 1989. Features of the old economic regime that will quickly change: (a) the collectivization of 95% of East German farms; (b) state ownership of nearly all transportation facilities, industrial plants, foreign trade organizations, and financial institutions; (c) the 65% share in trade of the USSR and other CEMA countries; and (d) the detailed control over economic details exercised by Party and state. Once integrated into the thriving West German economy, the area will have to stem the outflow of workers and renovate the obsolescent industrial base. After an initial readjustment period, living standards and quality of output will steadily rise toward West German levels.

GNP: $159.5 billion, per capita $9,679; real growth rate 1.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $123.5 billion; expenditures $123.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $33 billion (1986)

Exports: $30.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—machinery and transport equipment 47%, fuels and metals 16%, consumer goods 16%, chemical products and building materials 13%, semimanufactured goods and processed foodstuffs 8%; partners—USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, FRG, Hungary, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Romania

Imports: $31.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—fuels and metals 40%, machinery and transport equipment 29%, chemical products and building materials 9%; partners—CEMA countries 65%, non-Communist 33%, other 2%

External debt: $20.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.7% (1989 est.)

Electricity: (including East Berlin) 24,585,000 kW capacity; 122,500 million kWh produced, 7,390 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for about 10% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); principal crops—wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor—$4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less developed countries (1956-88)

Currency: GDR mark (plural—marks); 1 GDR mark (M) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: GDR marks (M) per US$1—3.01 (1988), 3.00 (1987), 3.30 (1986), 3.70 (1985), 3.64 (1984)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 14,005 km total; 13,730 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km 1.000-meter or other narrow gauge, 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter double-track standard gauge; 2,754 km overhead electrified (1986)

Highways: 124,615 km total; 47,214 km concrete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,913 km are autobahn and limited access roads, 11,261 are trunk roads, and 34,040 are regional roads; 77,401 municipal roads (1985)

Inland waterways: 2,319 km (1986)

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,301 km; refined products, 500 km; natural gas, 2,150 km (1988)

Ports: Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz; river ports are East Berlin, Riesa, Magdeburg, and Eisenhuttenstadt on the Elbe or Oder Rivers and connecting canals

Merchant marine: 145 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,349,537 GRT/1,733,089 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 89 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 16 container, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas tanker, 16 bulk

Civil air: 45 major transport aircraft

Airports: 190 total, 190 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,659 m; 45 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 40 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations—23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV; 15 Soviet TV relays; 6,181,860 TV sets; 6,700,000 radio receivers; at least 1 satellite earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: National People's Army, Border Troops, Air and Air Defense Command, People's Navy

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 7,944,305; of the 4,045,396 males 15-49, 3,243,970 are fit for military service; 91,579 reach military age (18) annually; of the 3,898,909 females 15-49, 3,117,847 are fit for military service; 85,892 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 16.2 billion marks, 5.4% of total budget (1989); note—conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results —————————————————————————— Country: Germany, Federal Republic of (West Germany) - Geography Total area: 248,580 km2; land area: 244,280 km2; includes West Berlin

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 4,256 km total; Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czechoslovakia 356 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, GDR 1,381 km; Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 1,488 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm (extends, at one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht)

Disputes: it is US policy that the final borders of Germany have not been established

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber

Land use: 30% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures; 30% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution

Note: West Berlin is an exclave (about 116 km by air or 176 km by road from FRG)

- People Population: 62,168,200 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—German(s); adjective—German

Ethnic divisions: primarily German; Danish minority

Religion: 45% Roman Catholic, 44% Protestant, 11% other

Language: German

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 27,790,000; 41.6% industry, 35.4% services and other, 18.2% trade and transport, 4.8% agriculture (1987)

Organized labor: 9,300,000 total; 7,760,000 in German Trade Union Federation (DGB); union membership constitutes about 40% of union-eligible labor force, 34% of total labor force, and 35% of wage and salary earners (1986)

- Government Long-form name: Federal Republic of Germany; abbreviated FRG

Type: federal republic

Capital: Bonn

Administrative divisions: 10 states (lander, singular—land); Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Schleswig-Holstein

Constitution: 23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as Basic Law

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: NA

Executive branch: president, chancellor, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlament) consists of an upper chamber or Federal Assembly (Bundesrat) and a lower chamber or National Assembly (Bundestag)

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)

Leaders: Chief of State—President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984);

Head of Government—Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut Kohl; Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo Waigel; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Otto Lambsdorff; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Hans-Jochen Vogel; National Democratic Party (NPD), Martin Mussgnug; Republikaner, Franz Schoerhuber; Communist Party (DKP), Herbert Mies; Green Party—Realos faction, Joschka Fischer; Green Party—Fundis faction, Jutta Ditfurth

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: National Assembly—last held 25 January 1987 (next to be held by 18 January 1991); results—SPD 37.0%, CDU 34.5%, CSU 9.8%, FDP 9.1%, Green Party 8.2%, others 1.4%; seats—(497 total, 22 are elected by the West Berlin House of Representatives and have limited voting rights) SPD 186, CDU 174, CSU 49, FDP 46, Green Party 42

Communists: about 40,000 members and supporters

Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans groups

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, EIB, EMS, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB—Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jeurgen RUHFUS; Chancery at 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 298-4000; there are FRG Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York, and Consulates in Miami and New Orleans; US—Ambassador Vernon WALTERS; Embassy at Deichmanns Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2 (mailing address is APO New York 09080); telephone 49 (228) 3391; there are US Consulates General in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, and Stuttgart

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow; similar to the flag of the GDR which has a coat of arms in the center

- Economy Overview: West Germany, a major economic power and a leading exporter, has a highly urbanized and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards and comprehensive social welfare benefits. The FRG is poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral. The FRG's comparative advantage lies in the technologically advanced production stages. Thus manufacturing and services dominate economic activity, and raw materials and semimanufactures constitute a large proportion of imports. In 1988 manufacturing accounted for 35% of GDP, with other sectors contributing lesser amounts. The major economic problem in 1989 is persistent unemployment of over 8%. The FRG is well poised to take advantage of the increasing economic integration of the European Community. The dramatic opening of the boundary with East Germany in late 1989 poses new economic challenges that could tax even this powerful economy.

GDP: $945.7 billion, per capita $15,300; real growth rate 4.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $539 billion; expenditures $563 billion, including capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (1988)

Exports: $323.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 4.9%, raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%; partners—EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 9%, Italy 9%, UK 9%, Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 18%, US 10%, Eastern Europe 4%, OPEC 3% (1987)

Imports: $250.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%, fuels 9.7%, raw materials 7.1%; partners—EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 11%, Italy 10%, UK 7%, Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 15%, US 6%, Japan 6%, Eastern Europe 5%, OPEC 3% (1987)

External debt: $500 million (June 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1988)

Electricity: (including West Berlin) 110,075,000 kW capacity; 452,390 million kWh produced, 7,420 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, ships, vehicles, and machine tools; electronics, food and beverages

Agriculture: accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs, poultry; net importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor—ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $60.0 billion

Currency: deutsche mark (plural—marks); 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1—1.6918 (January 1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)

Highways: 466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km autobahn, 32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state highways (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737 km of secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen)

Inland waterways: 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,343 km; refined products, 3,446 km; natural gas, 95,414 km

Ports: maritime—Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven; inland—27 major

Merchant marine: 422 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,436,568 GRT/4,297,520 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 7 short-sea passenger, 218 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 95 container, 20 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 railcar carrier, 7 barge carrier, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 21 chemical tanker, 15 liquefied gas, 5 combination ore/oil, 13 combination bulk

Civil air: 194 major transport aircraft

Airports: 466 total, 457 usable; 240 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 41 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones; stations—87 AM, 205 (376 relays) FM, 300 (6,400 relays) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (12 Atlantic Ocean, 2 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and domestic systems

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 16,006,352; 13,883,536 fit for military service; 326,666 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Ghana - Geography Total area: 238,540 km2; land area: 230,020 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,093 km total; Burkina 548 km, Ivory Coast 668 km, Togo 877 km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber

Land use: 5% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 15% meadows and pastures; 37% forest and woodland; 36% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry, northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)

Note: Lake Volta is world's largest artificial lake

- People Population: 15,165,243 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Ghanaian(s); adjective—Ghanaian

Ethnic divisions: 99.8% black African (major tribes—44% Akan, 16% Moshi-Dagomba, 13% Ewe, 8% Ga), 0.2% European and other

Religion: 38% indigenous beliefs, 30% Muslim, 24% Christian, 8% other

Language: English (official); African languages include Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga

Literacy: 53.2%

Labor force: 3,700,000; 54.7% agriculture and fishing, 18.7% industry, 15.2% sales and clerical, 7.7% services, transportation, and communications, 3.7% professional; 48% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 467,000 (about 13% of labor force)

- Government Long-form name: Republic of Ghana

Type: military

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK, formerly Gold Coast)

Constitution: 24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Executive branch: chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC), PNDC, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly dissolved after 31 December 1981 coup, and legislative powers were assumed by the Provisional National Defense Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government—Chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council Flt. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 31 December 1981)

Political parties and leaders: none; political parties outlawed after 31 December 1981 coup

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: a small number of Communists and sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eric K. OTOO; Chancery at 2460 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-0761; there is a Ghanaian Consulate General in New York; US—Ambassador Raymond C. EWING; Embassy at Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra (mailing address is P. O. Box 194, Accra); telephone 775347 through 775349

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

- Economy Overview: Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983. Good harvests in 1988 featured the 6% growth in GNP. Moves toward privatization and relaxation of government controls continued in 1988-89, although at a slower-than-expected pace. In 1988 service on the $2.8 billion debt was equivalent to 75% of export earnings. As Ghana obtains concessional loans and pays off high-interest debt, however, debt service is expected to fall below 30% of export earnings in the early 1990s. The economic rebuilding program has both helped and harmed the manufacturing sector, for example, by improving the supply of raw materials and by increasing competition from imports. The long-term outlook is favorable provided that the political structure can endure the slow pace at which living standards are improving and can manage the problems stemming from excessive population growth.

GNP: $5.2 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 32.7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 26% (April 1987)

Budget: revenues $769 million; expenditures $749 million, including capital expenditures of $179 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $977 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities—cocoa 60%, timber, gold, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum; partners—US 23%, UK, other EC

Imports: $988 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities—petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment; partners—US 10%, UK, FRG, France, Japan, South Korea, GDR

External debt: $3.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.5% in manufacturing (1987)

Electricity: 1,172,000 kW capacity; 4,110 million kWh produced, 280 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing, aluminum, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for more than 50% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops—rice, coffee, cassava, peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $424 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $84 million

Currency: cedi (plural—cedis); 1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas

Exchange rates: cedis (C) per US$1—301.68 (December 1989), 270.00 (1989), 202.35 (1988), 153.73 (1987), 89.20 (1986), 54.37 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads undergoing major renovation

Highways: 28,300 km total; 6,000 km concrete or bituminous surface, 22,300 km gravel, laterite, and improved earth surfaces

Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 155 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

Pipelines: none

Ports: Tema, Takoradi

Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,016 GRT/66,627 DWT

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 10 total, 9 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor to fair system of open-wire and cable, radio relay links; 38,000 telephones; stations—6 AM, no FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Palace Guard, paramilitary People's Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,437,300; 1,927,817 fit for military service; 167,778 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.9% of GNP (1987) —————————————————————————— Country: Gibraltar (dependent territory of the UK) - Geography Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 1.2 km with Spain

Coastline: 12 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK

Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: natural freshwater sources are meager so large water catchments (concrete or natural rock) collect rain water

Note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

- People Population: 29,572 (July 1990), growth rate 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Gibraltarian; adjective—Gibraltar

Ethnic divisions: mostly Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, and Spanish descent

Religion: 75% Roman Catholic, 8% Church of England, 2.25% Jewish

Language: English and Spanish are primary languages; Italian, Portuguese, and Russian also spoken; English used in the schools and for official purposes

Literacy: 99% (est.)

Labor force: about 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers); UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of the labor force

Organized labor: over 6,000

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Gibraltar

Administrative divisions: none (colony of the UK)

Independence: none (colony of the UK)

Constitution: 30 May 1969

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March), 12 March 1990

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister, Gibraltar Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and Commander in Chief Air Chief Marshal Sir Peter TERRY (since NA 1985);

Head of Government—Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since NA March 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe Bossano; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), Adolfo Canepa; Independent Democratic Party, Joe Pitaluga

Suffrage: universal at age 18, plus other UK subjects resident six months or more

Elections: House of Assembly: last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held March 1992); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(18 total, 15 elected) SL 8, GCL/AACR 7

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Housewives Association, Chamber of Commerce, Gibraltar Representatives Organization

Diplomatic representation: none (colony of the UK)

Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, double-width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

- Economy Overview: The economy depends heavily on British defense expenditures, revenue from tourists, fees for services to shipping, and revenues from banking and finance activities. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the level of employment. Construction workers are particularly affected when government expenditures are cut.

GNP: $129 million, per capita $4,450; real growth rate NA% (FY85)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $105 million; expenditures $104 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY87)

Exports: $62.2 million (1985); commodities—(principally reexports) petroleum 75%, beverages and tobacco 12%, manufactured goods 8%; partners—UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

Imports: $147 million (1985); commodities—manufactured goods, fuels, and foodstuffs; partners—UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 46,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 6,770 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port; light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy, beer, and canned fish

Agriculture: NA

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $0.8 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $162.5 million

Currency: Gibraltar pound (plural—pounds); 1 Gibraltar pound (LG) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (LG) per US$1—0.6055 (January 1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985); note—the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications Railroads: 1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only

Highways: 50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete

Ports: Gibraltar

Merchant marine: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,126,060 GRT/4,189,948 DWT; includes 10 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 16 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker 1 combination oil/ore, 1 liquefied gas, 13 bulk; note—a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate international radiocommunication facilities; automatic telephone system with 10,500 telephones; stations—1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK —————————————————————————— Country: Glorioso Islands (French possession) - Geography Total area: 5 km2; land area: 5 km2; includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South Rock

Comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: undetermined

Natural resources: guano, coconuts

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other—lush vegetation and coconut palms

Environment: subject to periodic cyclones

Note: located in the Indian Ocean just north of the Mozambique Channel between Africa and Madagascar

- People Population: uninhabited

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

- Economy Overview: no economic activity

- Communications Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France —————————————————————————— Country: Greece - Geography Total area: 131,940 km2; land area: 130,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries: 1,228 km total; Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Yugoslavia 246 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Macedonia question with Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question with Albania

Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, crude oil, marble

Land use: 23% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 9% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution; archipelago of 2,000 islands

Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits

- People Population: 10,028,171 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Greek(s); adjective—Greek

Ethnic divisions: Greek 98%, others 2%; note—the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

Religion: 98% Greek Orthodox, 1.3% Muslim, 0.7% other

Language: Greek (official); English and French widely understood

Literacy: 95%

Labor force: 3,860,000; 43% services, 27% agriculture, 20% manufacturing and mining, 7% construction (1985)

Organized labor: 10-15% of total labor force, 20-25% of urban labor force

- Government Long-form name: Hellenic Republic

Type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions: 51 departments (nomoi, singular—nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Drama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos

Independence: 1827 (from the Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 11 June 1975

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Independence Day (proclamation of the war of independence), 25 March (1821)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Vouli)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State—President Christos SARTZETAKIS (since 30 March 1985);

Head of Government—Prime Minister Constantin MITSOTAKIS (since 11 April 1990)

Political parties and leaders: New Democracy (ND; conservative), Constantine Mitsotakis; Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas Papandreou; Democratic Renewal (DR), Constantine Stefanopoulos; Communist Party (KKE), Grigorios Farakos; Greek Left Party (EAR), Leonidas Kyrkos; KKE and EAR have joined in the Left Alliance, Harilaos Florakis, president

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President—last held 30 March 1985 (next to be held 29 April 1990); results—Christos Sartzetakis was elected by Parliament;

Parliament:—last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held April 1994); results—New Democracy 46.89%, Panhellenic Socialist Movement 38.62%, Left Alliance 10.27%, PASOK-Left Alliance Cooperation 1.02%, Ecologist-Alternative 0.77%, Democratic Renewal 0.67%, Muslim 0.5%; seats—(300 total) New Democracy 150, Panhellenic Socialist Movement 123, Left Alliance 19, PASOK-Left Alliance Cooperation 4, Muslim independent 2, Democratic Renewal 1, Ecologist-Alternative 1

Communists: an estimated 60,000 members and sympathizers

Member of: CCC, EC, EIB (associate), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS; Chancery at 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 667-3168; there are Greek Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and a Consulate in New Orleans; US—Ambassador Michael G. SOTIRHOS; Embassy at 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens (mailing address is APO New York 09253); telephone p30o (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401; there is a US Consulate General in Thessaloniki

Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Christianity, the established religion of the country

- Economy Overview: Greece has a mixed capitalistic economy with the basic entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist-left-government that enlarged the public sector and became the nation's largest employer. Like many other Western economies, Greece suffered severely from the global oil price hikes of the 1970s, annual GDP growth plunging from 8% to 2% in the 1980s, and inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits rising sharply. The fall of the socialist government in 1989 and the inability of the conservative opposition to muster a clear majority have led to business uncertainty and the continued prospects for lackluster economic performance. Once the political situation is sorted out, Greece will have to face the challenges posed by the steadily increasing integration of the European Community, including the progressive lowering of tariff barriers. Tourism continues as a major industry, providing a vital offset to the sizable commodity trade deficit.

GDP: $56.3 billion, per capita $5,605; real growth rate 2.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.8% (December 1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1988)

Budget: revenues $15.5 billion; expenditures $23.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (1988)

Exports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuels and lubricants, raw materials; partners—FRG 24%, Italy 14%, nonoil developing countries 11.8%, France 9.5%, US 7.1%, UK 6.8%

Imports: $13.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—machinery and transport equipment, light manufactures, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs, chemicals; partners—FRG 22%, nonoil developing countries 14%, oil exporting countries 13%, Italy 12%, France 8%, US 3.2%

External debt: $20.0 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.6% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 10,500,000 kW capacity; 36,420 million kWh produced, 3,630 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, mining, petroleum

Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 14% of GNP and 27% of the labor force; principal products—wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes, beef, mutton, pork, dairy products; self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 135,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.3 billion

Currency: drachma (plural—drachmas); 1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta

Exchange rates: drachma (Dr) per US$1—158.03 (January 1990), 162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988), 135.43 (1987), 139.98 (1986), 138.12 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Railroads: 2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, of which 36 km electrified and 100 km double track, 892 km 1.000-meter gauge; 22 km 0.750-meter narrow gauge; all government owned

Highways: 38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone and gravel, 5,632 km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals and three unconnected rivers

Pipelines: crude oil, 26 km; refined products, 547 km

Ports: Piraeus, Thessaloniki

Merchant marine: 954 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,544,516 GRT/36,858,545 DWT; includes 15 passenger, 58 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 164 cargo, 18 container, 20 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 27 refrigerated cargo, 182 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 20 combination ore/oil, 6 specialized tanker, 407 bulk, 15 specialized bulk; note—ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, and Lebanon

Civil air: 39 major transport aircraft

Airports: 79 total, 77 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; 4,079,000 telephones; stations—30 AM, 17 (20 repeaters) FM, 39 (560 repeaters) TV; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and MARISAT systems

- Defense Forces Branches: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,418,754; 1,861,141 fit for military service; about 73,809 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 6.0% of GDP, or $3.4 billion (1989 est.) —————————————————————————— Country: Greenland (part of the Danish realm) - Geography Total area: 2,175,600 km2; land area: 341,700 km2 (ice free)

Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 44,087 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 4 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between Greenland and Jan Mayen

Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast

Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, cryolite, uranium, fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; NEGL% forest and woodland; 99% other

Environment: sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island

Note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe

- People Population: 56,078 (July 1990), growth rate 1.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 28 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Greenlander(s); adjective—Greenlandic

Ethnic divisions: 86% Greenlander (Eskimos and Greenland-born Caucasians), 14% Danish

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran

Language: Eskimo dialects, Danish

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 22,800; largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep breeding

Organized labor: NA

- Government Long-form name: none

Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division

Capital: Nuuk (Godthab)

Administrative divisions: 3 municipalities (kommuner, singular—kommun); Nordgronland, Ostgronland, Vestgronland

Independence: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division

Constitution: Danish

Legal system: Danish

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Executive branch: Danish monarch, high commissioner, home rule chairman, prime minister, Cabinet (Landsstyre)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Landsting)

Judicial branch: High Court (Landsret)

Leaders: Chief of State—Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA);

Head of Government—Home Rule Chairman Jonathan MOTZFELDT (since NA May 1979)

Political parties: Siumut (moderate socialist, advocates more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark); Atassut Party (more conservative, favors continuing close relations with Denmark); Inuit Ataqatigiit (Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule); Polar Party (Conservative-Greenland Nationalist)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Parliament—last held on 27 May 1987 (next to be held by 27 May 1991); results—Siumut 39.8%, Atassut Party 40.1%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 15.3%, Polar Party 4.5%; seats—(27 total) Siumut 11, Atassut Party 11, Inuit Ataqatigiit 4, Polar Party 1;

Danish Parliament—last held on 10 May 1988 (next to be held by 10 May 1992); Greenland elects two representatives to the Danish Parliament; results—(percent of vote by party NA; seats—(2 total) number of seats by party NA

Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Flag: the flag of Denmark is used

- Economy Overview: Over the past 25 years, the economy has changed from one based on subsistence whaling, hunting, and fishing to one dependent on foreign trade. Fishing is still the most important industry, accounting for over two-thirds of exports and about 25% of the population's income. Exploitation of mineral resources is limited to lead and zinc. Maintenance of a social welfare system similar to Denmark's has given the public sector a dominant role in the economy. Greenland is heavily dependent on an annual subsidy of about $400 million from the Danish Government.

GNP: $500 million, per capita $9,000; real growth rate 5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 10%

Budget: revenues $380 million; expenditures $380 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1985)

Exports: $386.2 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities—fish and fish products, metallic ores and concentrates; partners—Denmark 76%, FRG 7%, Sweden 5%

Imports: $445.6 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities—petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and transport equipment, food products; partners—Denmark 66%, Norway 5%, Sweden 4%, FRG 4%, Japan 4% US 3%

External debt: $445 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 84,000 kW capacity; 176 million kWh produced, 3,180 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fish processing, lead and zinc mining, handicrafts

Agriculture: sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops limited to forage and small garden vegetables; 1987 fish catch of 101,000 metric tons

Aid: none

Currency: Danish krone (plural—kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1—6.560 (January 1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091 (1986), 10.596 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications Highways: 80 km

Ports: Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab), Nuuk (Godthaab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik, North Star Bay, and at least 10 minor ports

Merchant marine: 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,021 GRT/1,778 DWT; note—operates under the registry of Denmark

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 11 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate domestic and international service provided by cables and radio relay; 17,900 telephones; stations—5 AM, 7 (35 relays) FM, 4 (9 relays) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces Note: defense is responsibility of Denmark —————————————————————————— Country: Grenada - Geography Total area: 340 km2; land area: 340 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:

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